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Publication numberUS1351383 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 31, 1920
Filing dateMar 27, 1918
Priority dateMar 27, 1918
Publication numberUS 1351383 A, US 1351383A, US-A-1351383, US1351383 A, US1351383A
InventorsHitt Samuel E
Original AssigneeHitt Samuel E
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Disappearing turret
US 1351383 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



Patented Aug. 31, 1920.

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Patented Aug. 31, 1920.






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APPLICATION FILED MAR-27,1918- 1 ,35 1 ,383, Patented Aug. 31, 1920.





Application filed March 27.

To all whom, it may concern Be it known that I, SAMUEL E.'Hrrr, 1 citizen of the United States, residing at Elyria, in the county of Lorain and State of Ohio, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Apparatus for Army use in Defensive Warfare, hereinafter called Disappearing Turrets, of which the followingis a specification.

The world war seems to demonstrate that present methods of trench warfare have been so extensively developed that they are not likely to be superseded by radically different methods during this war and therefore that any steps taken to make our trenches safer, are in the right direction. Before a charge by theenemy, the first line trench is generally subjected to a heavy bombardment, and more or less leveled. The men are thus either driven out or lost,

so that when the enemy arrives there is not a sufiicient force left to hold it.

An object of my invention is to provide a turret for machine gunners located near the trench, strong enough to withstand ordinary bombardment, to be in readiness in case of attack.

A further object of my invention is to provide a turret with a floor door opening into an underground passageway connecting to the nearest trench.

A further object of my invention is to provide a turret which can be easily operated, raised to firing height, or lowered to ground level out of sight, as desired.

A further object of my invention is to provide a turret which can be covered with such earth or other material as shall make the turret practically invisible to the enemy in daytime A further object of my invention is to provide a turret which can be raised or lowered by the operator from within by manual power.

A further object of my invention is to provide a turret which can be turned llOIlzontally in either direction without limitation by the operator from within by manual power.

A further object of my invention is to provide a turret in which both the vertical Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented Aug. 31, 1920.

1918. Serial No. 224,962.

and horizontal movements can be conveniently controlled by the operator at the same time.

made in a number of parts to facilitate transportation and erection.

A further object of my invention is to provide a flexible apparatus, noteasily put out of order, but easy to repair.

A further object of my invention is to ventilate the turret without in any way endangering its occupants.

In the accompanying drawings: Figure 1 is a sectional plan showing relative position of turret and trench. Fig. 2 is a vertical section on the line If t of Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a vertical section on the line it u of Fig. 1. Fig. 4 is a sectional plan of the turret on the line w 'w of Fig. 3. Fig. 5 is a front view of the turning and elevating mechanism. Fig. 6 is a side view and partial section of the turning mechanism on the line 1 7 of Fig. 5. Fig. 7 is a side view and partial section of the elevating mechanism on the line 2 z of Fig. 5. Fig. 8 is a partial section of the turret and connecting rod on the line If t of Fig. 1. Fig. 9 is a plan of the carriage. Fig. 10 is a sectional view of the caster on the line a w of Fig. 4. Fig. 11 is a partial section of the track and carriage mounted on wheels with flat treads. Fig. 12 is a partial plan of the turret floor, showing the trap door closed. Fig. 13 is a part vertical section of the turret and trap door locked in closed position. Fig. 14.is1.a part vertical section of the turret and ventilator as mounted. Fig. 15 is an elevation of the same.

In Fig. 1, 1 is the turret connected by the passageway 2 with the trench 3. 4 is a branch chamber for the counterweight The turret 1 is movable within the casing 5.

In Fig. 2', the turret 1 is shown in its highest positiomwith a'gunner using a-machme gun. A ladder 6 hangs from the turret 1 and is accessible from steps 7 placed in the passa eway 2. I

n Fig. 3, the turret is shown in'its lowest position, the top of the turret being level with the ground. The top of the turretl is recessed and is filled with earth 8 similar to the adjoining ground to make it practically invisible to the enemy. The turret shell 1, being made of steel plate threeeighths of an inch thick, is quite heavy and is balanced by the connecting rod 9, balance beam 10 and counterweight 11. The weight of the turret shell 1, beam 10 and counter- :weight 1-1 is supported by the pin 12, bearin'gil', :block 15 andfoundationdG; The door 17 is hinged at 18 and locked by a bar 19 and is ordinarily left-closed, the nners shooting through the port holes 20, which can also'be closed by'a coverplate 21 and locked by fingers .21, which engage bolts 2.1" and thumb nuts 21. The turret shell 1 is surrounded by a casing 5 buried in the ground, with the top of the casing at ground level and supported by timbers 22 or other suitable framework. The turret is turned to the right or left by the horizontal handwhee'l 24 and is raised or lowered by the vertical hand :wheel 25. To accomplish this purpose, a combination circular track and internal gear 26 is secured inside the casing-5 zit-the bottom and on this track is mounted the carriage'27, shown in Fig. 9.

' i The turning and elevating mechanism is shown more indetail in Figs. 5, 6, 7 and 9 where the carriage frame is seen to consist of two bars 28separated by castings 29, 30

-anda=31 which-ra-rry track wheels 32 that run upon the circular track 26. The hand wheel 24 is mounted on a shaft 33 and is held in place by brackets 34 and The upper portion of the shaft 33 is round on account of the hand wheel 24, bearing 34 r and tufiing box 36, and is square below the turret floor 37. The square portion 38.01? the shaft passes through the sleeves 39 which turn in bearings 40 in bracket 30, and passes also through the pinion 41, held between 'the sleeves 39, and engaging with the internal gear 42 on the track 26. It is apparent that the motion of the hand wheel 24 is transmitted through shaft 38 to pinion 41 which rolls upon the stationary 'gear 42, giving rise to motion of the carriage 27 which is further transmitted to the turret shell 1, by the lugs 43 engaging the guides 44 mounted on the turret shell 1.

' To raise the. turret, the hand wheel 25 is turned clockwise and to lower, counterclockwise. The hand wheel 25 is mounted on the bracket 45 andcarries the pinion 46 which engages the rack 47 on the shaft 48 which is securely fastened to bracket 29 by one or more keys 49 and 50. The shaft 458 is necessarily mounted with considerable play or flexibility. The key provided to carry the load and the ke 49 for safety in case the key 50 should f ail. The track wheels 32 are shown with a V tread in Figs. 3, 6, 7 and 9, butare preferably provided with a. fiat tread 91, wider than the track 26, as shown in Fig. 11, to allowenongh lateral motion of the carriage to compensate for irregularitiesinthemotion of the turret. When the operator has raised or lowered the turret 1, to'the desired-elevatiom'it is locked in position by turning the small hand wheel 51 on the set screw 52. The track wheel pins 53 are arranged for easy removalfrom the inside. i

The stufiing boxes 36 act both'as guides for the shafts 33 and 48 and also to keep the turret chamber gas tight. Thefioor opening 54 shown in Fig. 4, is provided with a trap door 92 shown in Figs. 12 and 13, hinged at 86, which is also made gas tight and furnished with a fastening device operable from within, for cases of emergency, consisting of a handle bar 87 mounted on top of the door 92 in bearings 88 and carrying pawls 89 which engage lugs 90on the shell 1 when the handle is thrown over against the shell as shown in Fi 13.

. In Fig. 8, the construction 0 the turret is shown more in detail. The ventilator holes 55 in the side shell 56 are located directly underthe recess top 57 and are spaced to match similar holes in the movable :guard angle 58, which is held in place by clips 59. This guard angle 58 is bent up to shield the holes 55 so that the occupants of the turret cannot be shot through these openings with enough clearance between the angle and top plate-57 to equal the ventila-ting area of the holes 55, In case of approaching gas, the guard angle 58 can be shifted by hand until the holes 55 are completely covered. As shown in Figs. 14 and 15, the ventilator holes 93 in the guard an gle 58 are spaced to match the holes 55 in the turret shell 56. The guard angle 58 has a sliding fit in the shell 56 and can easily be shifted by hand. The guard angle 58 is supported by rollers 94 which turn on pins 95 carried by the clips 59 which are secured to the shell 56 by the rivets 96.

- The guard angle 58 is moved bv hand until the pin 97 engages the clip 59, when the holes 93 all come opposite or mat-ch the holes 55 in the shell 56 and the ventilator is pen, .r I

When it is desired to close the ventilator. the guard angle 58 is moved by hand in the opposite direction until the pin 98 engages the clip' 59-,when the holes 93 in' theguard angle 58 are miday between and clear of the holes'55 in the shell as and'tlie mutate; is closed. Corner braces 60 are provided between the shell 561and the top plate 57, to prevent the top plate from giving way in case of external pressure as from a hand grenade. As nothing of this kind could be made to withstand the impact of'heavy projectiles, the gunners only man the turret in times of action. On account of the small area of the turret and its earth covering, it is probable that few of them will be put out of commission during a bombardment. The turret shell 56 is supported by the floor plate 37, floor beams 61 and cross beams 62, at the center of which is secured the bearing 63 for .the pin 64, integral with the yoke 65 for the pin 66 which has a bearing in the upper end of the connecting rod 9. The turret l pivots on the pin 64 for horizontal rotation, the vertical load being transmitted through ball bearings 67 to reduce friction and the manual power required for turning. The lower end of connecting rod 9 carries the yoke 68 and pin 69 which is supported by suitable brackets 70 on the balance beam 10. As shown in Fig. 3, the counterweight 11 is suspended from the other end of beam 10 by suitable pin connection 71.

In Fig. 10, the caster roller has a cushion tire 72. preferably of leather, center 73, pin 74, yoke 75, stem 76, threaded collar 77, spring 78, washer 79, mounted in the casing 80, bonnet 81 and cap 82. The casing 80 is mounted in the turret shell 56 with tap bolts 83 so that it can be removed easily from the inside. Four of these casters are placed 90 degrees apart as shown in Fig. 4. one set near the bottom of the turret and one set near the center. as shown in Fig. 3.

The operation of my invention is as follows: on receiving orders, the gunner and gunners mate or other assistant, pass from trench 3 to passageway 52, mount the stairs 7, climb the ladder 6, enter the turret through the floor opening 5-1, closing the door after them, the operator, manning the hand wheels 24 and 9.5 turning the turret to bring one of the port holes 20 to bear upon the enemys position and raising the turret to the desired elevation locks the turret with the hand wheel 51, whereupon the gunner opens the port hole 20, inserts his machine gun. and starts firing. When firing ceases, the turret is lowered and turned to bring the ladder opposite the steps 7.

As long as the turret casing 5 remains vertical and the turret floor 3? horizontal. it is not necessary to lock the turret against accidental turning, but in case they should get tilted, the weight of the men might have a tendency to start the turret turning. and in that case the turret can be locked against horizontal rotation by the set screw 84 and hand wheel 85.

- *"I have herein described andshown what 1 consider-the best manner of making my invention, consistingof a disappearing bomb proof turret'for machine gunners that can be quickly operated by one man and if necessary, by the gunner himself, by manual power. ne of the principal advantages of this construction herein shown, is that owing to the hand wheels being placed at one side, the central space in the turret is clear for the use of the gunner.

lVhen an army expects to use a trench for some time, the turret casing 5 can be set in concrete. It is considered ordinarily, that concrete should not be used, so that the casing can be easily taken up and removed to another location.

For the information of those wishing to build my invention, the turret is designed with an outside diameter of six feet, four and one-half inches and a height inside of six feet, six inches, with three-quarters of an inch clearance between turret and easing, making the inside diameter of turret casing six feet, six inches, the casing having a depth of eight feet. I

If found advisable from experience gained in the field, the clearance between the turret and the casing can be increased to two or three inches and the casters made with longer springs to suit.

I claim:

1. In apparatus for defensive warfare, a manually operated turret for machine gunners consisting of a cylindrical metallic casing embedded in the ground, a cylindrical metallic turret chamber movable within the said casing, counterbalance means for the said turret chamber, a supporting track mounted on the said casing, a carriage to run on the said track, means for preventing relative rotative movement of the turret chamber and carriage, a supporting rod with a rack mounted on the said carriage, a hand wheel and a pinion engaging the said rack mounted within and on the said turret chamber for the purpose of raising and lowering the same, and means for locking the said hand wheel to hold the said turret chamber at any desired elevation. substantially as specified.

2. In apparatus for defensive warfare. a manually operated turret for machine gunners consisting of a cylindrical metallic casing embedded in the ground, a cylindrical metallic turret chamber movable within the said casing, counterbalance means for the said turret chamber. a supporting track mounted on the said casing, a carriage to run on the said track, means for preventing relative rotative movement of the turret chamber and carriage, an annular gear mounted on the said casing, a horizontal hand'wheel mounted on and within the said a: memes turret chamber upon a vertical shaft ex- In testimony whereof I afiix my signature glniiizng through the said cfilrrliage, the said in the presence of two witnesses. a carryingapinionw'c eaeste said annular gear for the purpog o turn- S M E 5 ing the said carriage and turret chamber Witnesses: z

relatively to the casing and ground, substan- DAVID H. Pmmy', tially as specified. AXEL F 0m

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4667565 *Dec 14, 1984May 26, 1987Tetradyne CorporationRapid response patrol and antiterrorist vehicle
US8726783 *Nov 3, 2011May 20, 2014Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd.Turret assembly
US20130220109 *Nov 3, 2011Aug 29, 2013Eyal BerkovichTurret assembly
U.S. Classification89/38, 89/36.13, 89/935, 89/919
International ClassificationF41A23/00, F41A23/20
Cooperative ClassificationF41A23/20
European ClassificationF41A23/20