Aeroplane and wing therefor
US 1325137 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
T. P. BROOKE.
AEROPLANE AND WING THEREFOR.
APPLHIATION FILED MAR. 10, 1911.
1,325,137. I Patented Dec. 16,1919.
4 SHEETS-SHEET T. P. BROOKE.
AEROPLANE AND WING THEREFOR.
APPLICATION FILED mm. 10. um.
1,.3259137. Patented Dec116,1919.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 2 lnxye/rz/tor 17mm]? 57001 66. 3/ 4,. n4
T. P. BROOKE. AEROPLANE AND wme THEREFOR."
APPLICATION FILED MAR.10. 1917- I Patented Dec. 16,1919.
1 HUI. 1i W k Thoffimoka UNITED STATES PATENT OFFIQE.
THOMAS P. BROOKE, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, ASSIGNOR TO THE BROOKE AIRCRAFT COMPANY, A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE.
AEROPLANE AND WING THEREFOR.
Specification of Letters Patent.- Patented Dec 16, -1919 Application filed March 10, 1917. Serial No. 153,801.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, THOMAS P. BROOKE, a citizen of the United States, residing at Chicago, in the county'of Cook and State of Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Aeroplanes and \Vings Therefor, and one of the objects of the present invention is to improve, simplify, and strengthen the construction of the wing, with a view to increasing to a maximum its efliciency, as well as the d1- rectional stability and safety thereof, and at the same time develop in the wings 1nherent tractor force of soaring birds, whereby the wing will have an upward and for-f ward pull while in flight, thereby reducing to a minimum the power necessary to propel the machine.
A further object is to provide improved means for overcoming excessive dan erous oscillation of the machine, and for preventing the upsetting thereof by wind pressure, while in flight.
To the attainment of these ends and the proved machine of this character, con
structed in accordance with the of this invention.
Fig. 2 is aside view.
Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view taken on line 3-3, Fig. 1.
principles Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic view of the wing.
Fig. 5 is a horizontal sectional view taken on line 55, Fig. 6.
Fig. dis a vertical sectional view taken on line 6-6, Fig. 5.
' Fig. 7 is a detail sectional view on line 7-7, Fig. 6.
Referring more particularly to the drawings and in the present exemplification of this invention, the numeral 10 designates enerally a body or supporting structure of t e machine. Projecting laterally from opposite sides of the body are planes or wings,
designated. generally by the reference numeral 11 in Fig. 1, and these planes are arranged one above the other on opposite sides of the machineand supported by suitable uprights 12, the planes or wings being arranged so as to form upward and rearward dihedral angles.
By the use of the rearward dihedral angles, a greater range, or shifting of the cen ter of gravity of the machine may be :obtained without affecting the longitudinal stability of the machine.
The wings or planes 11 are of a single surface formation, with both faces constructed on the same curves, parallel and close together so that the entire wing will be thin and at the same time light, rigid and strong in construction, that is to say,
. each of the wings embodies a body portion comprising a frame 13 having braces or ribs 14: incorporated therein and which ribs are parallel andextend across the frame, and to the lower face of this frame, thus formed, a rigid wing surface 15 is secured. In order to produce such rigidity and at the same time produce a wing body which will not be distorted or change its form after 7 once being shaped, so as to always insure a maximum and uniform eiiiciency,-the wings and surfaces are preferably of a veneer construction.
Each wing surface comprises a series of laminae, the outer laminae being constructed Preferably of tough paper or any other fibrous material, while the inner lamina is preferably constructed of fabric.
All of these parts are firmly secured together by suitable fasteningmeans, such as glue, oe-
ment or the like, and result in a constructlon which possesses as nearly as possible,
1 the rigidity of metal.
With this construction itv will be manifest that an effective and rigidgsurface wing may be produced and is more advantageous than a soft distortable surface, such as fabric or the like inasmuch as any soft or distortable surface by being distorted loses a greater part of its efficiency. 7
The wings orplanes are so shaped that an upward and forward pull will be exerted at the front 'of the wing, while the rear of the wing is shaped so that in conjunction with the rearward dihedral angle thereof, the
action of the air on the rear portion of the wing will under certain conditions cause the wing to automatically aright itself. To accomplish this the front of the wing is shaped to preferably form a substantially degree are of a true circle as designated at 19, in Fig. 4, the chord 20 of this arc is of a length substantially equal to one fourth of the wing chord. From the end 21 of the arc chord, the Wing extends at a tangent and substantially straight, as at 22, to a distance substantially twice the length of the chord 20 of the are 19, and terminates in a slight negative up-turned curve 23, forming a rigid up-turned portion, the leading and trailing edges of the wing being rigid and all combined to produce an upward llfi'. and forward pull representing the inherent tractor force of soaring birds and also imparting a self righting action to the wing. This structure also imparts to the wing a further and greater lifting capacity from the impact of the air currents on the under face of the tangent or straight portion 22 of the wing, while the negative curve 23 serves the function of balancing or automatically righting the wing.
It will be noted that by this constructlon of wing surface, there will be provided a deep camber close to'the leading edge of the wing on the under side thereof and wh ch extends uniformly throughout the entire length of the wing, with the result that the air currents will be deflected upwardly at a sharp angle. This will cause an area of low pressure or partial vacuum to be formed above and close to the leading edge of the wing, thereby causing the wing to be drawn or sucked in an upward and forward direction, thereby reducing to a minimum the power or force necessary to propel the machine.
By virtue of the rearward dihedral angle of the wings, the entire upturned or negative rigid curved portions of the rear of the wing stand back of the meta-center of the machine.
Should the propelling force for any rea shape and arrangement of the wings, automatically assume a forward gliding angle and the machine will be drawn forwardly and downwardly by the force of gravity ,...wingse"-" with ever increasing speed until the'p'ressure of the horizontal air currents upon the rigid upturned rear portion of the wings, and ailerons which have by such action of I the machine been elevatedto be presented to a greater angle to the horizontal air currents, automatically depress the rear of the wings, turning about the lateral axis of the machine, to elevate the leading edges of the wings, to cause the wings to be returned to a horizontal position.
The momentum gained by this gliding action is expended in a forward and horizontal direction, and the above action is repeated until the machine reaches the ground.
The lateral stability or self righting effect is produced in the wings by the use of a multiplicity of rigid vertical fins 24, which project or depend from the lower face of the wing and extend entirely across the plane surface in the direction of the path of flight, while at the same time they are spaced laterally from each other in a. direction longitudinally of the wing as shown more clearly in Fig. 2.
The lower edges of these fins may be straight or may be made to conform to the contour of the wing.
These fins prevent the dangerous oscillation caused by the pressure of the wind rushing off or escaping alternately from the ends of the wings from the inside and of the side gusts of air from the outside while rushing in under the wings, which would have a tendency to upset the machine.
The fins are so arranged that when the wings are tipped laterally, the lower extremity of each fin will terminate short of the lower extremity of the next adjacent fin on the side thereof adjacent the body of the machine.
These fins form obstructions for the side gusts of air so that the air currents beneath the planes or wings will strike below the balancing point of the wings acting upon the fins to cause the planes or wings to be lowered instead of raised, thereby overcoming the dangerous oscillation of the machine and the tendency of the side gustsofv air to upset the machine. The fins also serve to increase the directional stability of v the machine and prevent skidding or sideslipping of the machine during the turning thereof.
The lateral stability or self righting action of the wings is obtained by these fins in conjunction with the short downwardly curved portion at the top of the leading edge of the wings, as any sudden gusts of wind p v v, attacking--the wing from the side, will, son fail, the machine, will by virtue "of this owing to the backward dihedral angle of the turned edge of the wing and will assist the fins in preventing the rising action of the Arranged below the upper wing, spaced for any desirable distance therefrom and disposed intermediate the upper and lowerwings and on each side of the machine, adjacent the rear of the wings is an aileron designated generally 'by the reference numeral 25 having a slight upward curve at the rear thereof, which curve is of substantially the same contour as the rear of the Wing. This aileron is pivotally supported as at 26 and'is adapted to be moved freely about thepivot so as to raise its rear edge in any suitable 1 and it will also be seen that it is impossible for the rear edge of the aileron to move he.
end is anchored as at 32 to a fixed support;
It will thus be seen that whenever it is desired to move the aileron about its pivot and from the position shown in full lines to the position shown in dotted lines in Fig. 3, the operator actuates the controlling wheel 29,
low the normal horizontal plane of the aileron. This aileron is counterbalanced to permit of easy operation. By the-provision of this aileron having a slight upward curve,
a'continued downward or negative pressure at the rear or trailing end thereof Wlll be maintained and the ailerons by being stopped in their downward movement will be rigid. With this construction and arrangement of aileron, the outer or fast traveling wing or plane, in turning, will be unobstructed, that is, there will be no additional drag upon the Wing as heretofore, thereby allowing the machine to turn on a short curve or more level keel-than'heretofore. This is due to the fact thatin turning, the inner aileron or the aileron adjacent the point of turning is raised with respect to its wing to cause the air pressure to depress that wing, causing the high wing to be unobstructed while the drag will be ex erted-on the inner or lower wing.
The body 10 of the machine is constructed to produce a limousine effect, the front end thereof being rounded and the rear being tapered laterally as shown more clearly in The top and bottom of the body at the front end thereof are inclined toward each other as at 10 and 10", as shown more clearly in Fig. 6, for deflecting the air currents while the machine is in-flight. The body is divided by -means of a partiti0n33 into aa p passenger compartment 34: and a motor com- Themotor compartment is provided with a partition 38 which supports the motor cylinders .39. the latter being superposed vertically and being provided with an outer casing spaced from the cylinder proper and the other chamber.
having longitudinally disposed 4O arranged within the space between themotor cylinders and casing to form air passages extending lengthwise of the engine cylinder for cooling the same. The compartment 35 is provided with air inlet openings 41 disposed to project below:v the bottom of the body so that outside air currents will enter the compartment 35.
The air passages formed by the fins l0 along the engine cylinders form the only source of communication between the chambers formed by the partition 38 in the engine compartment, so that the air currents entering the openings 41 will flow from one of the chambers along the air passages of the engine cylinders into the other chamber and Wlll be discharged through openings 42 which constitute the outlet passages from A vertical shaft 43 is drivenby the engine and the shaft is provided with a bevel gear 44,, which meshes with a gear 45 secured to a horizontal shaft 46 of the propeller $7. This propeller 47 is located on the outside of the body in the angle formed by the wings and adjacent the openings 42, and not only serves the purpose of propelling the machine, but operates to cause a suction through the openings 42 to induce the circulation of air into the openings all across the engine cylinders and out of the openings 42 to cool the engine.
The passenger compartment 3% is provided withdoors 48 to permit ingress and egress, and also windows 49.
i/Vhat is claimed as new is:
'1. A wing for aircrafts and the like, said wing having a rigid thin surface, the front portion of the wing describing substantially a seventy degree are of a true circle.
2. A single thin surface wing for aircrafts' and the like, said wing forming an arc of a true circle at its forward edge to a point short of the center of the wing chord, the rear edge of the wing terminating in a rigid negative curve, the intermediate portion of the wing being arranged atatangent to the arc.
3. A single thin surface wing for aircrafts and the like, said wing forming an arc of a true circle at its forward edge to a point short of the center of the wing chord, the rear edge of the wing terminating in a rigid negative curve, the intermediate portion of the wing being arranged at a tangent to the arc, the said are extending uniformly throughout the entire length of the wing.
4. A wing for aircrafts and the like, said wing having its body formed of a rigid thin surface structure, the faces of the said surface being parallel, the front of the wing to a point short of the center of the wing chord, being shaped to form an arc of a true circle, and the rear of the Wing short of the center of the wing chord, being formed on a rigid curve opposite to the curve of the front of the wing, the portion of the wing intermediate the said curved portions being arranged tangent to the are at the front of the wing.
5. A wing for aircrafts and the like, said wing having its body formed of a rigid thin surface, the front of the wing for a distance substantially one fourth of the wing chord being constructed to form an arc of a true circle, the portion of the body adjacent the are being formed at atangent to the are for a distance substantially equal to twice the length of the chord of the arc, and the rear of the wing adjacent such tangential portion of the are being formed on a rigid negative curve.
'6. A wing for aircrafts and the like, said wing having its body formed of a rigid thin surface, the front of the wing for a distance substantially one fourth of the wing chord being constructed to form an arc of a true circle, the portion of the body adjacent the are being formed on a tangent to the are for a distance substantially equal to twice the length of the chord of the arc, the rear of i the wing adjacent such tangential portion and for substantially a distance equal to the chord of the are being formed on a rigid negative curve, and a curved aileron pivot-- ally arranged in a plane different from the plane of the wing and cooperating with the wing.
TA wing for aircrafts and the like, said wing having its body formed of. a rigid thin surface, the front of the wing for a distance substantially one fourth of the wing chord being constructed to form an arc of a true circle, the portion of the body adjacent the are being formed on a tangent to the are for a distance substantially equal to twice the length of the chord of the arc, the rear of the wing adjacent such tangential portion and for substantially a distance equal to the chord of the are being formed on a rigid negative curve, and a counterbalanced and curved rigidly constructed aileron pivotally arranged in a plane different from the plane of the wing and cooperatin with the wing.
8. A wing for aircrafts and the like, said wing having its body formed of a single rigid surface, the rear edge of said wings being formed in a rigid negative curve, and a counterbalanced upwardly curved and rigid aileron adjacent said edges spaced from and disposed in a plane different from the plane of the wing and cooperating with the said wing.
9. A wing for aircrafts and the like, said wing having its body formed of a single rigid surface, the rear edge of said wings being formed on a rigid negative curve, a counterbalanced aileron adjacent said edges spaced from and disposed in a plane ditferent from the plane of the wing and cooperating with the said wing and a stop for limiting the downward movement of the outer end of the aileron.
10. The combination of spaced superposed wings, the rear edges of the wings being formed on a rigid negative curve. and a pivotally mounted upwardly curved and rigid aileron disposed adjacent said edges intermediate and spaced from both of said wings.
11. The combination of spaced superposed wings, a pivotally mounted upwardly curved rigid aileron disposed intermediate and spaced from'both of the wings, and means operating as a stop for holding the aileron against movement below a substantially horizontal plane.
12. A wing for aircrafts and the like, said wing having a rigid thin surface, the front portion of the wing adjacent the leading edge describing an arc of a true circle, the rear of the wing describing a rigid negative curve, the intermediate portion of the wing being straight and arranged at a tangent to the arc, and fins depending below the lower face of the wing and spaced laterally in a direction lengthwise of the wing.
13. A wing for aircrafts and the like, said wing having'a rigid thin surface, the front portion of the wing adjacent the leading the are, and rigid fins depending below the lower face of the wing in the direction of flight of the wing, said fins extending entirely across the wing face and being spaced laterally from each other.
In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification, in the presence of two subscribing witnesses, on this 6th day of March, A. D. 1917.
THOMAS P. BROOKE. Witnesses:
IRMA M. BARING, J. F. JoAoHUM, Jr.