|Publication number||US1352938 A|
|Publication date||Sep 14, 1920|
|Filing date||Nov 6, 1915|
|Priority date||Nov 6, 1915|
|Publication number||US 1352938 A, US 1352938A, US-A-1352938, US1352938 A, US1352938A|
|Inventors||Blair Robert S|
|Original Assignee||Blair Robert S|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (8), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
R. S. BLAIR.
APPLICATION man NOV. 6. 1915.
Patented Sept. 14,1920.
WITNESSES: v INVENTOR A I UNITED STA TEsrATE T OFFICE.
ROBERT s. BLAIR, orsoU'rH onaiven, new innsnv.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented e t/14., 1920.
Application filed November 6, 191-5. SeriaLNo. 59,914.
7 simple and practical gun in which the charge is most eflicicn-tly projected. Another object is to provide a gun of the above type of light and durable construction. other object is to provide practical means for discharging shot with enhanced uniformity of distribution on striking. Other objects will be in part obvious and in part pointed out hereinafter.
The invention accordingly consists in the features of construction, combinations of elements and arrangement of parts which will be exemplified in the manner hereinafter described and the scope of the application of which will be indicated in the following claims. 7 I
. In the accompanying drawing in which are shown one or more of the various possible embodiments of the several features .of 7
' Fig. 3. is a vertical section taken along the lines AA of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4; is a similar view taken along the line B-B of Fig. 2.
Fig. 5. is a front end view of the muzzle of a gun barrel.
Fig. 6. is a sectional view taken through the breech end .of the barrel as along the line CC in Fig. .3.
Fig. 7. is a longitudinal sectional view of a portion of a loaded shell.
Fig. :8. is a sectional view taken along the line D-D .of Fig. 7
Similar reference characters refer to similar parts throughout theseveral views of the drawing.
Referring now in detail to the barrel shown in Fig. 1 .of the drawing, which may be considered to be the upper barrel 1 of the pair of barrels shown in Fig. 2 of the drawing, this barrel is preferably circular is central horizontal section at the breech portion 2 and is provided with a heavy wall 3. The chamber i is also preferably circular in cross section, but from the point at which the section shown in Fig. 6 is takemwhich may be assumed to be just in advance of the chamber, the walls unequally taper or converge toward one an other-in the direction toward the mnzzleof the gun. In this manner the muzzle is formed of elliptical cross section as shown in Fig. 5 of the drawing, the convergence of the. upper and lower walls in a direction toward the muzzle being much more sharp thanthat of the side walls and it being understood that the term sidewalls as well as the expressions upper. and lower are used with reference to the barrelof the gun when it is held horizontally inposition for.
discharge. 7 v g 7 It i-sto be noted that the side walls 5 at the muzzle of the gun are thinner than at the breech section shown in Fig. 6, and also that the npper and lower wallsfi and 7 are somewhat thinner than the corresponding portions at the rear end of the barrel just in ad- Vance of the chamber. The side walls. 5, moreover, are in this embodiment of the invention somewhat thinnerthan the upper and lower walls .6 and 7 at the muzzle, as the, latter have to resist not only the tensile but .a'bending stress. Under certain conditions, however, the side walls at the muzzle may be made thicker than the top -and bottom walls.
.It is to be noted, that the convergence of the walls of the barrel toward one another a in a direction from the breech to the muzzle extends T overv a material portion of the length-of the barrel and by the latter is meant a substantial fraction of its total length. In the preferred construction moreover there is an even tapering or converging of the walls of the barrel throughout their entire length from the front end of the chamber to the muzzlethis convergence being greater of course with the upper'and lower walls than with the side walls and in no case do the walls converge at an angle greater than 10 degrees with the axis of the barrel.
In the construction shown in Fig. 2 the lower barrelfis provided with sidewalls 8 which are substantially parallel, although the upper and lower walls -9 and 10 converge sharply to give the elliptical conformation of the muzzle. Even the converit strikes a wall is elliptical in outline. This arrangement with a given number of shot gives a greater permissible deviation of the aim from the object in a horizontal direction than in a vertical direction, and as in wing shooting there is a greater likelihood of missing sidewise of the object than verti cally, there is here an increased effectiveness to compensate for this increased tendency to miss.
Even though the elliptical pattern made by the shot from a barrel of this type on striking is much more effective than a circular pattern, there would be nevertheless, as
in the usual circular pattern a lack of uniformity of distribution of the shot by reason of a considerable congestion at the center and a scattering of the shot around the edges. To remedy this there is provided a construction of shell shown in Figs. 7 and 8 of the drawing. This shell although well adapted for use in connection with the form of barrel above described is also suitable for use with an ordinary barrel of circular cross-section and its chief advantage would be utilized in such use. Considering now the construction of this shell there is shown at 12 the ordinary paper shell having the usual powder charge 18 with suitable ignition device not shown, and having its forward edge crimped at 14: tohold the wad 15 in place. The charge of shot 16 which is separated from the powder by the usual wad 17 is arranged in an annular chamber about the central longitudinal wad or core 18. This Wad may be made of soft twisted paper or other suitable material and is preferably of cylindrical form.
In the action of the device last described with the above barrel it may be noted that as the charge is exploded the shot are gradually crowded into a mass elliptical in cross-section and a certain part of which is formed by the core 18. The shot of course soon leave the core in their flight and as they diverge and converge from their annu lar disposition they readily cover the central portion of the pattern without causing undue congestion at such point. Moreover as the total number of shot is assumed to be substantially normal, the shot charge being slightly longer in the shell to compensate for the displacement of the core 18 and the congestion of shot about the center of the pattern being avoided there are accordingly, more shot available for the outer portion of the pattern and the distribution is materially more even.
It will thus be seen that there is provided apparatus in which the several objects of this invention are achieved.
As various embodiments might be made of the above invention and as various changes might be made in the apparatus above described it is to be understood that all matter herein described or shown inthe accompanying drawing is to be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
Having described this invention, I claim 1. In gun construction, a barrel having its inner surface converging toward the muzzle through a material portion of its length, the angle of convergence being greater in a vertical than in a horizontal plane.
2. In gun construction, a barrel having the inner surface of its muzzle portion elliptical and its inner surface adjacent the middle of the barrel more nearly circular.
3. A gun barrel choked more fully in a vertical than in a horizontal plane, said choking being gradual throughout a substantial portion of the length of the barrel.
4. In gun construction, a pair of gun barrels having their central axes, substantially parallel and each barrel having its upper and lower walls for a material portion of their length converging more sharply toward its axis than the side walls thereof.
5. In gun construction, a pair of gun barrels having their central axes substantially parallel and each barrel having its upper and lower walls for a material portion of their length converging more sharply toward its axes than the side walls, the angle of convergence of the walls of one of the said barrels being more sharp than the corresponding angle of convergence of th walls of the other barrel.
6. In gun construction, a pair of gun barrels having their central axes substantially parallel and each barrel having its upper and lower walls for a material portion of their length converging more sharply toward its axis than the side walls thereof, the relative convergence of the side walls and top and bottom walls being substantially the same in both barrels and the angles of convergence being greater in one barrel than in the other.
7 In gun construction, a barrel having a substantially elliptical muzzle and having its side walls of different thickness of mate-. rial from that of its upper and lower walls.
8. In gun construction, a barrel having an elliptical muzzle and having its side walls thinner than its upper and lower walls,
9. In gun construction, a barrel having its inner surface converging toward the muzzle throughout a material portion of its length, the angle of convergence being greater in a vertical than in a horizontal plane, and
' means tending to crowd the shot outwardly toward the walls of said muzzles as they are discharged therethrough.
10. In gun construction, in combination a barrel having its inner surface converging the middle of the barrel more nearly circular, the side walls of said barrel at the muzzle being of different thinness from the top and bottom walls.
12. In gun construction of the class described, a barrel having a bore which is substantially circular at a section adjacent the breech end and a'section which is elliptical adjacent the muzzle thereof, the inner walls of said barrel extending substantially evenly from one of said sections to the other.
Signed at South Orange, in the county of Essex and State of New Jersey, this 1st day of November, A. D. 1915.
ROBERT S. BLAIR.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2617358 *||Oct 31, 1949||Nov 11, 1952||Ado Vecchiotti||Shotgun cartridge|
|US2658298 *||Feb 27, 1950||Nov 10, 1953||Oberfell George G||Shotgun barrel and choke|
|US3226871 *||Oct 8, 1964||Jan 4, 1966||Albritton Roy F||Shotgun muzzle construction|
|US3796157 *||Mar 3, 1972||Mar 12, 1974||Anderson R||Shotgun shell|
|US4167904 *||Sep 15, 1977||Sep 18, 1979||Ferri Bernard L||Shot compressor devices and method therefor|
|US4711048 *||Feb 19, 1987||Dec 8, 1987||Ashbrook Clifford L||Antipersonnel shotgun choke|
|US20050081419 *||Oct 15, 2002||Apr 21, 2005||Raphael Fleischhauer||Hand-held firing device comprising several cartridges|
|WO2000066967A1 *||Mar 14, 2000||Nov 9, 2000||Christer Holmgren||Shot cartridge and wad|
|U.S. Classification||42/76.1, 42/79|
|International Classification||F41A21/00, F42B7/04, F42B7/00, F41A21/16|
|Cooperative Classification||F42B7/04, F41A21/16|
|European Classification||F41A21/16, F42B7/04|