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Publication numberUS1343536 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 15, 1920
Filing dateFeb 19, 1917
Priority dateFeb 19, 1917
Publication numberUS 1343536 A, US 1343536A, US-A-1343536, US1343536 A, US1343536A
InventorsWalter S Weeks
Original AssigneeWalter S Weeks
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Compressor apparatus
US 1343536 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

W. 8. WEEKS.

COMPRESSOR APPARATUS.

APPLICATION FILED FEB.19, 1917.

Patented June 15, 1920.

WITNESSES:

1 ATTORNEYS or an n al it COMPRESSOR APPARATUS.

Specification of Letters lPatent.

Patented June 115, 192th Application filed February 19, 1917. Serial No. Mat-19.

1 b all whom it may concern:

Be it known that l, Warren S. /Vnnns, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Berkeley, county of Alameda, State of California, have invented a new and useful (.ompressor Apparatus, of which the following is a specification.

My invention relatesito internal combustion engines and compressors and is in fact a combination of both.

An obj ect of my invention is to provide an apparatus operated by the internal combustion of fuel in which the motor piston and cylinder also function as a compressor piston and cylinder. 7

Another object of my invention is to provide an apparatus for accumulating hot ses under pressure. Another object of my invention is to provide a simple and efficient means for securing an operative medium for driving rock drills, riveters or comparable mechanisms, or for operating a prime mover.

The invention possesses other features of advantage, some of which, with the foregoing, will be set forth in the following description of the preferred form of my invention which is illustrated in the drawings accompanying and forming part of the specification. it is to be understood that l do not limit myself to the showing made by the said drawings and description, as I may adopt variations of the preferred form within the scope of my invention as set forth in the claims.

Referring to the drawings:

Figure 1 is a vertical section through the cylinder of the compressor apparatus. The parts are shown at the beginning of the stroke during which the air and fuel are drawn into the cylinder.

Figs. 2, 3 and a are diagrammatical representations, showing the positions of the pistons during the compression, working and storage strokes respectively.

Fig. 5 is a view showing a modification of a portion of the mechanism of my invention.

Broadly, my invention comprises an internal combustion engine, which conveniently may be of the four-cycle type, so constructed that the products of combustion at a rela tively high pressure are delivered to a storage chamber or receiver, or directly to an engine for the performance of work. roe

motor piston and cylinder during one phase of the operation of the apparatus becomes the compressor piston and cylinder during another phase of the operation, the power developed during the motor phase being expended during the compressor phase Obviously, my apparatus may be constructed with a plurality of cylinders, each cylinder-unit functioning alternately as motor and compressor, but in its simplest form, only one cylinder is used and for convenience l have selected a single cylinder apparatus for description herein.

Referring first to Fig. 1, a cylinder ti is provided with the attached crank case 7. A shaft 8 formed with the crank 9 is revolubly arranged in suitable bearings in the crank case and a connecting rod 11 connects the crank to the piston 12 slidably arranged in the cylinder 6 in the usual manner. it fly wheel 13 is arranged on the end of the shaft 8 outside the crank case. Urdinary gas on gine practice may conveniently be followed in this, except that the crank shaft is not extended to transmit the power of the engine as a prime mover to any other machine. The chief function of the crank shaft is to control and relate the several movements of the piston 12. Power is also taken from the crank shaft to operate the two cam shafts 14 and 15, and this is preferably accomplished by gears 16 arranged on the inside of the crank case.

The upper portion 6 of the cylinder 6 is formed with a larger bore than the lower portion, and a differential piston 18 is slidably arranged in both bores, forming a chamher A between the two pistons and a chamber B between the difi'erential piston and the end of the cylinder. A rod 19 is secured to the piston 18 and at its outer end is coupled to the rod 20 by the arm 21 rigidly secured to both rods. The rod 20, together with the piston 18, is actuated by its engagement with a cam 22 located upon the cam shaft 14:.

ln its lower position the piston 18 almost touches the top of the piston 12 when the v latter is at the top of its stroke, but in the upper posit1on of the piston 18 there is considerable clearance between the two pistons.

It is understood that the diiferential piston would move from its lower position to its higher, and from the higher to the lower by so that a minimum of energy is consumed in moving it. The cam 22 is also designed to lock the piston in the lower and upper posi tions. Tts rounded surface 24 while in con-,

tact with the upper and lower surfaces of the yoke 26 holds the piston 18 immovable.

The cylinder 6 is provided with an inlet valve 28 through which charges of air and fuel are drawn into the cylinder on the suction stroke of the piston 12. The products of combustion are discharged from the cylinder on the exhaust stroke through the passage 29controlled by the valve 31. Both valve 28 and 31 are of the usual puppet type and are actuated by cams 32 and 34 on the cam shafts 14 and 15 respectiyely.

The exhaust passage 29 is continued by .a conduit 35 which connects into a receiver 36 in which the gases are stored until used.

A check valve 37 is arranged in the ex haust passage to prevent any back flow of gases from the receiver. Connected into the exhaust conduit on the pressure side of the check valve or directly into the receiver 36 is a conduit 38 which leads into chamber B,

the space above the difierential piston, so

that this chamber is always in communication with the receiver. The upper surface of the differential piston 18 is, therefore, always subject to the pressure existing in the receiver 36. A

Theoperation of the apparatus will now, be made clear by following it through a complete cycle.

First phase. Tntake. Fig. 1. The valve 31 is closed and the intake valve 28 is open. The differential piston 18 is in the lower position. The motor piston 12 descends, drawing in the fuel mixture.

Second phase. Compression. Fig. 2. Both valves 28 and 31 are closed. As the plston 12 rises to compress the mixture, the differential piston 18 rises to the top position where it lies firmly against the end of the cylinder 6*. The piston is locked in this position while the curved surface 24 of the cam 22 is in contact with the upper face of "the yoke 26. As before noted, the piston 18 would rise without the cam as soon as the total pressure against its lower surface rose to a point above that upon its upper surface, but preferably the cam is used to insure smooth operation and prevent pounding. By the rising of the differential piston, a clearance space is provided for .the'compressd fuel mixture.

Third phase. Working. Fig. 3. Both valves 28 and 31 are closed and the differential piston remains in its upper position.

has

The fuel mixture is exploded by a spark in the usual manner, and the motor piston is driven downward.

Fourth phase. Storage. Fig. 4. Valve 28 remains closed while valve 31 opens the discharge passage to the pressure chamber. As the piston 12 rises and the gases exhaust from the chamber A into the receiver, the same pressure per unit area is atonce exerted in chamber 13 upon the upper and larger surface of the differential piston thus tending to force it to its lower position as soon as the cam 22 turns to permit the movement. When piston 12 reaches the top of its stroke, piston 18 has reached the lower position in its stroke and only a very small clearance exists between the surfaces of the two pistons. Practically all the products of combustion are thus forced out of the cylinder into the receiver. I

On the next downward stroke of the piston 12, the piston 18 is held in the lower position. by the 'pressurein the chamber B as well as by the cam 22 and a new charge of fuel is drawn into the chamber A, the operation continuing as just explained.

The movement of the differential piston 18 is controlled or permitted by the cam 22, but the operating force is preferably derived wholly or chiefly from the pressure of the gases exerted on the faces of the piston, the cam preferably serving chiefly to control and time the movement.

Tn order to secure highest efficiency the gases should be used while hot, and it is contemplated that the mechanism which is to be operated thereby, as for instancea rock drill or riveter, will be best connected to the receiver 36 by a suitable conduit 41.

The connection between compressor apparatus and operated mechanism may be direct in some instances. In order to avoid resistance to the movementof the differential piston 18, by the a formation of a vacuumized chamber under the head thereof, a vent 42 is formed in the cylinder wall. Fig. 5 shows a modification of the mechanism for controlling the movement of the differential piston. An eccentric disk 44 is arranged on the cam shaft 14. The eccentric imparts reciprocal motion through the eccentric rod 45 to the rod 20 to which the eccentric rod is pivotally connected. The relative speed of movement of the differential piston and the motor piston is for a complete cycle the same in either of the constructions,1 to 2. In the case of the eccentric the motion of the differential piston is constant though not uniform. With the cam the motion of the differential piston is intermittent and nearly uniform during the period of motion. i 1 claim:

1. In a device of the character described,

a cylinder, a motor'piston adapted to operate said device arranged in said cylinder and means operated by the pressure of the exhaust gases for varying the clearance above said motor piston.

2. In a device of the character described, a cylinder, a motor piston adapted to operate said device arranged in said cylinder, means operated by the pressure of the exhaust gases for varying the clearance above said motor' piston and means for controlling the operation of said clearance-varying means.

3. In a device of'the characterdescribed, a cylinder, a motor piston adapted to operate said device arranged in said cylinder, means operated by the pressure of the exhaust gases for varying the clearance above said motor piston and means for timing the operation of said clearance-varying means in respect of the movement of said piston.

4:. In a device of the character described, a cylinder, a motor piston in said cylinder, and a differential piston in said cylinder arranged to be operated in one direction by the compression of gases between said pistons and in the other direction by the pressure of said gases after explosion.

5. In a device of the character described, a cylinder, a motor piston in said cylinder, a differential piston in said cylinder between said motor piston and the end of the cylinder, and a passage connecting the chambers on opposite sides of said differential piston.

6. In a device of the character described, a cylinder, a motor piston in said cylinder, a differential piston in said cylinder between said motor piston and the end of the cylinder, a passage connecting the chambers on opposite sides of said differential piston and a valve for controlling the movement of gases from the chamber between the pistons to said passage.

7. In a device of the character described, a cylinder, a motor piston in said cylinder, a differential piston in said cylinder between said motor piston and the end of the cylinder, valves for controlling the movement of gases into and out of the chamber between said pistons and a passage connecting the chambers on the opposite sides of said differential piston.

8. In a device of the character described,

- a cylinder, a motor piston in said cylinder,

a differential piston in said cylinder between said motor piston and the end of the cylinder, a receiver, and a passage connecting the receiver to the chamber between said pistons.

9. In a a cylinder, a motor piston in said 0 linder, a differential piston in said cylinder etween said motor piston and the end of the cylinder, a receiver, a passage connecting the receiver to the chamber on one side of said difdevice of the character described, I

ferential piston, a check valve in said passage, and a passage connecting the receiver to the chamber'on the other side of said differential piston.

10. In a device of the character described, a cylinder, a motor piston in said cylinder, a differential piston in said cylinder between said motor piston and the end of the cylinder, a receiver, a passage connecting the receiver to the chamber on one side of said differential piston, a check valve in said passage, a passage connecting the receiver to the chamber on the other side of said differential piston, and valves for controlling the movement of gases into and out of the chamber between said pistons.

11. In a device of the character described, a cylinder, a motor piston in said cylinder, a differential piston in said cylinder between said motor piston and the end of the cylinder, means for admitting fuel to the chamber between said pistons on the suction stroke of a differential piston in said cylinder between said motor piston and the end of the cylinder,

. means for admittingfuel to the chamber between said pistons on the suction stroke of the motor piston, means for firing the fuel, a receiver for the products of combustion, means for conducting said products to said receiver, and means for permitting said products to move said diflerential piston to ward said motor piston.

13. In a device of the character described, a cylinder, a motor piston in said cylinder, a difierential piston in said cylinder between said motor piston and the end of the cylinder, means for admitting fuel to the chamber be-- tween said pistons on the suction stroke of the motor piston, means for controlling the raising of said differential piston on the compression stroke of said motor piston, means for firing the fuel, a receiver for the products of combustion, means for conducting said products to said receiver, and means for permitting the pressure exerted by said products to lower said difierential piston.

14. In a device of the character described, a cylinder, a motor piston in said cylinder, and means for varying the clearance above said motor piston, said means arranged to be operated in one direction by the compressed fuel mixture, and in the other direction by the exhaust gases.

15. In a device of the character described,

acylinder, a motor piston in said cylinder, means for varying the clearance above said the exhaust gases, and means for controlling a cylinder arranged to receive charges of 15 the movement of said clearance-varying fuel, a motor piston in said cylinder, a secmeans. ond piston in said cylinder arranged to be 16. In a device of the character described, operated in one direction by the compression 5 a cylinder arranged to receive charges of of said fuel between said pistons, means for fuel, amotor piston in said cylinder, asecond moving said second piston in the opposite 2'0 piston in said cylinder, a receiver, a passage direction after the combustion of said fuel 1 connecting the receiver to the chamber beand a receiver for the storage of the products tween the pistons, and means for moving said of combustion of said fuel.

10 second piston to enlarge said chamber prior to In testimony whereof I have hereunto set explosion of the charge therein and for movmy hand at Berkeley, (Jalifornia, this 12th 25 ing said second piston to reduce the size of day of February, 1917. said chamber following the said explosion.

17. In a device of the character described, WALTER S. WEEKS.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2866592 *Nov 23, 1956Dec 30, 1958Matheson Andrew AAir accelerating engines and compressors
US2973751 *Dec 14, 1956Mar 7, 1961Gen ElectricInternal combustion engine
US2983098 *Jan 25, 1955May 9, 1961Vannevar BushGas lubricated free piston engines with supercharging arrangements
US3146765 *Feb 10, 1961Sep 1, 1964Vannevar BushFree piston engine
US5025757 *Sep 13, 1990Jun 25, 1991Larsen Gregory JReciprocating piston engine with a varying compression ratio
WO1992005349A1 *Sep 9, 1991Apr 2, 1992Gregory J LarsenA reciprocating piston engine with a varying compression ratio
Classifications
U.S. Classification60/281, 123/78.0AA, 123/48.00R, 422/510
International ClassificationF01B17/02, F01B17/00
Cooperative ClassificationF01B17/00, F01B17/02
European ClassificationF01B17/02, F01B17/00