US 1331791 A
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G. S. WILKINSON. MEANS FOR STARTING THE ENGINES 0F AEROPLANES. APPLICATION FILED SEPT.9. 191-9.
1,33 1,791 Patented Feb. 24, 1920. F/e-J.
5 SHEETS-SHEET I.
Invenior G. S. WILKINSON. MEANS FOR STARTING THE ENGINES 0F AEROPLANES. APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 9, 1919.
1,331,791. Patented 11911211920.
5 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
In uez Li-ar G. S. WILKINSON.
MEANS FOR STARTING THE ENGINES 0F AEROPLANES.
APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 9, 1919.
Patented Feb. 24, 1920.
5 SHEETSSHEET 3.
Inventor flif'orniy G. S. WILKINSON.
FOR STARTING THE ENGINES OF AEROPLANES.
APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 9. 1919- Patented Feb. 24,1920.
1,3 5 SHEETSSHEET4 MEANS Inventor G. S. WILKINSON.
MEANS FOR STARTING THE ENGINES 0F AEROPL -ANES.
APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 9. 1919.
1,33 1, 791 Patented Feb. 24, 1920.
5 SHEETS-SHEET 5.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
' GEORGE SHAKESPEARE WILKINSON, OF LONDON, ENGLAND, ASSIGNOR TO THE AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURING COMPANY, LIMITED, OF LONDON, ENGLAND.
MEANS FOR STARTING THE ENGINES OF AEROPLANES.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Feb. 24, 1920.
Application filed September 9, 1919. Serial No. 322,741.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, GEORGE -SHAKES- PEARE WILKINSON, a subject of the King of Great Britain, residing at London, England, have invented new and useful Improvements in Means for Starting the Engines of Aero lanes, of which the following is a speci cation.
This invention relates to apparatus for enabling the power derived from the'engifi'a',
of an automobile vehicle to be utilized-for starting the engine of. an aeroplane. by swinging the propeller, as described in the specification accompanying a previous.
application for Letters. Patent, Patent No. 1,313,693, of August 19, 1919; the primary object of the present invention being to provide means for enabling such apparatus to be employed for starting the engines of aeroplanes wherein the axis of the propeller stands at a considerably greater height above the ground, orniakes a greater angle with the horizontahthan has heretofore been usual.
In the arrangement described and illustrated in the specification above referred to, the substantially horizontal telescopic starter-shaft, which is carried by the automobile and provided at its outer end with a clutch-member adapted for engagement with and automatic disengagement from a clutch-member fixed concentrically on the propeller-hub, is coupled by a universal joint to a short horizontal shaft journaled in a hearing which is carried by a pillar on the chassis of the automobile, the level of this hearing corresponding, approximately, to the usual level of the propeller-hub of an aeroplane when the latter is' standing upon the ground. Hence the telescopic startershaft, although angularly adjustable about its point of connection with the short hori zontal shaft on the automobile, cannot adof considerable disparity in level between I said bearing and the propeller-hub, would in practice be found inconvenient.
According to the present invention, the level of the bearing carried by the pillar of the automobile is made adjustable so that this bearing, although capable of normally standing at a level to suit the propellers of aeroplanes of the dimensions hitherto commonly met with, can be raised at will to a height corresponding to that of the propeller-hub of the much larger aircraft now coming into use for certain purposes. In addition, means maybe provided for facilitating the manipulation of the starter-shaft, more especially when raised be yond convenient reach from the. ground, and also for holding the telescopic startershaft steady when engaged with the clutchmember on a propeller-hub standing at any height above the ground within the range of adjustment of the bearing carried by the pillar ofthe automobile.
The bearing for the-short horizontal shaft may either be adjustable in the vertical direction upon the pillar,-or this pillar itself may be made telescopic; while driving connection between the short horizontal shaft and the engine-shaft of the automobile may be maintained by means of an upright shaft which may be telescopic and which, if the of the upright shaft and a dog-clutch mem her which, when the starter is not in use, may run freely upon the engine-shaft or upon a shaft driven thereby. Any convenient means, such for example as screw-gear, or rack-and-pinion mechanism provided with a locking-device, may be employed for adjusting the level of the bearing for the short horizontal shaft or the effective height of the pillar.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a side elevation (partly in section) of the front portion of an automobile provided with one form of the improved apparatus of the present invention, wherein the pillar is telescopic and incloses an upright telescopic shaft; while Fig. 2 is a rear elevation of the same, the lower section of the pillar being shown in section toward the left hand side of its center line. Figs. 3, 1 and 5 illustrate portions of the apparatus in greater detail, each in sectional side elevation and to a larger scale than Figs. 1 and 2. Fig. 3 shows the junction, between the upper end of the stationary portion and the lower end of the slidable portion of the; telescopic pillar, and between the corresponding sections of the upright telescopic shaft; Fig. 4 shows the junction between the short horizontal shaft and the starter-shaft, and between the former shaft and the upper section of the upright telescopic shaft, respectively; and Fig. 5 shows the outer end of the starter-shaft. Fig. 6 shows the detail of a clamping device for the struts which adjustably support the overhanging end of the starter-shaft.
Upon the chassis 11 of the automobile is mounted an upright hollow telescopic pillar comprising two sections whereof the lower section 12 is fixed to the chassis while the upper section 13, which is cylindrical throughout the greater part of its height, is slidable vertically within the lower section through guide-bearings 1 1 and 15 at the upper and lower ends of the latter and through intermediate bearings 16 and 17; the several bearings being spaced apart at such distances that the upper section 13'of the pillar is never held by less than two bearings and is consequently kept steady even when fully extended. Fixed to the rear side of the upper section 13 is an upright rack 18 which constantly meshes with a spur pinion '19 fast on a 'transi erse horizontal shaft 20 which is journaled in bearings near the upper-end of the lower section 12 of the pillar; the shaft 20 also carrying a bevel wheel 21 (indicated by dotted lines in Fig. 3) which meshes with a bevel pinion 22 on the inner end of a short horizontal shaft 23 journaled in a bearing 24 on the lower section 12. ()n the outer or rear end of the shaft 23 is fixed a hub 25 carrying a series of radial arms 26 by means of which the shaft can be rotated by hand to raise or lower the upper section 13 of the pillar; the rotation of the shaft 23 being normally prevented by the engagement, between adjacent teeth of a series 27 on the hub 25, of a stoppin 28 inserted removably in a hole in the adjacent end of the bearing 24. The rack 18 slides through a groove in each of the bearings 14, 15, 16 through which it passes, and
thus constitutes a feather-key to prevent rotation of the upper section 13 relatively to the lower section 12 of the pillar. The lower bearing 17 presents a footstep to receive the weight of the upper section 13 of the pillar when in its lowest position; while a spring pressed locking-pin, indicated at 16 (Fig. 2) carried by the lower section 12 and adapted to engage in one or other of a vertical series of holes in the upper section 13, serves to support the latter at intermediate levels.
Immediately beneath the base of the lower section 12 of the telescopic pillar is mounted a gear-box 29, serving as the gear-box of the automobile and containing mechanism for transmitting motion from the engine-shaft 30, at variable speed and ineither direction at will, under manual control, to the driving road-wheels by way of the usual Cardan shaft 31, or to the startershaft, alternatively as may be required. This may be accomplished by well-known gear connections together with a clutch mechanism, substantially like that shown and described in the Hucks Patent, No. 1,313,693, of August 19, 1919, but as the construction and internal arrangement of the gear-box 29 forms no part of the present invention, it need not be further alluded to in this description.
From within the gear-box 29 rises, coaxially with the telescopic pillar, an upright telescopic rotary shaft which extends through both sections 12 and 13 of the pillar and serves to transmit motion from the driving mechanism within the gearbox to the starter-shaft. The upright shaft comprises two sections whereof the lower section 32,
which is in driving connection witlrthe necessary motion-transmitting mechanism in the gear-box and is journaled in and supported by a suitable bearing 32 in the latter, passes through a sliding bearing 33 mounted within the lower portion of the upper section 13 of the pillar. The lower section 32 of the telescopic shaft is of square section and passes through a correspondingly squared socket 34: fixed within the lower end of the tubular upper section 35 of the shaft, while this latter section 35 is journaled in and depends from a bearing 36 at the upper end of the upper section 13 of the pillar and is steadied by a bearing 37 mounted within the section 13 of the pillar above the sliding bearing 33 therein; so that, as the upper section 13 of the pillar descends, the lower section 32 of the shaft is received within the tubular upper section 35 of the same without interruption to the driving connection between them.
Fast on the upper end of the upper section 35 of the telescopic shaft is a bevel pinion in mesh witha bevel wheel 39 which is fast on a short horizontal shaft 40 journaled in bearings in a hood 41 forming a cap for the upper section 13 of the telescopic pillar; the short shaft 40, which extends fore-and-aft of the automobile, being connected by means of a universal joint 42 to the inner or rear end of the main section 43 of the starter-shaft, which latter is itself extensible, as hereinafter explained. The
partially sustained by a sway-beam 44 fulcrumed at a transverse horizontal axis 45 in a bifurcated bracket 46 carried by an upright pintle 47 which is rotatable in'a bearing at the top of the hood 41; the front end of the sway-beam 44 being coupled by a link 48 to a thimble 49 forming a ournal for the starter-shaft section 43 between a pair of collars 50, 50 fixed thereon near the middle of its length, while the rear end of the swaybeam is anchored by an elastic connection, consisting of strong elastic cords 51, to points 52 at the lower ends of a pair of skirtlike brackets 53 which depend from beneath the hood 41 at its opposite sides in such manner as to clear the upper end of the lower section 12 of the telescopic pillar when the upper section 13 of the latter occupies its lowest position. The arrangement is such that, although the upper section 13 of the pillar is incapable of rotation relatively tothe lower section 12, the starter-shaft can be swung through a moderately wide horizontal angle about the universal joint 42; the pintle 47 and elastic cords 51 permitting a correspdnding horizontal angular movement of the sway-beam 44.
The starter-shaft comprises, in addition to the main section 43 (which is formed as a cylindrical tube) a telescopic extension 54, of square section, which is slidable through a correspondingly-squared socket 55 at the front or outer end of the main section 43; the rear end of the shaft-extension 54 having a flange 56 by which it is guided in its movements lengthwise of the main section, while a strong elastic cord 57, stretched between points of attachment 58 and 59 at the rear ends of the extension 54 and main section 43 respectively, constantly tends to retain the extension retracted within the main section as in Fig; 5. The retraction of the shaft-extension 54 is limited by a padded shoulder 60, near its outer end, encountering the outer extremity of the main section 43.
The outer end of the shaftextension 54 has a pair of-oppositely-directed radial studs 61, 61 upon which a gimbal-ring 62 is pivotally supported, this gimbal-ring being provided with a pair of opposite1y-directed radial pins 63 adapted to engage detachably a pair of undercut notches in the wall of an open cylindrical fitting (not shown) fixed concentrically on the hub of the aeroplane propeller, substantially as set forth in the specification already referred to. The. pins 63 may, as indicated in Fig. 2, be lengthened so as to constitute handles for facilitating the adjustment of the starter-shaft in the required position. When this has been effected, and the shaft-extension 54 is ready to be drawn out so as to permit of the pins 63 engaging the fitting on the hub of the aeroplane propeller, the outer end of the main section 43 is steadied by means of an adjustable support hereinafter described.
Fig. 1 shows, in full lines, the telescopic pillar extended to its maximum height, and the starter-shaft occupying a horizontal position; the upper limit of the range of per-- missible angular adjustability of the startershaft and sway-beam in a vertical plane being indicated in dotted lines. The same gure shows, in dotted lines, the startershaft when the telescopic pillar is contracted to its minimum height; the starter shaft and sway-beam bein shown both as occupying a horizontal poslt-ion and also as angularly depressed to the lower limit of their range of permissible angular adjustability in a vertical plane. Fig. 2 shows, in full lines, the telescopic pillar reduced to its minimum height, and in dotted lines, the pillar extended to its maximum height.
In order to enable the outer end of the starter-shaft 43, 54 to be readily manipulated by the attendant when the telescopic pillar is extended so as to raise the startershaft beyond convenient reach of the ground, a vertically-adjustable staging is provided at the front end of the automobile; this staging comprising a braced rectangular framework 64 of metal tubing which extends in a fore and aft vertical plane and which is supported by and slidable vertically upon an upright post 65 fixed by its lowe end to one side member of the chassis and tayed from its upper end to the other side member of the chassis and to the upper end of the lower section 12 of the telescopic pillar by means of tubular braces 66 and 67 respectively. The framework 64 is attached to the upper and lower ends of a sleeve 68 fitted to slide vertically upon the post 65; the sleeve carrying a spur pinion (not shown) which engages a vertical rack 69 fixed to the post and is adapted to be rotated by means of radial arms 70 carried by a short shaft whereon' the pinion is fast, so that, by moving the arms 7 O by hand, the sleeve 68 and framework 64 can be raised or lowered asrequired. Means (not shown) comprising. a lockingpin (similar to 28) adapted to engage between teeth (similar to 27) on the hub which carries the arms 70, may be employed to lock the sleeve and framework at any desired level. The rack 69 also constitutes in effect a feather-key for preventing rotation of the sleeve 68 about the post. 65-, which is cylindrical. The framework 64 carries, atdifi'erent levels, two platforms 71 and 72 which are respectively hinged to brackets on upper and lower cross-members 71 and 72 of the framework, so as to be capable of being swung into their horizontal operative positions as required; the outer ends respectively of the upper and lower platforms, when in operative position as shown in Figs. 1 and 2,
and 72"; while these struts or ties are adapted to be disconnected soas to permit of either platform being folded against the framework 64 when not in use. i 1
The adjustable support, by means of which the outer end of the main section- 43 of the starter-shaft is steadied after being adjusted in readiness to engage the propeller-hub, comprises a pair of tubular struts 73, 74 which cross one another in a transverse direction X-wise beneath the shaft 43 so as to permit of a bearing for the latter resting in the V-crutch thus formed; the angular relation of the struts to one another, which is adjustable in accordance with the angular adjustment of the starter-shaft in both a vertical and a horizontal direction, being maintained by a clamping-device which also serves to retain the shaft in position'within the crutch.
For this purpose the lower ends of the struts 73, 74 rest, by means of ball-and-socket joints 75, 76, on brackets 77 at the outer corners of whichever platform 71 or 7 2 is for the time being in its horizontal operative position, each socket 75 or 76 being. secured to the bracket by means of a clamping-screw 78 (Fig. 1); while the struts, at the point.
wherethey cross one another below the shaft 43, are held each between a pair of notched clamping-plates 79 or 80 (Fig. 6) which are threaded over a substantially horizontal bolt 81. On the threaded end of the bolt are screwed a pair of lock-nuts 81, while to the opposite end a spanner-handle 82 is hinged, and between this handle and the nearest of the clamping plates the bolt 81 passes through a thimble 83 to which is hinged a short upright prop 84 carrying at its upper end a bearing 85 which embraces a journal provided on the shaft 43- between a pair of collars 86, 87 thereon. When, the bolt 81 having been loosened, the starter-shaft is being adjusted in operative position, the bolt itself and clamping-plates 79, 80 will follow the movements of the shaft and cause the struts 73, 74 to assume a corresponding mutual angular relation; whereupon the bolt 81 is tightened so as, by drawing the clamp ing-plates together to hold the struts rigidly in the position to which they have been brought.
In some cases the bearing for the short horizontal shaft, or the entire pillar, together with the starter-shaft and attached parts, may beso mounted as to be rotatable about the axis of the upright shaft; such an arrangement, which would permit of the starter-shaft extending in any desired direction relatively to the automobile, being con venient where, for example, the engines of a number of aeroplanes drawn up in order upon an aerodrome require to be started in rapid succession.
Having now particularly describe and ascertainedthe nature of my said invention, and in what manner the same is to be performed, I declare that what I claim is 1. In an apparatus for utilizing the power of the engine of an automobile for starting the engine of an aeroplane by swinging the propeller, the combination of an upright pillar, mounted upon the automobile, a short horizontal shaft supported in a bearing at the upper end of said pillar, said shaft being apted to be driven from the engine of the automobile, a universally jointed shaft, connected with said horizontal shaft, and adapted to be coupled with the propeller of the aeroplane, and means for ad ustably extending said supporting pillar.
2. In an apparatus for utilizin the power of the engine of an automobile fo the engine of an aeroplane by swinging the propeller, the combination of a pillar mounted upon the automobile, a horizontal shaft rotatably mounted at the upper end of said pillar, a universally jointed shaft connected with said horizontal shaft, and adapted to be coupled .with the propeller of the aeroplane, a vertically disposed shaft passing through said, pillar and geared to said horizontal shaft for driving the same from the automobile engine and means for vertically extending said pillar while maintaining operative connection between said vertical and horizontal shafts.
3. In an apparatus for utilizing the power of the engine of an automobile for starting the engine of an aeroplane by swingingthe propeller, the combination of a telescopic pillar mounted upon the automobile, means for adjusting the telescopic sections of said pillar for varying the height thereof above the automobile, a horizontal shaft rotatably mounted at the upper end of the upper section of said pillar, a universally jointed shaft connected with said horizontal shaft and adapted to be coupled with the propeller of the aeroplane, a vertically disposed telescopic shaft, geared to said horizontal shaft for driving the same from the engine of the automobile and means wherebysaid vertically disposed shaft may be extended; simultaneously with the extension of said telescopic pillar.
4, In an apparatus for utilizin the power of the engine of an automobile for starting the engine of an aeroplane, b swinging the propeller, the combination wlth a vertically adjustable pillar mounted on the automobile, of a horizontally disposed shaft rotatably mounted in the upper end of said pillar, a universally jointed shaft connected with said horizontal shaft and adapted to be coupled with the propeller of the aeroplane, a platform mounted on the automobile in position for the operator to attach the end of said universally jointed shaft to the propeller of the aeroplane and means for ad justing the elevation of said platform above the automobile.
5. In an apparatus for utilizing the power of the engine of an automobile for starting the engine of an aeroplane by swinging the propeller, the combination with a telescopic pillar mounted upon the automobile, rovided at its upper end with a substantially horizontally disposed universally jointed starter-shaft, adapted to be coupled with the propeller of the aeroplane, of a platform for the operator to stand on when coupling said starter-shaft to the aeroplane propeller, means for adjustably varying the elevation of said platform above the automobile and means adjustably connected with said platform for supporting the outer end of said universally jointed starter-shaft.
6. In an apparatus for utilizing the power of the engine of an automobile for starting the engine of an aeroplane, by swinging the propeller, the combination with a telescopic pillar mounted upon the automobile, provided at its upper end with a horizontal shaft adapted to be driven by the engine of the automobile, said horizontal shaft being connected with a universally jointed shaft adapted to be coupled with the propeller of the aeroplane, of a second pillar mounted uponthe automobile, a frame adjustably mounted on said second pillar and provided with a platform upon which the operator stands while connecting the end of said universally jointed starter-shaft with the propeller of the aeroplane, means for adjustably clamping said platform at any desired elevation above the automobile, means for steadying the outer end of said starter-shaft, comprising a pair of adjustable struts which cross one another X-wise, means for clamping said struts together at their crossing point and a bearing mounted thereon for supporting the outer end of said startershaft in the V-notch of said struts.
7. In an apparatus for utilizing the power of the engine of an automobile for starting the en ine of an aeroplane by swinging the propel er, the combination with an upright pillar mounted on the automobile, of a substantially horizontally disposed startershaft, mounted at the upper end of said pillar and adapted to be driven from the engine of the automobile, means whereby said shaft is adapted for horizontal and vertical movement, a sway-beam pivotally connected and mounted for angular movement on the upper end of said pillar, one end of said swaybeam being connected to said starter-shaft to rotatably support the same and means connected with the other end of said swaybeam for counter-balancing the weight of said starter shaft.
GEORGE SHAKESPEARE WILKINSON.