US 1330884 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
T. C. MCDERMOTT. BRICK ANUWALL CONSTRUCTION. y APPLICATlO-N FILED MAY 4. 1-917.- 1,330,884, Patented Feb. 17,1920.
2 SHEETS-SHEET l Wm QW A from/HS halves of the UNITED STATES PATENT oFFIoF.
THOMAS C. MoDERMOTT, 0F UTICA,l NEW YORK.
BRICK AND WALL CONSTRUCTION.
Specification of Letters Tatent.
Patented Feb. 17, 1920.
Appneatien mea lay 4, 1917. serial m. 166.287.
To 'all 'whom t may concern.'
Be it known that I, THOMAS C. MCDFR- Mo'rr, of Utica, in the county of Oneida and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Bricks and structions Amade therefrom and also to av double brick adapted to be burned in its double form and then' readily split apart into two separate complete hollow bricks of the kind first mentioned.
One purpose of my invention is to provide a hollow brick or building blo-ck of improved construction and of such shape and form as to make an improved Ibrick and one that may be readily and very advantageously formed into wall constructions either by itself or in combination with solid bricks or other forlms o f building blocks or building mater1`a l A further purpose is to provide a brick of such form and a wall structure of such construction that a better wall is easily secured and a better air circulation is secured longitudinally of the -wall and where needed vertically also. j
A still further purpose is to provide a new combination of parts in awall construction, whereby practically a double wall is secured with proper air spaces between said walls and also proper air spaces are provided througheach of the separate halves of the double wall' and at the same time the two wall are tied together by the bodj7 portion of each brick.
A still further purpose is to provide an improved. form of double brick adapted to be readily constructed in its double form and adaptedto be burned in its double form without deformation and thenreadily split apart into two separate'bricks.
A further purpose is to provide a double brick ofsuch construction that an advanta geous arrangement of the parts is secured both as regards the building quality of the completed halves 0r bricks proper and also continued around a corner or angle without ltially completed corner of a wall construcranged flanges as to the burning'qualities of the brick, whereby the parts reinforce each other so thatthe brick may be burned in a practical way without deformation ofthe bricks or the partsthereof. A further purpose of my invention is to provide a brick or building blck of such form and a wall construction of such character that the air spaces in or between the hollow bricks may be readily using special members but simply by arranging some of the bricks in a different manner.
Further purposes and advantages of my invention will appear "from the specification and claims herein.
Figure 1 is an isometric projection of a single hollow brick or building block em' bodying my invention.
Fig. l 2 is an isometric projection of a double brick embodying my invention and lllustratin the form in which the bricks are made and urned to be thereafter split apart to form two completehollow bricks.
Fig. 3 is an isometric projection of a partion embodylng my invention and utilizing hollo'w bricks or 'building blocks of this invention.
Fig. 4 is a of Fig. 3. l l
Referring to the drawin in a more par-v ticular description, it willige seen that Fig. 1 shows an isometric projection of a single brick embodying my invention. This brick I has abody portion 7 lextending the width and length of the entire brick and having one of its sides or surfaces 8 form one of the. faces of the brick. This surface 8 is preferably substantially flat as shown. From the other surface 9 of said body portion 7 there project four integral longitudinally ar# 10, 11, 1l and 10 spaced apart about as shown and with the outer flanges 10 vertical section on line 4-4 and 10 upon the opposite edges of the body portion or flush therewith and adapted to 100 have their outer surfaces form fiat sides or edges 12 for the brick as a whole.
. 'From each outer flange 10 to the inner flange l1 next adjacent thereto extends a 'bridge portion 13 spaced from the inner sur- 105 face 9 of the body portion 7, whereby a longitudinally extending open-ended but closedtopped air chamber 14 is provided upon each side-of the brick and extending longitudinally thereof. No bridge portion 13 or 110 'y ber being flush Y but having the 45 handled or laid by 65 cess 16 will 5 provided extending lengthwise of the brick andviiiidway of `its width. It will now be seen that I have provided a brick which in appearance and in fact might be said to be two hollow bricks of ordinary construction bound together in spaced relation by a connecting member which is the middle part 7 a of the body portion 7, said connecting memwitli one face of the brick. The brick will preferably be of such size and proportions that each of its said hollow halves will indeed approach more or less closely to the size and proportions of an ordinary solid brick and the complete brick may occupy in a wall the space usually filled` by two or more ordinary solid bricks.
This form of brick it will be seen may be readily placed in a wall to form a wall of4 two parts, each part being of substantially the thickness of a solid brick wall where the bricks are laid lengthwise but being hollow Y as where ordinary hollow bricks are used,
two halves ofthe wall positively tied together by the connecting porltion 7a of each brick, said connecting portion of course being that part of the body portion, 7 which extends from oneV inner fiange 11 to the other inner flange 11. When a straight wall is thus built from laying my bricks lengthwise it will be seen that three parallel air chambers 14, 15 and 14 are.
provided in the wall and that in a straight wall the said air chambers of one brick coiinect directly with similar air chambers in the two adjoining bricks in the samecours'e 40 and so on as far as needed or as far as such regular straight construction is carried.
Notwithstanding that an ordinary brick of my construction is two or three times thel size of an ordinary brick, my brick may be venien'tly and rapidly as an ordinary single brick. This arises partly from the fact that the brick is hollow and of such construction y /tliat it weighs not much inoie than an ordi 5G nary solid brick and partly from the fact that the two hollow halves composed of a flange 10, a flange 11 and a bridge portion 13 and a part of the body portion 7 may be grasped flatwise between the brick-layers 5j thumb and fingers i'n the saine manner as ordinary sized bricks are grasped. It will be noted that the open-topped channel extends far enough down into the brick (Zr between the two halves of the brick to afl'o d ample space for the fingers or thumb to pa s down therein and that thus the brick may be handled as a wholeby the brick-layer grasping either of its halves.
Preferably a shallow mortar-receiving rebe provided in the top of each the brick layer as conhalf of a complete brick as avbrick is viewed in Fig. l. This recess is provided partly for the purpose of providing a mortarreceiving recess7 whereby in irregular brick laying the wall may be tied more securely together and also partly to providey a lbrick of such construction that when two bricks are formed in the shape of a' double brick las shown in Fig. 2 and burned 1in that shape the double brick may be readily split apart to form' two complete bricks. I have shown these recesses 16 as being equal in widthwith the side channels 14, which may be done by having the bridge portions 13 slightly spaced from the extreme outer edges 17 and 18 of the flanges 10 and 11 respectively. It will be understood, however, that the shallow recesses 16 may be wider or narrower and that I am not limited t/o the exact construction shown in the drawings. A i
In order to insure that hollow bricks of both plain and the special foi'ni'already described and with y I forin and burn two complete bricks of thel form shown in Fig. 1 as a'double brick shown in FigwQ. In other words, the complete brieks are formed land burned as two bricks having their 'body portions 7 away from each other and with their flanges 10 and 11 extending toward each other and in fact connected to eachother respectively at all four flanges of each b-rick as plainly shown in Fig. 2. It will now be seen that a shallowi'ecess 16 of one brick faces and connects with a .shallow recess 16 in the oppositely formed brick to form oneV relatively thin chamber extending lengthwise of the brick aroundfeach side of each double brick. This chamber formed by two of said recesses 16 is of such thickness thatthe opposing surfaces of tlie'two bricks of each double brick will not unite after being once formed nor during the burning of the brick. The width of the recesses 1G is also such that the parts connecting one brick to its opposite brick may be readily broken in a straight line when Vthe bricks have been burned and are to be split. This splitting in a" straight line and especially without damaging the edge of the completed brick is further facilitated by scoring or cutting part wayinto the material along tlie plane inl which the double brick is to be split. This is preferably done b v scoring or cutting into the material of the double brick when it is being formed along the. lines 19 on the outer edges of the double brick and along the lilies Q0 between the chambers l5 of each brick of the double brick. The scoring oi' cutting at line l) is along the ics' iso
has been burned for the reason that there is considerably less material to be broken along the lines of said scoring lines 19 and 20 than at any other part of the flanges 10` or 11 or elsewhere in the brick It will be understood, however, that the scoring at lines 19 and 20 is shown considerably exaggerated both as to width and thickness of the space lett in the unburned brick. A'
very thin scoring sufficiently se ara-tes the material of the two ibricks so t vat it will not re-unite at that plane when the brick is being burned. A shallow scoring also is enough to suliciently weaken the material so as to insure its ready splitting upon the lines 19 and 20. The said scoring in fact is so thin as to make the cut in the burned brick practically unnoticeable to the e e and leaves no perceptible shoulder upon t e upper edges of the flanges 10 or 11. Hence such scoring or any line therefrom does not appear in the drawings of the completed brick such as Figs. 1, 3 and 4.
Furthermore, the shallow recesses 16 beyond each 4bridge portion 13 perform another function, in that after the brick is formed and before it is burned the two pairs of said recesses A16 form a pair of shallow chambers extending lengthwise of the double brick between opposite bridge portions 13. In this way a thorou h air circulation is obtained through the ouble'brick, allowing it to dry much more readily and evenly than would otherwise be the case, thereby preventing distortion or twisting of the brick.
Figs. 3 and 4 show an example of a wall and an le construction embodying my invention. t will -be understood, however, that my form of wall construction is not limited to the precise form shown nor to the recise p arrangement of bricks arranged t erein.
The drawings do, however, show plainly one! the central air chamber 15 opening on top. For the purpose of convenience I will refer to this as showing the bricks laid rifrht side up, but it will be understood that the term is simply relative, as it will be obvious that the bricks could be laifl with the central air chamber 15 opening ownward and obtain the benefits of my construction. In a straight wall laid as suggested with the bricks either right side up or upside down it will be seen that a very strong, substan tial and rigid wall is formed. The two halves of the brick havin the side air chambers 14 will yin effect orm two brick walls substantially the thickness of an ordinary solid brick laid lengthwise but with an air chaniber extending lengthwise through each part of the wall. It will be understood of course that the air chambers both 14 and 15 connect with the air chambers of bricks at each end of ary brick and so form a continuous air chamber through each course of bricks and upon the front of the wall and the back of the wall and also at the center. The mortar placed between the ends of adjacent bricks will be placed so as not to close the connection between adjacent bricks. This, however, will not be difficult, as the vair chambers are large enough so that if the mort-ar is put on with ordinary care, sutlicient opening will be left to connect adjacent bricks.V The central air chamber 15 of each course of bricks will be completed by the body portion 7 of the bricks in the next course up when the bric-ks are laid right side up, or will be completed by said body portion of the course of bricks below when the bricks are laced upside down.v It will thus be seen tliat my bricks and the wall construction obtained therefrom form a desirable wall both as to stren h and as to the number of separate air c amber-s crosswise of the wall. The two halves of the wall will be connected not by special bricks or by occasional tie members but by the central body portion 7 of each brick in the wall.
Then desired the central 'air chamber of one course of bricks may be connected to the air chamber in an adjacent course of bricks by reversing the usual arran ement' of one or more bricks in a course. his is illustrated by the brick Q5 in Fig. 4, which I have shown as being laid bottom side up; The central air chamber of this brick will Ytherefore still maintain its connection with the central air. chamber in the bricks at each end thereof and though facing down will connect with the bricks therebelow, which have their central air chamber opening upward. It will thus be seen that whenever it is desired the wall may have its central air chambers connected for .as many courses as desired.
The corner or angle construction shown iu Figs. 3 and 4 is constructed b having the last or nearest brick 27 in t e lowest or rstcourse from the left-hand wall extend sufficiently through the 'corner portion of the wall so that a common solidbrick 26 will bring that course of bricks out flush with the outer line of the right-handwa'll. The nearest brick 28 from the right-hand wall will be brought up flush with the righthand end of the solid brick 26 and with the inner side of the brick 27 from the lefthand course, which extends part way through the corner. "The single solid brick 26 will therefore close all the air chambersin the near end of the left-hand brick 27. The ends of the air hambers of the righthand brick 28 will be closed by coming next to the end`of 'the solid brick 26 and to the inner flat and imperforateside of the lefthand brick 27. In the next course a single solid brick 29 will. be placed at the corner but extending lengthwise relativeto the lefthand wall. The brick 30 from the righthand wall will extend up to solid brick 29 and overlap the solid brick 26 and the regular brick 27 of my construction-*ofV the course below. The brick 30 will be laid upside down. The first brick 31 in the lefthand wall will have its near end come up flush with the farther vend of solid brick 29 and the rear flat side of brick 30.- vThe cen- I tral air space of the right-hand wall will now connect with the central air space from t-he left-hand wall. This will be apparent from an inspection of the arrangement of the bricks in the`\ third and fourthcourses of Fig. 3 as well as from the sectional show- .ing in Fig. 4. The third and fourth courses are similar in arrangement to the first and second/courses respectively already7 described in detail. In Fig. 3, however, the single solid bricks are omitted from the thi/rd and fourth courses in, order to more clearly show the construction of the corner and especially, the connection of the air chambers.
.It will now be seen that thel brick 30 of the fourth course being upsideA do'wn has its central air chamber .15 opening downward and that this downward opening of chamber 15 overlaps' the upward' opening 15 of brick 27, which is laid right side up. This will'not be prevented even when the wall is completed by placing the solid brick 26 at the corner of the third course, and the solid brick 29 at the corner of the fourth course. The solid brick 26 will close' all the end openings of brick 27 and the end opening" of one side chamber and part of the end opening of the central chamber ofbrick 28. Similarly the solid brick 29 will be placed at the corner of the fourth course and will close all the end openings of the air chambers in brick 30 and the end opening of the outside chamber 14 of brick 3`1 as other and to the solid brick being Y way a sufficient passage is left toconnect the air chamber 15 of brick- 30 of the fourth course to the central air chamber 15 of 'brick 27 of the third course. Y Y
An examinationfof Fig. 4 will show that the air chamber 15 offbrick 30 communicates with the central air -chamber 15 of the bricks next along in the fourth course of this would be so whether' the bricks back from brick 30 were laid right side up or upside down,l
Furthermore, it' will be seen from Fig. 4
. the right-hand wall, and furthermore that i that the downwardly opening central air chamber .15 of brick .3() overlaps the upwardly opening central air chamber 15 ofA brick 28'of the third course, As the central opening in brick 28 communicates with the central opening of the bricks farther along in this course, it will thus be seen that the central air-chambersv of the third and fourth courses of the right-hand wall and the third course of thel left-hand wall are all in comf munication, insuring an ample circulation of air through the corner of the wall. It will be obvious furthermore that by simply turn- I i ing the brick31 ofthe left-hand fourth course upside down the central air chambers of the third and fourth courses of said lefthand wall will be in communication with themselves and 'also with the central air chambers of the third and fourth courses through the corner and out along'the righthand wall. It will thus be seen that I have provided a' brick and a construction for walls that provides an ample passage of air through the corners or angles of walls to overcome all the disadvantages that' arise where a solid corner has to be made either with solid brick or with so vcalled hollow brick, which require so many solid bricks at the corner as to prevent an air circulation through or about the corner. In other words, I have provided a form of hollow brick wherein not only la practical but a very excellent corner is made by utilizing' vonly one small solid or special brick on each course at a corner.
The hollow bricks of my invention are also well adapted to bear the strair: of having building timbers rest directly thereupon Without special construction for the oints where such timbers are to rest. In Fig. 3 I have shown the end of a timber 32 as resting upon the inner half of the upper side of a brick laid in what I have termed right side up position. The half of the brlck receiving such timber being tubular in form is well able to support the load. The shallow mortar-receiving recess on the top of :said brick will of course be filled with mortar` to more widely distribute the load, but the fact that the'bridge portion 13 connects the flanges 17 and 18 so close to their top edges prevents anv undue strain upon said flanges or upon the brick. The fact that two halves of each brick are connected by the central body portion 7a further strengthens the wall for receiving the weight of timbers, On the other hand, where desired a very large and entirely 'lat ,timber-sujporting surface may be readily obtained placing a brick at that point upside down, resulting in 'the large flat surface 8 of brick being uppermost, affording plenty of supportingspace and even f more widely distributing the weight.
From what has already been said with regard to the shape and advantages of my brick and the advantages of my invention in brick wall construction it will be lseen that my invention is not limited to the specific form of wall here shown, but maj1 be used in various forms of walls.
It will be obvious that various modifications in the form of my'invention may be made without departing from the claims hereinafter set forth.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In a wall structure of bricks each having a body portion extending the width of the brick with one plane -surface forming one face of the brick and each having four longitudinally arranged spaced flanges of substantially equal height extending from the other surface of the body portion and each having bridge .portions connecting each'outer Harige to ythe flange next within whereby three open-ended chambers are formed of which the outer ones are closed by said bridges at the other face of the brick and the middle chamber is open at said second face of the brick and whereby a .wide mortar receiving surface is provided adjacent each side of the brick and the brick may be laid with either face to adjcining .bricks without changing the courses, the
combination of bricks* having their said central air chambers facing upward and bricks having their central chambers facing downward and registering with the central air chambers below .whereby the central air chambers of adjacent courses are connected.
2. In an angle wall structure of solid bricks and bricks each having a body portion extending the width of the brick with one plane surface forming one face of the brick and each having four longitudinally arranged spaced anges of substantially equal heifht extending from the other surface of the body portion and each having 'bridge portions connecting each outer flange to the flange next within whereby three' ,open-ended chambers are formed of which the outer ones are closed by said bridges at the other face of the brick and the middle chamber is open at said second face of the brick and whereby a wide mortar-receiving surface is provided adjacent each side of the brick and the brick may be laid with either face t-o adjoining bricks without changing the courses, the combination of chambered bricks extending part way into the angle and having their said central air chamber facing upward, chambered bricks .on the next course up extending part way THOMAS C. MGDERMOTT.