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Publication numberUS1353955 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 28, 1920
Filing dateOct 30, 1915
Priority dateOct 30, 1915
Publication numberUS 1353955 A, US 1353955A, US-A-1353955, US1353955 A, US1353955A
InventorsHering Carl
Original AssigneeHering Carl
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for aerial navigation
US 1353955 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

C. HE

APPARATUS FOR AE NAVI v N. APPLICATION FILED OCT. 30.

Patented Sept. 28, 1920.

W gt; iilw UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.

CARL HEBING, OF-PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA. I

APPARATUS non AERIAL NAVIGATION.

Application filed October 30, 1915. Serial No. 58,775.

7 '0 all whom it may concern-L Be it known that I, CARL HERING, a citizen of the United States residing in the city of Philadelphia and tate of ennsylvania, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Apparatus for Aerial Navigation, of which the following is a specification.

My invention relates to apparatus for increasing the buoyancy or lifting or sustaining force of an aeroplane, flying machine, airship, or any similar apparatus navigable through air or Water.

My invention resides in a propeller driven aeroplane or other air navigation apparatus having means for applying a lifting or sustaining force resulting from a current or stream of air (other than the current or stream of air caused by the forward motion of the apparatus through air) cooperating with a plane or surface suitably'positioned with respect to the air current or stream to produce on the opposite sides of such surface or plane a difference of pressure, the pressure exerted on the under side of the surface or plane exceeding that on the upper side and thereby exerting on the apparatus as a Whole a lifting force.

For an understanding" of my invention, reference may be had to the accompanying drawing, in which:

Figure 1 illustrates an air nozzle with an associated surface whereby a-difference of pressure on opposite sides of the surface is produced.

*ig. 2 is an illustration of a nozzle and an associated surface differently applied with respect to the air current which produces on opposite sides of the surface unequal pressures.

Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic side elevational view of such a lifting surface or plane in cooperative relation with a propeller of an aeroplane.

Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic top plan view of an aeroplane provided with such. a lifting surface or plane. Y

' In Fig. 1, N is anozzle from whichissues in a generally horizontal direction a stream or current of air against the under side of the plane or member P constituting a plane P is attached to the nozzle curved or inclined with res ect to the horizontal air stream. The pqane-or member The air striking upon the under side of the plane whose upper side issubjected to substanupper P fside of the member tially the usual atmospheric pressure downward, will produce an excess upward pressure on the under side of the plane P and thereby causing a lifting force in. the direction of the arrow at.

In Fig. 2 the member P is attached to the nozzle N beneath the stream or current of air issuing from the nozzle. The blast of air across the upper surface of the member P reduces the atmospheric pressure thereon so that the atmospheric pressure on the lower side of the member P exceeds that on the upper side, with resultant up ward force exerted by the air upon the under side of the member P in the direction indicated by the arrow 6.

As is well known in the art, an aeroplane or similar apparatus is provided with a propeller which creates a powerful more or less horizontal stream of air resulting from the thrust of the propeller upon the air, which thrust moves the aeroplane forward, the relative movement between the aeroplane and the air in which it is moved By my invention I employ such blast or current of air produced by the aeroplane pro eller without in any way or substan-' tial y reducing the thrust of the propeller upon the air body through which the aeroplane is moving.

I employ the blast of air in accordance with the princilples illustrated in either Figs. 1 or 2.- y preference, however, I employ the principle of Fig. 2, and such application is illustrated in Fig. 3 where R is the propeller rotated at high speed by motor or en 'ne in the usual and well known manner. he blast of air from the propeller R moves from the left toward the right at high velocity above the member P and, as explained in connection with Fig.

2, reduces the atmospheric pressure on the surface of the member P with the result that the. air pressure on the under exceeds that on the upper, with a resultant upward lifting force which sustains or assists in sustaining the aeroplane against gravity. The member P may be a true or fiat 'plane, or may be curved, or partially fiat and curved as illustrated.

The thrust of the propeller resulting from the production of the air current or blast over the member P serves to drive the aeroplane through the air toward the left in the customary manner, the usual .planes or wings of the aeroplane, not shown in Fig. 3, serving as usual to afford a lifting or sustaining force due however to the longitudinal movement of the aeroplane with respect to the air body, the downward and back ward inclination or curving of the usual wings giving the usual lifting force.

Fig. 4 is a top plan view of an aeroplane having its usual propeller R and the lateral wings W of a monoplane, biplane or other type. The auxiliary plane P is shown disposed as in Fig. 3 immediately behind and beneath the propeller R sothat the stream or current of air in the direction of the arrows produces a lifting force on the under side of the member P.

The velocityof the air current or stream produced by the propeller R with respect to the member P is very high, and much greater than the velocity of the aeroplane as a whole through the air body. The vertical lifting force exerted upon the member P due. to the inequality of pressures upon its opposite sides is believed to be proportional to the square ofthe velocity of the stream of air with respect to the member P. (onsequently the lifting force increases rapidly and as-the velocity increases and is small at low velocities.

The upward lifting force described as exerted upon the member P due to the stream or current of air from the propeller R is relatively a maximum when the motion of translation of the aeroplane through the atmosphere or with respect to the earth is a minimum and decreases as such motion of translation of the aeroplane increases. This means that the additional force available by my invention is the greatest at the time when most needed, namely, in starting from the earth or water steep angle.

y preference the member P or its equivalent is a member or plane which is added to the usual aeroplane structure and need in no way interfere with the usual function of the.

member P may be a wing or plane of an or when ascending at aaeroplane which pauses a lifting or sustain-- ing force due to the forward movement of the aeroplane through the air, but which producing an additional sustaining or lifting force.

he lifting force exerted upon the member P in Figs. 2 and 3 is practically nothing when the member P is too far away from t e air current or stream, as when it is positioned some distance below the air current or stream, and is practically nothing when inclined or curved too much toward or into the stream or current of air, in which latter case the force may even reverse its direction, as shown in connection with Fig. 1. The position for maximum effect therefore lies between the two positions mentioned.

Where several propellers are used side by side on an aeroplane, each may have associated therewith a member P or its equivalent for producing a lifting force as described. In such case it is preferred that the members P be provided with means for releasing the upward pressure thereon in case one or more of the propellers should stop while in flight, for in such case the member P behind the propeller which has come to rest would discontinue producing the upward lift and if another member P were continuing to produce such lifting force, a turning couple would result which would unbalance the aeroplane. This release of upward pressure upon a member P may be accomplished by forming the surface of the member P by shutter-like slats which may be opened to afford easy air communication from beneath to above the member P. -When the member or plane P is applied as an addition to the usual wings or planes of an aeroplane, it should preferably be so positioned with respect to the usual wings resultant lifting force of the usual wings or planes acts and the point through which thelifting force of the member P acts should be approximately vertically over each other, so that when the propeller stops, as in volplaning, and when therefore the lifting force of the member P ceases, the aeroplane will not be thrown too much out of balance.

While the principles herein claimed have been described as to their application to aeroplanes, it will be understood that it is within my invention to apply them to submarines or other devices navigating in water; or to flying fireworks, artificial flying pigeons for target shooting, toy ma chines, machines for carrying bombs, or any similar devices.

What I claim is:

'1. The combination with an aeroplane comprising a rotary power driven propeller and a wing or plane propelled through the atmosphere by said propeller and located behind said propeller, of an auxiliary plane or wing disposed below and closely adjacent tinct from lifting force produced by motion of translation of the aeroplane through space. 2. The combination with an aeroplane comprising a rotary power driven propeller '-and a wing or plane propelled through the atmo here by said propeller and located behin said propeller, of an auxiliary plane or wing disposed below and closely adjacent to the air current produced by said propeller, whereby said auxi iary plane or wing exerts a lifting force separate and distinct from lifting force produced by motion of ,translation of the aeroplane through space, the velocity of the air current produced by said propeller with respect to said auxiliary plane or wing exceeding the velocity of the propulsion of the aeroplane through the atmosphere. I

3. The combination with an aeroplane comprising a rotary power driven propeller and a wing or plane behind the same and propelled through the atmosphere thereby,

of an auxiliary plane or wing disposed below and closely adjacent said propeller and extending rearwardly therefrom, whereby the current of air produced by said propeller reduces the pressure on the upper side of said auxiliary plane or wing and effects a resultant lifting force.

ling means and wings or planes propelled through the atmosphere thereby and extending on both sides and to the rear thereof, of an auxiliary plane or wing disposed below and closely adjacent said propelling means and extending rearwardly therefrom, whereby the air current produced by said propeller causes said auxiliary plane or wing to exert a resultant lifting force separate and distinct from lifting force produced by motion of translation of the aeroplane through space.

5.'The combination with an aeroplane comprising rotary power-driven air-propel:

ling means and wings or planes propelled through the atmosphere thereby and extending on both sides thereof, of an auxiliary plane or wing disposed below and closely adjacent said propelling means and extending rearwardly therefrom, whereby the air current produced by said propeller causes said auxiliary plane or wing to exert a lifting force separate and distinct from lifting force produced by motion of trans- 66 lation of the aeroplane through space, said 4. The combination with an aeroplane comprislng rotary power driven alr' propel-- auxiliary plane or wing being inclined downwardly toward the rear.

6. The combination with an aeroplane comprising rotary power-driven air-propelling means and a wing or plane propelled through the atmosphere thereby, of an auxiliary plane or wing disposed below and closely adjacent to the air current produced by said propeller, whereby said auxiliary plane or wing exerts a lifting force, the point through which the resultant lifting force of said wing or plane acts and the point through which the lifting force of said auxiliary wing or plane acts being substantially vertically over each other.

7. The combination with an aeroplane comprising power driven rotary air propelling means and wing or plane structure propelled through the air thereby, of auxiliary plane structure disposed below and closely adjacent to'the air stream from said means and extending rearwardly and curving downwardly, whereby an auxiliary lifting force is produced.

8. The combination with an aeroplane comprising power driven rotary air propelling means and wing or plane structure disposed to the rear of said means propelled through the air thereby of auxiliary plane structure disposed below and closely adjacent to "the air stream from said means and extendmg rearwardly and curving downwardly, whereby an auxiliary lifting force is produced.

9. An aeroplane comprising power driven rotary air propelling means and wing or plane structure behind said means and propelled through the air thereby, a part of said wing or plane structure disposed below and closely adjacent said air propelling means and inclined downwardly and increasing in width rearwardly therefrom,

whereby the excess pressure on the lower surface of. said 'portion of said wing or plane structure produces a resultant lifting force.

10. The combination withyan aeroplane comprising power driven rotary air propelling means and wing or plane structure propelled through the air thereby, of means for exerting a lifting force separate and distinct from lifting force produced by motion of said structure through the air comprising wing or plane structure disposed below and closely adjacent said air propelling means and extending rearwardly therefrom, said wing or plane structures overlapping each other longitudinally of the aeroplane.

11. The combination with an aeroplane comprising power driven rotary air propelling means and wing or plane structure behind the same and propelled through the air thereby, of means for exerting a lifting force separate and distinct from lifting force produced by motion of said structure through the air comprising wing or plane structure disposed below and closely adjacent said air propelling means and excomprising a rotary power driven propeller duced adjacent and wing or plane structure propelled through the of auxiliary plane or wing structure disposed below and closely adjacent to the air current produced by said propeller, whereby said auxiliary-plane or wing structure exerts' a lifting force separate and distinct from the lifting force produced by the motion 0 translation of the aeroplane through the air and materially in excess of downward pressure produced by said air current from said propeller upon said first named wing or plane structure.

13. An aeroplane comprising the combination with rotary power driven propeller mechanism, of wing or plane structure moved through the air thereby, and an auxiliary lifting plane disposed, below the air stream from said mechanism and extending rearwardly therefrom, said plane having an upper surface so shaped and disposed with respect to the air stream that said stream face.

14. An aeroplane comprising rotary power driven'propeller mechanism and associated wing or plane structure disposed in such position with respect to the air stream from the propeller mechanism that there is prothe "upper surface of said wing or plane structure a partial vacuum by said stream from said pro eller mechanism, whereby there is produced on said wing or plane structure a net liftin force in material excess of all downwar forces on said wing or plane structure due to said stream from said propeller mechanism.

atmosphere by said propeller,

15. An aeroplane comprising the combination with rotary power driven propeller mechanism, of wing or plane structure moved through the air thereby, and an auxiliary lifting plane disposed below the air rearwardly therefrom, the upper surface of said plane situated approximately in but slightly below the surface of separation between the ambient air and the air stream from said mechanism.

17. An aeroplane comprising the combination with rotary power driven propeller mechanism, of wing or plane structure moved through the air thereby, and an auxiliary lifting plane disposed below the air I stream from said mechanism and extending rearwardly therefrom, said auxiliary plane having such shape that only the air stream from said mechanism passes over its upper surface and only the ambient air passes produces a partial vacuum above sa1d surunder itslower surface.

18. An aeroplane comprising a rotary propeller at the front thereof, laterally extending wing structure, and auxiliary lifting plane structure extending rearwardly from said propeller curving downwardly and increasing in width, the upper surface of said auxiliary structure disposed entirely below but closely adjacent to the air stream from said propeller.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto aflixed my signature this 29th day of October, 1915.

CARL HERING.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2526510 *Nov 5, 1947Oct 17, 1950United Aircraft CorpDirectional control of propulsive jets
US2547266 *Oct 2, 1947Apr 3, 1951Hoglin Irving MFluid-jet-sustained aircraft
US2611555 *Jan 31, 1950Sep 23, 1952Custer Willard RJet-propelled aircraft with fuselage lifting channels
US2611556 *Sep 19, 1947Sep 23, 1952Custer Willard RJet-propelled aircraft with lift channels
US2687262 *Nov 27, 1951Aug 24, 1954Custer Willard RJet propelled channeled aircraft
US2887284 *Jul 12, 1955May 19, 1959Parker Perry WillardFluid jet sustained and controlled aircraft
US6113028 *Feb 21, 1997Sep 5, 2000Lohse; James R.Amphibious aircraft
US6367737 *Dec 6, 1999Apr 9, 2002James R. LohseAmphibious aircraft
Classifications
U.S. Classification244/12.1
International ClassificationB64C23/00
Cooperative ClassificationB64C23/005, B64C2700/6271
European ClassificationB64C23/00A