US 1335488 A
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UNITED srrariis PATENT oFFioE;
CHARLES T. DAVIS,
OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK, ASSIGNOR HENRIETTA R. DAVIS.
To all whom. it may concern:
Be it known that 1, CHARLES T. Davis, a citizen of the .United States, residing at Brooklyn,'New York city, in the county of Kings and State of New York, have invented new and useful Improvements in Poison- Tablets, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to pharmaceutical and chemical tablets and pills, and particularly to poison tablets having means for indicating their nature and for preventing injury if taken accidentally.
My object is to provide a tablet having a protective coating which will prevent the tablet body from being attacked by the fluids of the alimentary tract during passage therethrough if swallowed by accident, and yet sufiiciently frangible to permit the tablet to be readily broken to expose the chemical content or tablet body to a solvent.
A further object is to combine such protective coating with a repulsive tasting substance to prevent accidental swallowing. Further, I may provide a distinctive coloring as an additional precaution.
A further object is to provide a coating for the tablet capable of carrying a nonacid or chemically inert dye. I also may provide a coating which can be dissolved in a common solvent but is insoluble in the fluids of the alimentary tract.
Another object is the provision of a coating soluble in a common solvent but sufliciently impermeable to prevent deliquescence on contact with atmospheric or other moisture.
. and indigestible, substance,
My invention consists of a tablet body which may be of irritant or poisonous nature, such as is commonly used for germicidal purposes, as for instance a preparation of antiseptic and germicidal solutions, one common example b'ein the usual bichlorid of mercury tablet. pon such tablets I place a protective coating, composed of a relatively frangible, though impermeable and preferably one that can be melted and sprayed on the tablets during t bling, in theusual way for coating tablets, or one capableof being applied while in a viscose or plastic condition. I may, for instance, use a wax, such as paraffin, beeswax, or canauba wax; cellulose products, such as collodion; or rosin. These may be used separately or in any de- Specification of Letters Patent. l atented Blur. 30, 1920. Application filed June 18, 1919. Serial No. 305,174. I
sired combination; or any, other substance may be used that possesses the requisite qualifications and which may be foundbetor non-volatile, coating of bitter or repulsive tasting substance, such for instance as bitter aloes This coating may be placed outside of the impermeable coating, or the bitter or repulsive substance may be incorporated with the impermeable coating.
The tablet is preferably given adistinctive coloring to indicate its nature, which may be the usual blue employed to indicate'poison tablets, or any other distinctive color. The dye may be incorporated either in the tablet body or in the coatings, but preferably is carried by one or both of the coatings. It
is also desirable to use a non-acid or chemically inert dye which does not tend to rust surgical instruments when the tablet is used to make a bactericidal solution for sterilizing the instruments. In ordinary germicidal tablets, where the dye is incorporated with the tablet, it is often necessary to use an acid dye or a dye that is chemically active; but the incorporation of the dye in the coating of my tablet makes possible the use of non-acid or inert dyes therein. The dye is also preferably soluble in the same medium as the tablet, for the purpose of producing a characteristic color in the solution.
In use, the color serves as a primary warning or protection against accidentally taking the tablet. The disagreeable taste affords a further and substantial protection if the tablet is accidentally taken into the mouth, clearly indicating the nature of the tablet and producing a very strong involuntary or spontaneous impulse to expel it. This protection is of course particularly valuable when the tablets are handled in the dark. If, in spite of these precautions, the tablet should be swallowed, the protective or impermeable covering will permit it to pass completely through the alimentary tract without the exposure of the contents.
lVhen a tablet isto be used to make an antiseptic or germicidal solution, it is broken before being dropped into the solvent, thus exposing the soluble tablet body, the fragile impermeable coating permitting it to be easily.v broken. ,However, the impermeable coating may be made of a substance soluble 'mentary tract. I Y
3. A pharmaceuticalpreparation suitable in a particular solvent, such as alcohol,
I though insoluble in the fluids ofthevalimentary tract. and preferably insoluble in water. In such a case it would be unnecessary to break the tablet it into the solvent.
While I have found my invention to be useful with tablets ofyarious kinds, it is particularly useful in connection -with germicidal tablets containing potassiummercuric-iodid, such as is disclosed in my Patent No. 1,276,119. In this tablet, and
other germicidal tablets, it is the practice to combine .the fundamental chemical used with a relatively large quantity of a stabiliz- *ing substance, such as sodium chlorid or common salt, to prevent dcliquescence. This produces a tablet much larger .than would otherwise be necessary, and the impermeable coating makes possible the use of the germicidal substance alone,omitting the stabilizer, resulting in considerable economy 1n manufacture and in a much smaller tablet of equal strength.
Further, the thorough protection against deliquescence facilitates the inclosure of such tablets with articles which might other wise be-da-magedthereby, such as sutures.
In addition to the obvious value of this invention for saving human lives through the prevention of accidental poisoning, its extreme practicability becomes apparent when it is pointed out that thecoatings of the tablets may be applied through the use p of the standard machinery and apparatus already employed by practically. all manufacturers of pharmaceutical tablets; and that, by virtue of the efliciency of the protective or safety coatings, itwill no longer be essential to manufacture poisonous tablet's'in square, oblong, coflin or other dis,- tinctive shapes; these ualifications rendering practicable the wi espread practice of the invention by various manufacturers, and at a low manufacturing cost.
While the form of my invention, which I have herein disclosed, is the preferred form, it is obvious that alterations and changes may be made therein within the scope of the appended claims Without departing from the spirit of the invention.
What I claim is r V 1. A poison tablet or pill having a frangible coating, impermeable to thefluids of the alimentary tract.
2. A poisonous tablet having a frangible I before' dropping ,permeable to the fluids of coating insoluble in the fluids of the alii 4. A tablet having'a coating insoluble in the fluids of the alimentarytract but solu ble in alcohol.
5. A poison tablet or pill containing a deliquescent substance having a coating imthe alimentary tract.
6. A tablet or pill containing potassiumm-ercuric-iodid' and having a coating impermeable to the fluids of the alimentary tract. j' a I 1 7. A tablet or' pill containing a deliquescent substance having an impermeable coating containing a hydrocarbon substance.
8. A tablet. or pill containing a deliquescent substance having a coating of an impermeable substance hquefying at a temperature suitable for the application of the coating by spraying;
. 9. A pharmaceutical tablet or pill having \a coating impermeable to .the fluids of the alimentary tract, said coating carrying a repulsive tasting substance.
10. A pharmaceutical tablet or-pill having a coating impermeable to the fluids of the alimentary tract, and a second coating carrying a repulsive tasting substance.
11. A pharmaceutical-tablet or pill having a coating impermeable to the fluids of the alimentary tract, and carried by said coating. i
12. A pharmaceutical tablet or pill having a coating impermeableto the fluids ofthe alimentary tract and non-aci d coloring matter carried by'the coating." g 1 13. A pharmaceutical tablet or'pill hav ing a coating impermeable to the fluids of the alimentary tract, and an outer coating carrying coloring matter. F
14. A pharmaceutical tablet or pill having a coating impermea ile t0 the fluids of the alimentary tract, and a repulsive tasting outer coating carrying coloring matter. In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand in presence of two subscribing witnesses. i
' u 1 CHARLES T. DAVISLI Witnesses .E. C. PIERSON, BENJ. F. HmsoH.