US 1353880 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Patented Sept. 28, 1920.
CEMENT SHIP CONSTRUCTION.
APPLICATION FILED JULY 20.1917.
a ffy 'capacity.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
:van wrnrNG, or. Donor-msnen, Mnssncr-rnsnrrs, AssIGNoR 'ro NINA M. PORTER.
CEMENT SHIP CONSTRUCTION.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Sept. 28, 1920.
Application filed July 2D, 1917. Serial No. 181,685.
VTo all wko-m it may concern Be it known that I, Ivan VTDING, a citizen of the VUnited States, and resident of Dorchester, in the county of Suffolk and State of ll.\/Iassachusetts, have 'invented an Improvement in Cement Ship Construction,
of which the following description, in connection with the accompanying drawings, is aspecification, like letters on the drawings representing like parts. Y
My'present invention is an improved .ship -construction employing a'novel, eiiicient and practicable method of reinfo 1ced cement ship structure.
During'the present disastrous attacks on the shipping of the world by continual sinkings of ocean carrying shipping, thereis a great demand for a practicable method of constructing` an ocean going and seaworthy vessel permittingv greatv speed in construction, as well as strength and cargo carrying Furthermore, the limitations in the securing `of steel and wood as materials for ship construction, have 'created ya demand for other materials. `Prior to my present invention, efforts have been made to utilize cement, concrete or similar cemen- Y.-titious mixtures, as a material for constructvespeci ally Ycable vessel very cheaply and capable Vof ing shipping, but all such prior efforts, so far as I am aware, have been expensive, and
unsuitable for ocean going shipping or vessels which carry cargoes. I have discovered a method of construction which enables concrete, cement or the like, to be used advantageously, efficiently and expeditiously in building substantial, seaworthy, ocean going and cargo-carryingy vessels, eliminating `the disadvantages heretofore found in the `unsuccessfui efforts to build cement shipping and 1 producing a practigreat speed in constructionn Furthermore, Vmy improved ship construction enables me to utilize a small amount of reinforcing metal and yet to provide a perfect protecting union between the metallic and cement portions of the vessel. I prefer to so arrange vthe reinforcing and cement material that the metallic framework will be capable of taking up, withstanding and .transmitting all strains and stresses to which a vessel lis subjected, while also protecting Vthe corner portions, edges, and the like of the concrete, particularly at stem and stern, gunwale Ystrake and' garboard portion or at either side of the keel.
Other details of construction, combinations of parts and advantages will be hereafter pointed out and claimed.
Referring to the drawings illustrating my preferred cement and iron or steel ship construction,
Figure i is a fragmentary mid-ship vertical section;l
Fig. 2 is a plan view illustrating the stem and side construction, together with the metallic deck structure, prior to filling with cement;
Fig. 3 is a conventional side view illustrating stem and stern truss structure in detail, and a portion of the side framing prior to the application of the cement.
In the construction of my novel vessel, I utilize a metallic frame, preferably of T irons for the ribs or frames, although it will be readily understood that I may also substitute channel irons or other devices, but for the construction herein illustrated, I consider the T-form of metal preferable. The ribs or frames A are'therefore herein shown as of T form, and are bent to shape in the usual manner of iron ship construction, it being readily appreciated that my novel type of reinforced concrete ship construction is readily capable of being made on any model desired. Furthermore, the steel or iron frames are of equal strength to that usually required in iron ship construction while the entire frame is greatly reinforced, strengthened and protected by the cement cover, as will be explained. Upon the T ribs A thus framed and bent I apply eX- panded metal B, preferably on the outer surface of the ribs, although it is also advisable Ymetal on each side of the ribs. Cn the outer .layer of expanded metal I then apply a plurality of longitudinal metal. stringers C,
riveting or bolting the same through the intermediate laye-r of expanded metal and the Tl heads of the ribs A, as clearly shown in Figs. 1 and 2. As` many longitudinal stringers C to give strength to the frame can be applied as is suitable. To the metallic framework thus briefly described, I apply Y the coating of cement D, which is so fitted as to entirely cover the stringers C on the outside and the inner layer of expanded worthiness to myship construction, I use n concrete maybe coif'ered by a waterproofing coating.
For the deck construction I utilize similar T beams A, using longitudinal stringers C `and applyingthe cement coatingD entirely over the same, equally .protecting the` deckV beams. In order to give strength and' sea'd aheavy I-beam E for the keel, bracing the same Vby metallic members F,'bolte d and secured in suitable manner andY all covered by the coating D, which coating, however, is itself protected and covered by the bottomV flange of the I-beam E constituting the keel,
so that no corner is here left exposed for the cement to break awayorbe damaged from Y grounding or the like. lllyconstruction also 1 enables meto employ a lplurality ofbilge keels when desired. For'example, 'I secure a channel beamv G to the headsof theframes A and lit and bolt therein ai bilge keel H which may be of wood, the arms of the channel beam G protecting the adjacent edge portions of the covering or planking D and eliminating anydamage fromV the uneven expansion or contraction of the bilge memf ber G; F or internal strengthening lconmay besuitably braced,
central keelson I g chions R.
struction 1 use the'chann'el beams I which constitute eiicient keelsons, and support the floor beams J and flooring K, a suitable being employed for greater strength in alinement with the keel E. The interior of my l preferably utilizing midship deck beams L, stanchions M, corner braces N and longitudinal T Vsteel deck braces,as indicated at T, all being suitably bolted together. At the gunwales I prefer to'reinforce the angles between deck and sides by angle steel clamps S, and to protect the outside and corner or edge of the deck and side' cement Vcovering vD by a similar angle steel member Q, running the entire length of thevessel, and bolted through to the'member S or frames A, as well as being a means of carryingthe pipe rail stan- VAt stem and stern I prefer'to employ spe-V cial steel truss constructions, which will not only reinforce and carry, hold and protect the'cement covering at these points, but will also-protect them by ltaking up and transmitting any strains or blows directly to the steel frame of the vessel. YAs shown in Figs.` 2 andY 3,the steel frame comprises a truss Vstructure consisting of, T irons iV, V bolted to braces VYV, the side stringers C and the en- 'tire length of the cement D on the same being'covered, protected and reinforced by the metallic cutwater U.' A similar construc- Vcement D for both outer ship constructiontionis illustrated at the sternpost and rudder, shown in Fig, 3 at Z, the sheer plan herein illustrated inwlfig.` ifbeingV of the double-onder type, but the construction is not, of course, limited to this model.
In order; to still further protect the Vcement sidesD I apply one or more longitudinalY reinforcing and Stringer members, preferably of T steel, such as indicated at P, Fig. 1,` and which protects the Vcement from danger by Y'contact with whar'ves, lighters or the like.v I may also apply a metallic reinforcing X to better hold and tie the two layers B, B, of expanded metal,"or the like, together. Y Y
n It Vwill be appreciated that I have illustratedin the drawings'the cement covering Dj of considerably greater thickness than is essential in practice.
pound, will enable me to haveY the covering D of relatively less thickness than'would be necessary for wooden planking in a vessel of the same feasible to utilize the for the outer skin or planking, using wooden sheathing for the'inside, similar to the floorying K. However, I prefer tov have Y the sheathing, thus more eiiiciently protecting the 'Y metallic framework from damage by oXidization or other deteriorating influences, as well as solidify/ing,V the sides and frames.`
tonnage,and it is, of course,Y cement covering only Y The use'of a proper Y' 'waterproof and toughemngf cement complanking and inner My construction employs f a relatively i light iron or steel framework and yet one which, Athrough its particular arrangement, spacing,.joining andV securingtogether, is capable of withstanding the strains incident to ocean going vessels andVcargo-carrying shipping, which framework is immensely reinforced by? the'cement covering, protecting the metal throughout and in turn being protected by suitable metallic members at bow, stern, keel, bilge keels, and fenderstringers, and deck edge or gunwale, or other' exposed edges or portions. The ar- 'rangement'of frames A and longitudinal stringers C automatically holds the outer possible, the. economy in cost, both vof'material andV labor, advantages in which are most ment.
are important features and my present invention, `all of importantat the present mo- .layer of expanded metal B in'proper posi- My invention is further described and de fined in the form of claims as follows:
l. Reinforced concrete ship construction, comprising a metallic framework adapted to receive and hold a concrete covering, said framework including metallic protecting members for the corners, edges and exposed portions of said concrete, said protecting members being secured to and carried by the metallic framework.
2. Reinforced concrete ship construction, comprising a metallic framework adapted to receive and hold a concrete covering on both inner and outer surfaces, the metal framework being inclosed within said concrete, a plurality of metal guard members projecting from the metallic framework and overlapping the outer surface of the concrete covering at corners, edges, stem, stern, rail, bilge, and the like, whereby said guard members will receive and transmit strains directly to the metal framework inclosed within the concrete covering.
3. The improved method of reinforced concrete ship construction which consists in building a metallic framework with metal truss-like timbers, securing to the same a metallic concrete receiving and holdin mesh, applying to said metal framewor projecting guards at a greater distance from the concrete receiving mesh than the thickness of the concrete to be applied, said guard members being adapted to overlap and protect the concrete at corners, edges, rail, keel, and the like, applyinr concrete to said mesh on both sides thereof entirely nclosing the metal members excepting said projecting guard members, whereby a reinforced con crete ship construction is provided with the metal framework entirel inclosed in concrete whereby the covering of concrete is protected by metal guard members carried by the inclosed framework, at corners, edges, rail, and the like.
In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification, in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.