US 1325136 A
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L. mm. APPARATUS FOR ELECTRICAL TREATMENT OF GAS.
APPLICATION HLED FEB. I8. 1916.
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L.BRAD'LEY. APPABA'IUS FOR ELECTRICAL TREATMENIOF GAS.
APPLICATION FILE D FEB. 18 I916. 1,325,136.
Patented Dec. 16, 1919.
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APPARATUS FOR ELECTRICAL TREATMENT OF GAS.
APPLICATION FILED FEB. I8
Patented Dec; 16, 191$ 4 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
lnvewiar: Linn Bradley 8 7 n IIIIIII I Wu HhIi s I||| lllw. in. 8 n 4 a 11111]: llvllllli "w KWMI 4: W PIL r 3 L. BRADLEY. APPARATUS FOR ELECTRICAL TREATMENT OF GAS.
APPLICATION FILED FEB. 18. I916.
Patented Dec. 16, 1919.
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bu enrol: Lina Bradley.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
m 12mm, or msr omen, nnwmnsmr, Assmnon 'ro KESEAIB/OE conr'om- TION, or NEW YORK, n. Y., a conromrron or NEW YORK.
APPABATU S FOB ELECTRICAL TREATMENT OF GAS.
Orange, in the county of Essex and State, of New Jersey, have invented a new and useful Apparatus for Electrical Treatment of Gases, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates 'to apparatus for treatment of gases by electrical action, and particularly to apparatus of the type in which the gas to be treated is passed through fines or pipes in which it is subjected to the action ot'a high-tension electrical field; for example, for the separation of suspended particles from the gas by 616C trical action. 7
The main object of the invention is to provide an improved flue or pipe construction for such an apparatus, whereby considerable economies are efi'ected in cost of construction for a plant of given capacity.
Another object of the invention in connection with an apparatus requiring a multiplicity of flues, is'to. minimize the loss of heat by radiation from such flues.
Another object of the invention is to provide for control of distribution of the gases throughout a treater of this kind, comprising a multiplicity of fiues.
A further object of the invention is to prevent discharge from parts of the appara tus at which discharge is not desirable.
Another object of the invention is to provide an apparatus in which the gas is passed through fines, with supply means so constructed as to reduce to a minimum the height and ground space required for the apparatus.
The accompanying drawings illustrate embodiments of my invention particularlyadapted for the precipitation of suspended particles from gas, and referring thereto:
Figure 1 is a partly sectional end elevation of one formof the invention. Fig. 2 is a partly sectional side elevation thereof.
Fig. 3 is a section on line 3-'-3 in Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is a section on line 44 in Fig. 2. Fig. 5 is a horizontal section of one of the flue elements.
Fig. 6 is a vertical section of one ofthe su portsfor the discharge electrodes.
- ig. 7 is a vertical section ottheupperv part of one of the flue elements.
Specification of Letters -Patent.
casin Patented Dec. 16, 1919.
Application filed February 1a, 1916. Serial No. 79,088.
Fig. 8 is a section on line "8-8 in Fig. 1.
Fig. 9 is a partly sectional end elevation of another form of the invention.
Fig. 10 is a partly sectional side elevation of the form shown in Fig. 9.
Fig. 11 is a section on line 11 11 in Fig. 10.
Fig. 12 is a horizontal section of another form of the invention.
. Fig. 12* is a horizontal section of another modification of'the, gas distributing means. Fig. 13 is a partly sectional side elevation of another form of the apparatus.
Fig. 14 is a section on' line 1414 in Fig. 13.
ig. 15 is a vertical section of a portion of end of the electrodes.
Fig. 19 is a horizontal section of another form of the flue apparatus.
Fig. 20 is a horizontal section of one of the flue elements showing a modified arran ement of the discharge electrodes.
Fig. 21 is a plan view of another form of the invention.
. Referring to Figs. 1' to 4, the apparatus comprises a header or supply chamber, 1, connected by inlet 2 to any flue or pipe conveying the gases to be treated, and one or more flue casings 3 connected to said-header to receive the gas therefrom and open at their upper ends either into the outer air or into an upper header or headers in outlet chamber 4, connected to outlet pipe 5. The flue casings 3 are each subdivided into a plurality of pipes or flues by partitions 3". Each flue casing 3 is preferably. rectangular in cross section and the partitions 3' extend at right angles to one another and to the walls of the flue casing so as to divide 'the flue space into square or rectangular flues or passages 6.-
one of the flue elements of the form shown header 1 may embrace the vertical flue and communicate with the respective flues y openings 7' formed 1n the outer walls of such flues, This construction reedge.
duces considerably the height required for the apparatus, inasmuch as the lower header does not add to such height. In order to provide for uniform. distribution of the gas flow to the different flues, I may, as shown in these figures, provide separate dampers or gates 7 for controlling the openings 7 through which the gas flows to the respective fiues, each' gate controlling the passage of gas to one or more fiues. A bin or hopper 8 is provided below the flue casings 3 to receive the material collected on the walls of ,fiues *6, which serve as collecting electrodes, or elsewhere. The walls of the flues 6 may be formed of sheet metal plates fastened to horizontal girders 9' of a supporting frame 9 in any suitable manner, for example, by bolts 10. The upper and lower ends of said walls may project beyond said girders, and are preferably provided with rounded beads 12 which prevent undue electric field intensity at such parts, thereby preventing or reducing discharge from these parts, which are, in general, at the low tension side of the electric conducting system,-
but which are liable to produce discharge by reason'of the edges presented thereby.
Discharge electrodes 15 are mounted in the respective fiues 6, said electrodes consisting, for example, of fine wires suspended from screw sleeves which are carried by nuts 17 resting on bars 18, which are supported by girders 19 carried by insulators 20. Said insulators are preferably mounted in chambers 21 extending outside of the upper header 4, the wall of said header being provided with openings 23 where these girders pass through the same. To prevent discharge between the girder and the wall of the header,
a collar 24 is secured in said opening 23,
said collar for example, being formed as a sheet metal ring with its edges bent outwLardly and turned over to give a rounded A cylindrical thimble or sleeve 25 may also be provided around the girder 19 where it passes through the opening 23, to give a further safeguard against discharge at this point. This construction enables the openings through which the conductor members 19 pass, to be contracted, so that the insulator chambers are kept as free as possible of the impurities present in the gasbeing treated. Tofacilitate the mounting of the fine wires 15, they may be threaded through the sleeves 16 and knotted at their upper ends. Sleeves 16 may be provided on wires 15 where they pass the lower edges of the fines, these sleevesfbeing similar to sleeves 16 but being without nuts. These sleeves act as sheaths and assist in reducing discharge at the parts where the discharge electrodes pass the upper and lower edges of the collecting electrodes. The wires 15 are held taut or tensioned by weights 26 on their lower ends or by othersuitable means, with .known in the art (not shown).
suificient tension to hold them substantially rigid when subjected to the action ofthe electric field or of rapidly running gases, and said wires may be retained from lateral displacementby a retaining frame 28 which maybe supported by resting on said weights 26. The retaining frame 28may be held from swinging either by weighting the same, or by anchoring. it from the sides of the header 1, by suitable insulating means Girders l9 and'bars 18 form a frame, which is connected to electric circuit means for supplying'high tension current. For this purpose the said frame may be connected by a wire 30, to the high tension source, consisting preferably of a step up trans- 1 former 33, connected to an alternating current circuit, indicated at 34: and 35, a rectifier 36 being preferably included in the connection so as to rectify the current. passing to the discharge electrodes. Said rectifier 36 may be provided with a ground connection 37 and the metal casing of the apparatus, includin the flue casings 3 and the partitions 6, whichact as electrodes, may also be grounded as indicated at 38.
The apparatus above described is-designed with special reference to the precipitation of suspended particles from gases containing the same, and for such purpose the gases to be treated are passed through the flues 6, from the header 1, and so passing are subjected to the action of a high tension electric discharge from the discharge electrodes 15, 100 with the result that solid or liquid particles suspended in the gas are precipitated by the electrical action and'are collected in the bins or hoppers 8. The apparatus may, however,
be used for the electrical treatment of gases I by high tension discharge'in any manner, and for any purpose, whether the discharge be unidirectional or alternating. In an case, the flow of the gas through the different flues may be equalized by opening or. closing the respective dampers or gates 7. By rea son of a strong wind blowing past the apparatus, or by reason of difierence in temperature of different-parts of the apparatus or for other reasons, there may be a tendency for the gas to flow more rapidly through some of the pipes than through others, and this condition maybe corrected by means of these dampers.
As shown in Figs 9 to 11, several dampers 12D For example, as showh on Figs. 9 to 11, the supply header indicated at 1 may communicate with lateral 1 10 flues and communicating through openings 63 with a chamber 64 extending below and communicating with all of the flues 6, control of distribution being in this case obtained by varying the resistance to the gas flow through the several openings 63 by means of V dampers 65. .I have also shown in these figures distribution control -means at the top of the flues which maybe used eitheralternatively 'or conjointly with the above described control means, the outlet header 4 being connected with lateral flues. 67 ex tending between the rows of flues 6 and communicating therewith through openings 68. Said opemngs 68 may be smaller than the cross sections of the respective flues to which they are connected so as to provide a con stricted passage acting as an automatic control device, the resistance to the gas flow being concentrated at these constricted passages, so that any increase in the gas velocity in any flue, relatively to the other flues, will produce an increase'in the resistance'at the corresponding constricted passage, said resistance increasin approximately as .the square of the velocity, so that it would tend to choke any excess of gas flow and equalize the flow in all the fines, If desired, however, dampers or gates 69 may also be used for adjusting the constriction at openings '68. The construction of the other parts of the apparatus may be as above described.
This feature of my invention, namely, the provision of a' relatively constricted passage for the gas which traverses each flue, and independent regulation of. the amount. of constriction, if desired, isnot limited in its application to any particular shape or arrangement of fines, but is applicable to flues of any shape whatsoever, arranged in any desired manner. Thus, in Fig. 12' an embodiment of this feature of my invention is shown, in which a header 71 is connected by lateral ducts 72 to a lurality of round pipes 76 serving as the ues in which the as is treated, the discharge electrodes '74 mg suspended vertically in said-. pipes.
Ducts 72 may serve as-constrictmg passages and may "be provided with dampers 73 whereby the amount of constriction may be varied.
By forming the collecting electrodes as uare. or rectangular-pipes, in the manner above described, I am enabled to provide a large number of pipes, having a very ex-- tensive electrode surface, in a compare tively limited space and at ex- This feature of my invention is not 'ted to any specific means of conducting the gas to or from the ipes .or fines. example, as shown on 13 and 14, the lower header 1' may extend wholly below the vertical 'flues 6, whichare formed in the flue casings 3 by means of partition walls 3 For walls of said which extend through vertical slots 41 in the wall plates of the flues so as to permit of to changes of temperature.
In order to dislodge or lmock the deposits from the collecting electrodes constituted by the walls of the flue casings 3 and the partitions 3, hammers may be provided consist ing of levers or arms 43 mounted on shafts 44 journaledin bearings 45 and provided expansion or contraction of such plates due with operating means, consisting, for example,'of chains 46 connected to levers 47 on said shafts. The hammer arms 43 are adapted to strike lugs or angle irons 48 on the respective flue casings 3.- In thisiorm of my invention a switch 49 is shown in the connection 30 from the insulated supportmg frame member 9 to the rectifier 36, one of these switches being provided for each flue casing. This allows connecting or disconnecting any section of the apparatus at will.
In the form of the invention shown in Figs. 13 to 18, the discharge electrodes are formed as fine wires 15, supported by an insulated frame as above described, but a plurality of such wires are provided in each flue 6, said wires being hung opposite to the respective sides or walls of the square or rectangular pipes or flues, as shown in Figs. 13 and 14, and tensioned by weights each of which may be hung on two of such wires.
In order to conveniently supportthe retaining frame 28 for the lower ortions of the discharge electrodes, said ame may mounted on hanger bars 50, shown in Fig.
'17 suspended from the insulated upper frame 18,-and extending in e'achof the four corner lines of the system, so as to extend within the set of discharge electrodes 15 in such flue, as shown in Fig. 18. Except for the differences above described, the construction and operation of the form of the invention shown in Figs. 13 to 18 may be the same asinthefonnshowninl igs. 1to8.
As shown in Fig. 19, the partitions may be formed as vertical plates 52 formed with flanges 52" whereby they are secured to the.
and to an intermediate sheet metal plate. 53, extending outer walls 53 of the flue casing parallel to said side walls. F' 20 shows a modified arrangement ofthe (iJSGhBF'gB electrodes 15, said electrodes being arranged opposite the corners of the respective. lines 6,
instead of opgosite the centers of the side ues-in'Figs. 10 and 13.
the partitions are shown as removably mounted within the flue casing, being supported by guides formed as channel irons 57, within which the screen plates 56 are mounted to slide.
While I have shown the flues of the apparatus as substantially square in cross section, it will be understood that they may be of any suitable polygonal shape, and the several faces or sides of each flue may be of diflerent width and disposed at any desired angles. It will be understood that the as to be treated may be passed through t e flues either u wardly or downwardly, as may be desira le in any particular case. The fiues are herein shown as vertically arranged, but they may be arranged in any desired posi tion.
l have found that in many cases it is desirable to use a single discharge electrode formed as a single fine wire, orflexible member, in each 'fiue or pipe constituting a collecting electroda-as shown in Figs. 1 to 9; but more than one of such wires maybe used if desired.
An important advantage of the construc tion above described, wherein a flue casing is subdivided into a plurality of flues by partitions, is that each partition serves as the wall for two adjoining flues, thereby economizingin material used and in cost of construction. Another advantage is that the ground space required is reduced to a minimum, as there are no open spaces wasted between the flues. A furtherimportant advantage is that the subdivision of the flues maybe carried out to an desired extent, and may even be change at any time by changing the numbers. of the partitions, in order to provide for more eflective operation. The partitions may be arranged in any desired manner so as to provide for any desired number or arrangement of rows of flues.
Each of the flue casings above described may be considered as a treater unit, "com-. prising a cellular or subdivided flue system,. and in constructingany plant these units may be set up as sections and assembled in any desiredtrelation to one another, and in any desired number, according to the capacity required for the plant, thereby standar'dizing the manufacture of the apparatus. This sectional unit feature is especially advantageous in'connection with the rectangulanflues described, but is applicable in connection with any form of flues.
mamas The cellular construction of the flue unit with intersecting partitions gives an inherent rigidity thereto which enables theunit to be used as a structural element "Without.
' polygonal cross section having walls forming an electrode, and discharge electrode means extending longitudinally in said flue.
.3. In a multi-flue apparatus for electrical treatment ofgases, a plurality of dues having polygonal cross section and having walls constitutlng an electrode, and opposing electrodes extending longitudinally in said flue, opposite the respective polygonal faces thereof.
4. An apparatus for electrical treatment of gases, comprising a header, a plurality of electrode dues of polygonal cross-section in contiguous relation andan opposing electrode in each flue.
5. An apparatus for electrical treatment of gases, comprising a header, a flue casing connected thereto, a. plurality of partitions dividing said flue casing into a plurality of flues of polygonal cross section, said casing and partitions constituting electrode means, and discharge electrodes extending longitudinally in said flues.
6. An apparatus for electrical treatment of gases comprising a header, a flue casing extending therefrom, a plurality of partition walls in said casing to form a pluralit of fines and a discharge electrode in eac of said flues.
7. An apparatus for electrical treatment of gases, comprising a header, a flue casing eiitending vertically therefrom, a plurality of partition walls extendin vertlcally in said casing to form a plura ity of vertical flues, and discharge electrodes extending verticallylin the respective flues.
8. In an apparatus for electrical treatment of gases,'a flue casing, partitions dividing the space within said casing into a plurality of fines, discharge, electrodes in said dues and means for passing the gas throu h said flues.
9. 11 an apparatus for electrical treatment of gases, .suppl and outlet headers,
a flue casing connecti to said headers, partitionsidividing the space within said flue easing into separate fiues, discharge elsetrodes in said fines and. means for passing the gas through said flues.
10. In an apparatus for electrical treat- I ment of gases, a discharge electrode, a 001- the discharge electrode adjacent said head.
11. In an apparatus for electrical treatment of ases, the combination with the discharge e ectrode system and an inclosing i casing, rovided' with an opening and an insulate conductor extending through said openings, and a collar mounted in said 10 opening and having its edges. formed to present rounded surfaces for minimizing discharge.
In testimon whereof I have hereunto set my hand, at
day of February, 1916. v
' LINN BRADLEY.
ashington, D. (3., this 15th 15