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Publication numberUS1348999 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 10, 1920
Filing dateMar 31, 1917
Priority dateMar 31, 1917
Publication numberUS 1348999 A, US 1348999A, US-A-1348999, US1348999 A, US1348999A
InventorsBoris Kazmann, Kellogg John L
Original AssigneeKellogg Toasted Corn Flake Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Food beverage and process of making the same
US 1348999 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.

JOHN L. KELLOGG AND BORIS KAZMANN, OF BATTLE CREEK, MICHIGAN, ASSIGNORS TO KELLOGG TOASTED CORN FLAKE 00., A CORPORATION OF MICHIGAN.

FOOD BEVERAGE {AND PROCESS OF MAKING THE SAME.

Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented Aug. 10, 1920.

No Drawing. Application filed March 31, 1917, Serial No. 158,961. Renewed June 27, 1919. Serial No.

To all whom it may concern.-

Be it known that we, JOHN L KELLOGG and BORIS KAZMANN, citizens of the United States, residing at Battle Creek, county of Calhoun, and State of Michigan, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Food Beverages and the Processes of Making the Same, of which the following is a specification.

This invention relates to a cofiee substitute beverage and process forproducing the same. The beverage is preferably marketed in the form of dry soluble granules to which water can be added to produce an instant beverage, but it will be understood that the product can also bemarketed in dry and roasted form, so that the consumer can produce therefrom, his own liquid extract by percolating.

The principal objects of the invention are to secure an improved flavor in the beverage, and to produce the product from starch-bearing materials without the necessary addition of sugar, molasses or other outside saccharine materials.

In carrying out the present process, it is intended to secure the resulting beverage wholly from starch-bearing material, treated in the manner hereinafter described. It is unnecessary to use any added saccharine matter such ,as molasses, raw sugars, granulated sugars, beet sugar, sorghum syrup, maple syrup, honey and the like. Among 'the starch-bearing materials which are suggested, are the legumes, nuts, tubers, starch-bearing roots, starch-bearing grains, starch bear ing fruits, such as bananas; starch-bearing seeds, such as cotton-seed, St, Johns bread, and algaroba beans; fat-bearlng beans, such as soja beans, peanuts; grams; such as wheat, rye, barley, corn, Kafir corn and rice. We prefer, however, to employ as the starchbearing starting materials, rye, wheat grams and wheat bran.

With these starting materials the process preferably is carried out in a series of steps as are hereinafter enumerated, but it is to be clearly understood that these steps may be altered in thei-r'order and some of them may be omitted, and various other changes in the means and manner of securing the final result may be resorted to within the scope of what is claimed, and as indicated by the variations in the different claims, without departing from the spirit of the invention.

Step 1(7Zecmsing.-The selected starchbearmg materials are first thoroughly cleansed in any suitable manner.

Step /2-Gr2inding.The starch-bearing materials are milled, ground or granulated 1n any desirable way and in any suitable apparatus. Step 3BZendz'ng.The different startmg materials are suitably blended together according to the flavor desired. We prefer to use a blend composed of one-third wheat flour, one-third rye flour and one-third bran flour, or meal, broken and crushed, but as before stated this blend may be changed from time to time to suit the taste and in some cases a single starting material may be employed in place of blending.

Step 4- l'Vater-m iming.-The selected flours are thoroughly mixed with'water to produce suitable dough. lVeprefer to employ such an amount of water as will produce from thirty to sixty per cent. of moisture in the dough, but other amounts may be used if desired. We have found the ordinary bakers mixer to be suitable for producing the dough.

Stop -5L-0win .-The dough is preferably divided into loaves, either by hand or machine. lVe have found it convenient to employ loaves approximately twenty-four inches long, twelve inches wide and two inches thick. I

Step 6-Demzrini2ati0n.-We prefer to dextrinize at least a part of the starch-contents of the mixture. The amount of dextrinization which we have found capable of producing a satisfactory beverage is that which results from subjecting the loaves to about fifteen pounds of steam pressure in a steam retort for a period of from two hours to two hours and fifty minutes, but the manner of producing the dextrinization and the pressure and the time of application when steam is employed may be varied within the scope of the claims. The method of dextrinization which we have employed with satisfactory results is the loaves of a lower tray. These trays are placed in large steam retorts which are then closed so that live steam pressure may be directly applied to the loaves. As above stated, we prefer to use steam pre. e of fifteen pounds, but a greater or lesser pressure can be employed according to the selected time of cooking. Fifteen pounds of steam pressure is approximately two hundred and fifty degrees Fahrenheit, and at this temperature we prefer to steam the loaves from two hours to two hours and fifty minutes, according to the material used. Or the loaves may be baked in an oven.

Step 7Atp-dryiag;-'l he loaves are then removed from the retort and allowed to stand in an open room for about twentyfour hours to permit the evaporation of moisture by natural air-drying action. At the end of approximately twentyfour hours the loaves are found to be comparatively dry. They are not sticky and are very tough. The above is not necessary if the loaves are baked in an oven.

Step 8Putveriztng.The loaves are then pulverized, or broken up in a suitable manner. \Ve prefer to feed into a pulverizing machine where they are ground into small particles varying from the size of a pin-head to that of a pea or bean.

Step .9Heat-drying.-The broken articles are dried in any suitable form of ieat drier until the granulated product contains approximately ten per cent. of moisture. Cold air drying may be employed if desired.

Step 10Siftng.T he dried and broken particles preferably are sifted to separate the various sizes of particles into uniform groups so that each group can be roasted separately, as set forth in step eleven.

Step 11-1i0asting.-The pulverized and dried material is roasted, preferably to a dark coffee brown color. This roasting may be effected in an ordinary coffee roaster, and as before stated, the different sizes are preferably roasted separately. Care should be taken to see that the product is not burned or charred, as a disagreeable taste will be thereby imparted to the final product.

Step l2C'00Zing.-The roasted grains are preferablyplaced in any suitable form of cooler and cold air blown up through the grains until they are cool.

Step 13P.erc0latt0n .The roasted grains are placed in ordinary percolators and boiling water is poured over same until the desired extract is obtained. We find that a good yield can be obtained by running the Water successively through four or five percolators. The extract may of course be secured by boiling instead of by percolation. In that case it is boiled for about thirty minutes.

Step 1.4-Vacuum-evap0ra-zi0-n-.-The liquid extract thus obtained is preferably placed in an ordinary. vacuum pan and evaporated down to any desired density. If the evaporated extract is to be dried in a rotary vacuum drier, the density of evaporation in the vacuum should not be greater than from seven to ten degrees 13., in order to secure the best results. If vacuum shelf driers and pans are to be used in the final drying, the density of from twentytwo to twentyseven degrees B, is preferable.

Step 15--Vacuum-drying.After vacuum-evaporating the product to the desired density, the liquid extract preferably is vacuum dried to produce the desired dry extract. Any suitable manner of vacuum drying may be employed. That is to say, we may employ either a rotary vacuum drier or vacuum shelf drier, or any desired and suitable manner of drying. Ve prefer to employ the shelf drier. The condensed liquid usually requires from two and onehalf to three hours to pass into dried extract form in these driers. The action of the vacuum causes thin layers of extract to rise and form bubbles which finally dry in the form of a thick porouscake from twoto two and one-half inches thick.

Step 16'-Gmn:ulatton.The porous cake is scraped from the pans and comminuted in any suitable manner. By comminuting we not only mean breaking the product into tiny particles but also into flakes or scales. It is desirable that the scales or flakes should be as thin as possible so they can dissolve readily when coming in contact with boilin water.

The product of the present invention is produced in the manner described, without using sugar, maltose or other saccharine matter introduced to give flavor or taste to the final product. The beverage thus produced without any necessary additions to the original grains is readily soluble in hot water and serves in taste, appearance and volume as an agreeable substitute for coffee and other similar beverages.

The delicious flavor of the resulting product is apparently traceable to the wheat and rye, and its mineral matter is derived from the salts found in the grains and in the bran.

The action of the heat, moisture and pressure in dissolving and partially or wholly dextrinizing a certain proportion of the starch-granules of the grains and bran, also is probably instrumental in adding to the agreeable taste and color 'of the product.

The soluble carbohydrates formed by the action of heat and moisture on the starting materials are probably dextrins which by the roasting step are formed into a small amount of reducing sugars. The dextrins in the final product are easily assimilable in the digestive process. The product contains phosphate of potash which is useful in building bone and nerve cells.

\Ve have thus succeeded in creating from starch-bearingmaterials, without necessary addition of saccharine or other extraneous matters, a product containing valuable mineral salts and carbohydrates, capable of affording nutrition to growing children, and working men, these ingredients being in a concentrated and palatable iorm, having an agreeable taste and capable of replacing caffein-bearing and other more or less harmful beverages.

What is claimed as new, is:

1. A food-beverage product consisting of a soluble extract of dextrinized and roasted starch-bearing material free from malt or saccharine material.

2. A food-beverage product consisting of a soluble extract of dextrinized starch-bearing material free from malt or saccharine material.

3. A food-beverage product consisting of a solid soluble extract of dextrinized starchbearing material free from malt or saccharine material.

A. A food-beverage product consisting of a soluble extract of dextrinized and roasted starch-bearing material free from malt or saccharine material.

5. A food beverage product consisting of a soluble extract of partially dextrinized and roasted starch-bearing materials free from malt or saccharine material.

6. A food beverage product consisting of a soluble extract of blended and dextrinized starch-bearing materials free from malt or saccharine material. A,

7. A food beverage product consisting of a comminuted soluble extract of blended, dextrinized and roasted starch-bearing materials 'free' from malt or saccharine material. 1

8. A food-beverage product consisting of a soluble extract of mixed, dextrinized, dried, granulated, roasted, percolated and concentrated starch-bearing materials free from malt or vsaccharine material.

- 9. A beverage-producing process which consists in securing the extract of dextrinized starch-bearing material free from malt or saccharine material.

10. A beverage-producing process which consists in securing the extract of a dextrinized and roasted starch-bearing material free from malt or saccharine material.

11. A beverage-producing process which consists in securing an extract of a dextrinized, roasted, percolated and concentrated starch-bearing material free from malt or saccharine material.

' 12. A beverage-producing process which consists in grinding a starch-bearing material freefrom malt or saccharine material,

charine material, mixing the same with water, dextrinizing at least a part of the starch-contents of the mixture, and securing a liquid extract, therefrom.

14. A beverage-producing process which consists in grindin and blending starchbearing materials ree from malt or saccharine material, mixing the same with water, dextrinizing at least a part of the starch-contents of the mixture, securing a liquid extract, therefrom, concentrating the extract to dryness, and comminuting the dried extract.

15. A food-beverage product consisting of a soluble extract of solubilized and roasted starch-bearing material free from malt 0 saccharine material.

16. A food-beverage product consisting of a soluble extract of partly solubilized and roasted starch-bearing material free from malt or saccharine material.

17. A beverage-producing process which consists in subjecting a starch-bearing dough free from malt or saccharine material to a suflicient degree of heat to solubilize at least a portion of the starch-contents, roasting the product in granular form, and extracting the soluble contents.

18'. A beverage-producing process which consists in subjecting a starch-bearing material free from malt or saccharine material 'to the action of suflicient heat and moisture to solubilize part of the starch-contents, roasting the product in granular form, and extracting the soluble contents of the roasted product.

19. A beverage product process which consists in mixing starch-bearing material free from malt and saccharine material with water to form a dough, in cooking said dough to partial dextrinization, in reducing the cooked dough to a powder, and roasting the powder.

20. Abeverage product process, which consists in making a dough of starch-bearing material free from malt and saccharine material, in dextrinizing the starch contents of the loaves to about the extent which is produced by subjecting the dough to the heat, moisture and pressure of steam at about fifteen pounds for about two and one-hall hours, in powdering the dextrinizeddough and roasting the powder. 21. A beverage product consisting of a soluble extract of a roasted powder reduced 5 from cooked and partially dextrinized dough of moistened, starch-bearing material free from malt or saccharine material.

22. A beverage product consisting of w soluble extract of a roasted powder reduced from a dough of moistened starch produc- 10 ing material free from malt or saccharine material, cooked and dextrinized to about the extent which is produced by subjecting the loaves to the heat, moisture and pressure of steam at about fifteen pounds for about 15 two and one-half hours.

JOHN L. KELLOGG.

BORIS KAZMANN.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5863588 *Dec 30, 1996Jan 26, 1999Wittrock; Harold R.Process of making a food product and product thereby
US6090431 *May 18, 1998Jul 18, 2000Celestial Seasonings, Inc.Pelletized food
EP0290636A1 *May 9, 1987Nov 17, 1988Societe Des Produits Nestle S.A.A dry blended mixture for instant drink and process for its preparation
Classifications
U.S. Classification426/598, 426/431
International ClassificationA23F5/00, A23F5/44
Cooperative ClassificationA23F5/44
European ClassificationA23F5/44