US 1345940 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
W. E. LOUNEY.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
' APELlcATIoN FILED Aua.1o, :917.
Patented July 6, 1920.
5 SHEETS-SHEET l.
SH01 uns? W. E, LOONEY.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
APPLICATION FILED AUG.I0, 19|?.
Patented July 6, 1920.
5 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
IM/vento@ W///am E. aol/7gg,
\.^/. E. LOONEY.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE;
APPLICATION FILED AUG. 10, 1917. 1,345,940. Patented July 6, 1920.
5 SHEETS-SHUI] 3.
51A/mav nto@ W. E. LOONEY.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
APPLICATION FILED AuG.I0. 1911.
1,345,940. Patented July 6, 1920.
5 SHEETS-SHEEI 4.
W. E. LOONEY.
I INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
i APPLICATION FILED AUGJO, 1917. 1,345,940., Patented July 6, 1920.7
5 SHEETS-SHEET 5.
WILLIAM E.` LODNEY, 0F DETROIT, MICHIGAN.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Application led August 10, 1917. Serial No. 185,432.
To all ywhom/[1f may concern.'
le it known that I, lViLmAM E. LooNnY, a citizen of the United States and residing at Detroit, in the county of Wayne and Stato of Michigan, have invented a new and Improved -Internal-Combustion Engine, of which-the following is a specification.
This invention relates to an internal combustion engine of the four cycle type wherein the force of the explosion is transmitted through a continuous cam from a series of oppositely arranged pairs of reciprocating pistons -to an engine shaft, and among its important features are means for sealing the ljoint between the rotatable valve and the faces of fixed cylinders; a hollow engine shaft and means whereby the valves and the shaft bearings may` be lubricated by oil which is pumped through the shaft; means for supplying fuel and air to the cylinders through the shaft to form a combustible mixture, and means for supplying air alone to the cylinders for starting purposes. rl`he invention further consists in the details of construction shown, described and claimed.
lln thodrawings, Figure 1 is a side view, parts being broken away, showing one embodiment of the invention. Fig. 2 is a halfplan view, half central horizontal section corresponding thereto. Fig. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary section showing the valve sealing means more clearly. Fig. 4 is a fragmentary plan view of one of the shims. Fig. 5 is a section of one of the expansion rings which press the shims over against the valves. Fig. G is a )erspective view of the cam member' and 4`ig. 7 is a fragmentary diagrammatic developedl plan view showing the outline of the cam and the relation of its faces to the rollers of the pistons. Fig. 8 is an elevation of one of the valves. Fig. 9 is a section on the line 99 of Fig. 8. Fig. l() is an elevation looking from the left in Fig. 9. Fig. 11 is a view similar to Fig. 2 showing a modification. Fig. 12 is a section of the valve on the line 12--12 of Fig. 11. Fig. 13 is an enlarged longitudinal section, corresponding to the right hand end of Fig. 11, showing more clearly the oil, air and fuel passages. Fig. 14 is a section on the line 111-14 of Fig. 11 showing the fuel and air passages in the valve.
The fixed engine casing comprisesl the heads 1 and 1, the cylinder members 2, and the cross head guide member 3, all suitably connected by bolts 4f. Extending longitudinally through the casing is the hollow engine shaft which is formed of two similar sections 5 and 5 that turn in bearings 6 carried by the inner wall 8 of the corre sponding cylinder member 2 and have their inner ends flanged at 9 and connected to a cam member 10 by the bolts 11. Thus the shaft sections and the cam member turnv together as ya single shaft. Longitudinal thrust to which the shaft is sub] ected is transmitted through the nuts 13,"the valves 14 and thrust bearings 15 to the corresponding cylinder member.
*lach of the cylinder sections includes a` `plurality of cylinders 20, the number of which may vary, and the cylinders of one section are alined with those of the other. Reciprocating in the cylinders are the pistons 21 that are joined by piston rods 22 to the body portions of cross heads 23, each of which includes a guide element 25 that slides is a corresponding guide 26 formed in the member 3. The cross heads also include portions 28-29 (parallel to the body portion) that are perforated to receive the pins 3() upon which the conical rollers 31 are carried, rollers 32 being interposed.
The cam member has formed integrally therewith an outwardly tapering cam 35 that extends from end to end thereof once each 90o of the circumference; this cam .may be said to be of a continuous double V or wave configuration.. the main portions lying at angles of substantially 45 to the axis of the cam member. The construction 'will be better understood from a consideration of Figs. and 7. The dashed lines Patented July 6, 1920.
shown :in Iig. 7 indicate several positions of the different` sets of (the rollers in their reciprocatory movement relative to the cam,
the centers of each pair. `The distance bel tween the facesiof the cam at the peaks, that is, at the turning points ofthe V bends or waves, is equal to the distance between the centers of the rollers minus the sum of A the radii thereof; and at other points this distance is such that the rollers are always in contact with the respective faces. Since fuel mixture is delivered from a suitable.
the rollers are of conical form and since the cam surfaces are correspondingly inclined, it follows that binding is entirely avoided;
at the same time the cross head may be so proportioned as to cause the rollers to tightly .embrace these faces, even to the vextent of establishing a slight inward thrust of the portion against the guide, whereby knocking of the rollers against the cam, such as might otherwise take place, is prevented. y
The valves are best shown in Figs. 8,-9 and" 10, from which it will be seen that each is hollow and' forms two passages, one the lintake 40 having an inlet opening 41 and an outlet opening 42. The i'irst registers constantly with the chamber 43 to which carbureter (not shown) through the passage 44, and the second or outlet opening sweeps successively across the heads of the cylinder to feed the fuel mixture thereto.
of a gear casing which also comprises a 'second section 51, and a gland 52 prevents the escape of fuel mixture from the chamber 43 to the interior of the gear casing.
yThe shaft section 5 is hollow throughout its length `and its end portion is reduced and threaded within the gear casing .to receive a nut 53 whereby a gear 54 is secured to rotate therewith. Meshing with the gear 54 is a gear 55 which is fixed to a vertical .shaft 58 carriedv in bearings 59-60 in the gear casing. A continuation 62 of the shaft 58 passes through a casing 63 of a pump of the water circulating system,` (more fully described hereinafter)y and drives a gear pump 64 which sucks oilthrough the ipe 65 from a sump 66 at the lower side oy the -guide member. The delivery pipe 68 of the pump leads to a gland 69, Fig. 2, (in
the end of the gear casing ,51) in which the extreme outer end offthe shaft section 5 turns. Thus the oil passes into the hollow shaft without escaping into the gear chamber. The two shaft sections 5, 5 are preferably joined between the flanges 9 by a tube 72 so that the oil does not escape into the larger surrounding chamber but -is con- 'id-ucted directly from the section 5 to the Each of the shaft sections is provided with suitable holes 73, throughl which'the oil passes outwardly to the Vbearings`6 and 15 and throughl the latter and the grooves 75 and passages 76 to the faces and the end `portions of the valves.V The valve faces are cut out to receive the annug lar shims 78 4and 79 (pre'ferabl .of greater and lesser thickness, respective y), the latter being nearest the cylinders, and the entrance to each of the cylinders .is cutout Ato receive resilient packing rings of triangular cross-secton which tend to expand and crowd themselves over slightly against the shims to thus y. maintain a tight seal. i'
These last mentioned rings may be formed' 80.and an outer ring 81.
of an innerring (Fig. 5), the latter of which maybe split to receive a pin 82 whereby they are prevented from rotating in respect to one another. The former may also be split to` allow expansion. The construction may of course be variedwidely. As the shims are prevented from rotating in respect to the cyrlinders by means of pins 84 or otherwise ig. 3), they are pierced at 85 (Fig. 4) to allow oil to pass from' the grooves 75 to the face of the valves.
The joint between the valve and the cor responding head lmay be sealed, outside ofv the ends of the grooves '76, by an expansion ring 86 similar to the ring 80-81, and a 'ring 87 may likewise be employed near the outer edge of the valve.
Each of the cylinders is tap ed at 88 to receive suitable spark plugs' not shown) to which current may be supplied by a timing-device 89 (Fig. 1) driven by the shaft 58. As the details of this device form no part of the present invention, they. will not be specifically described. Any suitable ti'mf-fl .infr device may be used.
he hollow cylinder members and heads:
form water chambers 90-91 (connected by passages 92, Fig. 1) towhich cooling water may be supplied'l by a double centrifugal pump 93 having a single inlet pipe 94 and the outlet pipes 954-96, one leading to each end of the engine. From the jacket'the water flows through the pipe 97 to the radiator 9.8 and back to the inlet pi e 94.
Modification, Figs. 11 to 14.- n this instance the shaft 5, 5 receives its lubricating oil through a feed pipe 100 that enters the gear casing .laterally through a gland 101- which communicates with a circumferential groove 102 in the inner surface of a stationary ring'103." From the latter it passes into the shaft through holes 104; its distribution to the bearings is substantially the same as previously described.
In like manner air for starting the engine is admitted through a pipe 110, gland 111, stationary ring 112 having a groove 113 and the holes 114 to two pipes 115 (one foreach set of cylinders) that extend `longitudinally of the shaft. Both ends of these pipes are plugged as indicated at 116 and 118; and one of them communicates through a hole in a block 120 that fits closely to the bore of the shaft, and a gland 121 and pipe or passage 122 with a chamber fittings 130 and 131 (the latter of which is aol threaded into the section 51 ofthe gear casing and serves to compress the rings 103-112 and the packing 132) to a chamber 133 which is separated from the chamber for the lubricating oil in any suitableway, sayby the plug 134. From the chamber 133 the fuel passes through the pipe 136, the gland 139 and the pipe or passage 140 to the chamber 123; it also passes through the other pipe 136 and the passage 141 to the chamber 123.
Both'the chambers or passages 123 and 123 are so positioned in the valve asA to sweep across the ends of the cylinders; con- .sequently when air alone .is supplied, the
engine is caused to start, and when both air and fuel are supplied, a combustible mixture is formed in each of the chambers, from which. it is distributed successively to the proper cylinders, as will be readily understood. `These passages likewise serve lto transmit ame from the rear cylinder to the cylinder next ahead, as explained with reference to the passage 47.
In accordance with the patent statutes,
l have shown and described what 1 regard as the most desirable embodiments of my invention. I am aware, however, that many changes may be made in the actual details of construction and do not wish, therefore, to be limited except as indicated by lthe claims.
1 claim 1. An internal combustion engine comprising a rotatable engine shaft, a wavelike cam rigid and co-axial therewith, a plurality of cylinders arranged parallel with the engine shaft, said cylinders forming combustion chambers, pistons for the cylinders, rollers carried by the piston and engaging the cam, a head common to .the cylinders, a valve secured to the shaft and interposed between the head and the cylinders, and an annular shim fixed to the cylinders and interposed between the latter and the valve.
2. An internal combustion engine comprising a rotatable engine shaft, a wave-like cam rigid and/co-axial therewith, a plurality of cylinders arranged parallel with the engine Ishaft,said cylinders forming combustion chambers, pistons for thccylin-f ders, rollers carried by the piston and engaging the cam, a head common to the cylinders, a- Valve secured to the shaft and interposed between the head and the cylinders, each of the cylinders being provided with' an annular wedge ring at its end next to the" valve, the parts being so constructed Vand arranged that the rlng presses toward the Y valve to seal the joint.
3. An internal combustion enginev comprislng a rotatable engine shaft, a wave-like .cam rigid and co-axial therewith, a' pluposed between the head and the cylinders,
and an annular expansion ring interposed between the valve and the head, said ringbeing so constructed and arranged that it tends to wedge 'itself longitudinally of the shaft to seal the joint between the valve and the head.
4:. An internal combustion engine including a rotatable shaft, wave-like -cain secured thereto and co-axial therewith. cylinders parallel with thesli-aft, pistons for the cylinders, said pistons being arranged to cause the cam to turn with the shaft` a com bined intake and exhaust valvel fxedto the shaft, an antifriction thrust bearing interposeddbetween the valve and the cylinders, andlmeans for feeding lubricating oil through the bearing to the valve.
5"` An internal combustion engineI including a rotatable shaft, a' wave-like cam secured thereto and co-axial'therewith, cylinders parallel with the shaft, pistons for the cylinders, said pistons being arranged to bined intake and exhaust valve fixed to the shaft, an 'antifriction thrust bearing inter-l posed between the valve and the cylinders, said shaft being hollow, and means for feeding oil through the hollow shaft to the bearing and the valve. f
6. An internal combustion engine comprising an engine shaft,a plurality of cylin ders arranged about the shaft in parallel relation thereto, said cylinders having a common head, pistons lfor the cylinders, means whereby the reciprocation of the pistons causes the shaft lto rotate. a combined intake and exhaust Valve for the cylinders, said valve being fixed to the sha-ft and being located between the ends of the cylinders and their common head, and means for feeding lubricant to the face of the valve means whereby the pistons cause t nearest the cylinders and through the valve to the 'face adjacent the common cylinder head. .a
7. An internal combustion engine com'- lprising a hollow' shaft, a plurality of cylin# dersarranged about the shaft in arallel relation thereto, pistons for the c linders,
he shaft to tui-n, a 'valve fixed `to the shaft and arranged to sweep across lthe ends of the cylinders, and means for conductin air under pressure throu h the shaft an the valve to start the engine.
8. An internal combustion engine comprising a hollow shaft, a plurality of cylinders arranged about the shaft in parallel relation thereto, pistons for the cylinders,
` 4means whereby the pistons causel the shaft to turn, a valve ixed to the shaft and arranged to sweep across the ends of the cylinders, and means for separately conducting fuel and air through the shaft tothe valve and there commin ling said fuel and air to form acombustible mixture.
9. An internal combustion en ine comprising a pair of. spaced alined ho low shaft sections, a cani memberinterposed' between the sections and rigidly connected thereto,
the wall of said cam member being space considerably from the common axis of the shaft sections, a pair of cylinder forming members in which the shaftl sections are respectivelysupported, bearings between the shaftl sections and the supports therefor, pistons in the cylinders whereby4 the cam member and the shaft'sections are caused to rotate, and a sleeve extendin across between the adjacentends of the s aft sections to conduct oil from on l the other to lubricate t'e bearings.
10. An internal combustion engine com- ,Vprising ahollow rotatable engineshaft, a
pluralityof pairs of fixed opposedengine cylinders parallel with the shaft, pistons reciprocating in the cylinders, separate valves for the sets of cylinders, an internally of the sections to grooved ring surrounding one end of the shaft, a pi e extending longitudinally in the shaft, sai pipe being 'in communication with thegroove and with the interior of-one vof the valves, whereby a fluid upon whichtheoperation ofthe engine depends may be admitted to the Valve.
y 11. Anv internal combustion en 'ne com- .c A
prising a pair of spaced mem ers y each forming a plurality of cylinders vand a water chamber'surrounding said cylinders, an engine shaft carriedb the membersvand ro-4v tatable in respect t ereto, said 'shaft and cylindersV beine' parallel, means for circulating water t rough the water chambers, said means comprising a shaft arranged at right angles to the engine shaft, and pumlp meanshaving a single intake and a doub e outlet the branches of which lead to the corresponding water chamber.
hollow shaft shaft and a plurality of angularly spaced cylinders'parallel thereto and constrained against rotation in res there being a passa e within said shaftandextending longitu inally thereof throu h which a fluid on which the operation of t e engine depends mayppass, means for forininga ring-like passage about said shaft and in communication with said longitudinally extending passage, and means for forming a third passage external to the shaft and also in communication with said ring-like passage.
WILLIAM E. LOO'NEY.
pect to said shaft