US 1323542 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
APPLICATION FILED OCT. 19, |9l 5.
Patented Dec. 2, 1919. 1 15 f.
2 SHEETS-SHEET I.
WITNESSES. INVENTOR J. NAYLOH MOTOR- APPLICATION FILED OCT. 19, 1915- 1323542. Patented Dec. 2,1919.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 2- F 5.
WITNESSES: I NVENTOR MM M06 BY A TTOR/VEY Jar/ins marten, or ARLINGTON, NEW Jisssuv.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Dec. 2, 1919.
Application filed October 19, 1915. Serial No. 56,718.
To all whom it may concern.-
Be it known that LJAMES NAYLOR, a citizen of the United States, residing at Arlington, in the county of Hudson and State of New Jersey, have invented a new and usefulMotor, of which the following is a specification. j
My improvements relate to that class of motors generally known as turbines, in which the velocity of expanding steam or the explosive eifectof a gas is communicated directly to a rotor for useful work.
The object is to make a stronger, safer and cheaper unit, and one that will have a much wider scope of adaptation'to existing installations than do the turbines now made.
The invention consists of the construction and its operation in such manner that the objective features as stated are attained primarily by the elimination of all keys, bolts and rivets from the rotor so commonin all machines of this class. r
In the drawings, Figure 1 is a side elevation shown in section onthe center line transversely; Fig. 2 is a plan in part-sec-' tion; Figs. 8, 4, 5 and 6 are details, and Fig. 7 a modification of Fig. 1.
The flow of steam, gas or air through this motoris through rectangular nozzles inserted into openings on the opposite sides, the direction being at an angle of about fortyfive degrees above and below the horizontal center or axial line.
A is the bed plate upon which the-motor is mounted.
B is the cylindrical part, or body, of the case or containeropen at its ends and provided with inlet and outlet openings on opposite sides. The ends are flanged and a common provision is made to secure same to the bed plate. r j
The heads C are provided with the ordinary stuffing boxes and glands, and are bolted to the part B. V 'i The. parts B and G together may be termed the container, meaning that it contains the rotor.
The pedestal bearing boxes D are bolted to the bed plate A and serve to freely hold the rotor to-its container in running alinement with the finished surfaces on the inside. a
The inlet fittings E are alike. each being reversible, and provided with double opening'sfrom the outside with a flange to cover the one not used, and a rectangular opening which is the nozzle.
These nozzles e are both on the horizontal center line of the motor with one edge exact-1y upon it; this is for the purpose of having the rotor run in either direction when it is installed. It is apparent that after an installation is made the parts E E may be taken off and replaced upside down and all joints to piping and motor-re-made so that a reversion of motion is the result in Fig. 1.
The outlets F are the connecting means to the condenser and to the atmosphere, and arelocated midway of the inlets when the motor is intended to be reversible when running, as is shown in Fig. 7; when not reany angle, from the horizontal as seen in Fig. 1 to the vertical inFig. 7 but'always directly opposite to each other on a line throu h the axis of the rotor.
With this construction it is seen that friction will be at the minimum by the balanced elfeet of the forces upon the. rotor and that the pipe connections can easily be made.
G is the arbor upon which the hub H is mounted by means of a right-hand screw thread 71., the solid collar 71. and the lock nut 71. having a left hand screw thread to tighten against the said hub.
These parts constitute a mandrel upon which the other revolving parts are carried. The said hub is provided with a solid or integral collar I at one end, the four integral longitudinal projections J which are termed feathers and the removable collar K which has a right hand screw thread to engage a corresponding one upon the hub.
he four equi-distant feathers on the hub are essential to carry the intervening rings and the four notches in the thin pressed disks are necessary to fit the said feathers.
The parts to be mounted upon the hub consist of two extra-heavy disks L smooth on their true surfaces, both alike with the exception of the bore, the one being larger that the other, a number of disks M and the intervening rings N. These rings are mounted upon the four feathers of the hub, and are thus centered to the axis of the rotor creating the zig-zag spaces between the disks M. When the size of the motor is considered modifications of this ring must be used, one being shown at Fig. 5. It is imperative that these rings be perfectly true on the face surfaces, the said surfaces are reduced by the outstanding annular surfaces.
of which three on each side are shown, two opposite each other at the periphery and two at the bore with the others midway between.
One of the disks M is shown in face view at Fig. 8. They are made of thin homogeneous with a central opening to fit the feathers of the hub. Each disk has a series of inclined fiat surfaces obtuse to each other as seen in Fig. 4 and radial as shown in Fig. 3. Two opposite ridges m m are in line with two opposite notches of the central opening on the horizontal axial center line and two valleys m m" in line with the other two notches on the vertical axial center line; this order makes possible the interlocking to position of the thin disks upon the feathers and hub. 7
When all these parts are together and tightened up by the collar K there is presented a'rotor complete, having a series of zig-zag spaces as is shown in plan view full size in Fig. 4 for four inclinations.
The inclination of the deflecting surfaces to the plane of rotation is shown as twelve degrees and the width circumferentially three degrees or equal to six for each corru ation, one half the surface is used for deflection in running clockwise and the other half for reverse.
As every space between the disks M has an obverse and reverse face and the apexes of the ridges m of the said disks in each space are on the same plane of rotation, it is impossible for the streams to project on straight lines; the result is that impact, friction and reaction take place all in the direction of motion. In making the disks de grees are used for dividing the circle, the notches in the central opening are ninety apart and fifteen inclinations equal the same space, as shown in Fig. 3; the ridges at m m are on the horizontal center line and the valleys m m on the vertical ccnter'line, this order being reversed on the reverse face and on assembly theresult is seen in Fig. 4.
Gear or belt connection is made tothe arbor at O and for any auXiliary or governor In operation the steam, gas or air is pro- Jected 111 lines over areas or deflectors for a quarter of arevolution in passing through or the other.
lateral expansion of the stream and thus force it forward in the direction of rotation. The inner faces of the said disks are on two different planes of rotation, the one for contact with and the other for clearance of the disks M. The nozzle lines being directed to the outlets allows the influence of draft to accelerate the velocity.
It has been described how this motor may be constructed of the same parts torun in 7.5 either direction; by reference to the modifications shown in Fig. 7 it will be seen how the same rotor is made reversible while running. The motor is substantially the same,
oscillating nozzles being shown for the purpose of reversion. These nozzles P, P are'also shown at Fig. 6. Q is the rectangular adjutage opening, R the stem by which it is moved with the lever S and tie connection T. The full lines of this-conection is the posi-B tion when the direction is as shown by the arrow and when moved to the dotted position the motion of the rotor will be reversed. It may here be observed that the inlet openings into the container are centrally on the horizontal axial line above and below alike, the whole of said opening being taken by the nozzles in reversing or opposite positions'in the same direction of rotation.
When it is required that the motor shall run under governor control the nozzles P are used as cut-offs and the tie connection operated directly from a governor and then the directon of rotor must be either one way In many reversals-of motion full speedeis not desired, therefore a modified and efficient construction may have the inlet a at one side and the inlet P at the other for this and other economical reasons.
Especial attention is called to the fact that in the operation the initial velocity of the stream becomes gradually but quickly reduced within'the rotor coincident with the expansion occurring therein also, the latter tending to accelerate the velocity and while this may seem paradoxical the whole force is forward even with all its frictional contact upon the revolving parts of the rotor and not upon. any stationary part. As condensation is rapidly taking place as the lower pressures are reached, it is obvious that the slower the speed of the rotor the less will be the bad effect of the condensate. I
I am awarethat in rotors of thistype a series of spaces between surfaces is not new, instances being of flat disks and disks with curved faces, also of abrupt faces upon a cylinder, such I do not claim but having described and clearly shown the difference in the new and the improvement-over the old I claim 1. Ina motor the combination with a container having bearings each side and provided with rectangularand reversible inlet nozzles directly upon the horizontal axial V distant notches as shown and described.
2. In a motor the combination with a container having opposite openings for inlets centrally on the horizontal axial line, bearings apart from said container and exhaust openings above and below the said line; of a rotor provided with means to receive a series of alternate thin pressed disks and intervening rings all looked in their regular order and loosely in place prior to the final tightening and means therefor consisting of separate screw threaded collars upon separate screw threads of different diameters.
3. In a motor the combination with a container having openings for inlets and exhausts on opposite sides, an arbor and bearings to receive the arbor; of a hub mounted thereon and secured by right and left hand screw-threads, the said hub to receive the elementary parts of said rotor in an interlocking manner so that the ridges of the pressed disks adjacent to each other are in the same plane of rotation and opposite laterally to the valleys thereof and means consisting of an external screw thread upon the said hub and a collar provided with corresponding internal screw thread for engagement to make'same secure as a whole prior'to mounting on said arbor.
sl. In motor the combination with a container having opposite openings centrally on the horizontal axial line for in-' lets, cuter bearings and openings for ex-j haustabove and below the said line; of a rotor composed of an arbor having a collar and right and left hand screw threads thereon to receive a hub, said hub having a collar and four feathers integral therewith to form a mandrel, a series of disks and rings mounted thereon, a separate means for securing the said hub to said .arbor'and said disks and rings to said mandrel each consisting of a threaded annular collar.
5. In a motor the combination with a rotor composed of an arbor, a hub provided with four equidistant feathers secured thereto to form a. mandrel, a series of thin pressed disks and intervening rings mounted thereon to different diameters centrally to the said arbor, the four feathers of saidhub reaching through same and means for securing all the parts mounted thereon to the said hub so as to be removable from the said arbor without any loosening of the said disks; of a container with outer bearings and openings for inlet and exhaust.
' 6. In a motor the combination With a container having opposite rectangular openings on the horizontal axial center line, rectangu lar nozzles inserted into same for inlets and exhaust openings above and below the said line on opposite sides; of a mounted rotor provided with a series of pressed sharp edged disks, intervening rings and the heavy disks outside the said series.
7 In a motor the combination with a con tainer having rectangular inlets, exhaust outlets and bearings all on opposite sides; of a rotor comprising a mandrel with means to receive heavy outside disks, the inner surfaces of which are on two diflerent planes of rotation, a series of alternate disks and rings being between the same and in tight contact with the innermost surfaces thereof,
the other faces clearing the ridges of the thin disks in proximity thereto and to coincide in width with the said rectangular inlets.
8. In a motor the combination with a mounted rotor comprising a series of alternate pressed disks and rings with heavy outer disks having their inner faces on different planes of rotation and a means for locking the said disks to position and for tightening; of a container with rectangular and reversible inlets on opposite sides directly upon the horizontal axial center line of said rotor and opposite exhausts.
9. In a motor the combination with a mounted rotor composed of a series of outstanding sharp-edged disks the ridges of which and those adjacent being on the same right and left hand screw threads and a collar upon the arbor with screw threads of the hub and collar whereby it is readily detachable as a whole from its arbor and so replaced.
11. In a motor the combination with a container having means to mount a rotor and provided with inlets and outlets all on opposite sides; of a rotor composed of parts which are all annular in form, and having a positive means consisting of a removable hub provided with an integral outstanding collar, four integral equi-distant feathers, screw threads and threaded collar to engage same for holding same in alinement and order prior to the final tightening.
JAMES NAYLOR. l vitnesses:
V. WM. NAYLOR, :F A KLIN' L. NAYLOR,.