US 1348099 A
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COATING OR PLASTIC UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
CABLETON ELLIS, OF MONTCLAIR NEW JERSEY, AN'D mm 8. BIEDEBEB, OF NEW YORK, 11. r. concurs-marine.
1,348,099. Specification of Letters Patented July 27, 1920.
I Drawing. Application filed larch 28, 1915. Serial No. 18,428.
To all whom it may concern: a
Be it known that we, CARLETON ELLIs and IIERMAN S. Rmonnnn, citizens of the United States, and residents, res ectively, of Mont- 6 clair, in the county of ssex and State of New Jersey, and New York, in the county of New York and State of New York, have invented certain new and usefulImprovements in Concrete-Hardening, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to concrete .ag egates or concrete structures and sur ace finishes and relates particularly to the production of hard surfaces of cement or concrete especially suited as floor structures and the like, all as more fully hereinafter described and as claimed.
One method of securing hard surfaces from cement materials is by the incorporation of iron te y sur acing concrete with ragmentary iron material. Floors and sidewalks prepared in this manner have gi ven more or less trouble especially under severe service conditions by rusti thus staining the concrete an unpleasant rown color or making the surface mottled and Streaky.
The present invention has for its 0 ject the production of a cementstructure which is not open to the objectionable feature of pronounced corrosion of the metal materialand yet which will afford a firm hard floor composition capable of resisting wear satisv factorily.
According to the present invention in its preferred form, iron borin or turnin or other fragments 'of non, prefera y o rough jagged character or any other suitable form of iron or steel are coated with a layer of 40 co r or other similar metal by an able galvano lastic, or chemical met ad or otherwise. lectroplating methods may be employed, usingany sultable solution of copper for this purpose. By dipping the iron fragments into a solution of copper sulfate, the copper is desposited over the surface of the iron and a satisfactory coating; obtained. To secure the best results in t manner the iron or. steel fragments or 50' ules should be freed from or or'eign matter by washing with a solvent or by heating to burn'oif the (greasy material, which may be conducted if esired oxidizing or in a reducing it relatively small amount 0 atmosphere. A copper material suflices to effect the coatm dium carbonate solution to prevent oxidain a nonthe forming a layer of any-dec as a desired and the jagged grains of iron, copper plated in this manner, when introduced mto concrete material 've to the surface a hardness and durabi itywhich is not easily obtainable by more perishable material such as has been heretofore employed in the art. The copperized grains adhere with great tenacity to the concrete and yet there is no deterioration of the surface due to oxidation or changes of an undesirable character or of undesirable e ee.
her metalsof a less electropositive character than iron may be plated chemically on the iron surfaces to form a composite fragmentor duplex metallic grain sufficiently coarse to form a stunt art of the wearuc ure of the concrete an ye ne enoug o rea corpora with the flooring material without unfavorably modifying its texture;
When epositin the co r fr om copper sulfate M e'exFnarrgefit is esira a r removiiig flfi ilfipfiififlated fragments from the treat' solution to keep the material away from an until the fragments have been freed of the acid liquor and dried. In the resence of sulfuric acid oxidation takes p ace and co uently washing and drying should prefera ly be 86 conducted romptly in order to secure the preferred orm of the composition bright coppery looking metal fragments which in the case of the jagged rough form of turnings or be ssess a fairly uniform 90 and well distri ut coating of copper over the rojection or laments of the'jagged articles. The copper plated particles may washed with alcoho or with dilute sotion. In reference to the latter it should not be inferred that very coarse turnings are employed, as these are usually undesirable. A' medium coarseness lperhaps rep resented'by about 10 to 30 mes ordinarily satisfactory as by such material the finedust which is ordinarily undesirable is removed and the coarser materials which would afi'ect the texture of the floor unfavorably are not vpresent. The 105 g l. bai sp ang in .L isrexaenx ..9 i hfia eefii a T Incorporated with sire but preferably a mass of ag-. gregates such as a floor of concrete is formed no material is it the rough and is finished with a thin layer of the copperized iron material which may be troweled onto the freshly laid surface. Or the copperized iron may be mixed 6 with concrete or with Q1131 cement sprmkl' ed over the surface or app e not the trowel as the case may be and troweled into the surface in any suitable manner.
In using the term iron herein it is understood that iron and steel or equivalent material is indicated and that the product of the present invention com rising such material has incorporated w1th it preferably as a coating over the surface copper or simllar less electro-positive element or other dissimilar metallic material.
A specific example of an illustrative method of procedure in connection with the present invention is the following:
20 lbs. of iron nules of approximately 15 to'25 mes are immersed m a solution consisting of 1 lb. of er sulfate c stals dissolved in 8 quarts of water. he iron material is raked to an r0 for a period of or minutes-is then removed, washed, first in water and then given a final rinse with a solution of 1 lb. soda ash in 4 gallons water, and then is quickly dried. It is applied to a mass of concrete having a wearing surface of 100 square feet. A coating consisting of about equal arts of this copperized material and neat ortland 9gen 1s app 1e y trowe mg an t e mixm d applied to such a te forms a fin- 35 ish surface which when ry and set has so far as we can observe a hardness and d rability and freedom from oxidation, st ins and the like that render such aggregate especially adapt ed for floors in oflice buildings 40 and high grade structures where discoloration is objectionable.
The advantages of macadamia: cement hardenin are first cheapness, second satisfactor 'liar ening qualities and third 5 the desire efi'ective bonding action. In a similar manner iron may be electrically plated to form granules having a zinc coatm which give a product COIDPI'lSlIlg a rongly electro positlve metal coated on an electro negativemetal. Inthe case of co per this action is reversed which ordinari y 1s advantageous from the standpoint of the bonding action, that is to say, the more strongly electro positive material used for the support for the electro negative material. he lattercondition and product represents the preferred form or embodiment of our invention as illustratively set forth herein.
The term granules is used herein to embrace chips, turnings, filings and other irregular fragments of material operative in accordance with the present invention.
What we claim is 1. A structural mass of concrete formed with Portland cement and containing a superficial layer carrying distributed therethrough copperized granules of iron of a fineness approximately between 15 and 25 mesh.
2. A structural mass of concrete havi a superficial layer containing distribute therethrough copperized iron granules of a size between 10 and 30 mesh and being substantially free from fine dust and being sufficiently coarse to form a substantial part of the wearing structure of the concrete yet fine enough to be readily incorporated with the concrete material without unfavorably modifying its texture.
3. A structural mass of concrete containing a superficial layer carryin distributed therethrough fine particles 0 copperized 1I0I1.
Signed at Montclair, in the county of Es- 5 sex and State of New Jersey, this 22nd day .of March, A. D. 1915.
CARLETON ELLIS. HERMAN S. RIEDERER. Witnesses:
W. O. HENKE, A. A. WELLS.