US 1355451 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
. L. .R. CARPENTER.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGI E. APPLICATIQN FILED JUNE 19, 191s.
1,355,451. Patented Oct. 12,1920.
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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE. APPLICATION FILED JUNE 19. 1918. 1,355,451, Patented Oct. 12, 1920.
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L. R. CARPENTER.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
. APPLICATION FILED JUNE 19, I918- 7SHEETSSHI;ET 5.
IIIHIIIIIIIIYIAIII n IIIIIInII IInIIIIIIIIE IIIIIIIIJIIIIHIIGIIEI m L. CARPENTER. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
1,355,451. APPLICATION FILED JUNE I9, I9I8-l 12 7 SHEEISSHEET 6.
L. R. 'CARiENTER. INTERNAL comsusnou ENGINE.
APPLICATION FILED JUNE 19.1918- 1,355,451
Pdoented 0% 12,1920. 4 7SHEE|S-SHEEI I.
UNITED STATES LEE ROYAL CARPENTER, F CLEVELAND, OHIO.
v To all whom it may concern:
' l'lIlB ,llSB.
This invention relates to internal combustion-engines, and particularly to an engine for the propulsion of air craft, although not by any means limited to such use, since it can equally well be used for stationary engine' purposes, for automobiles, or for ma- I However in View of certain very marked advantages which 1t possesses for aerial use, I shall confine my description largely to a specimen engine of this type, but
without intent to limitmyself thereto.
The objects of the-invention are the provisionof a motor ofmaximum power and of-afminimum weight; the provision of a motor of extremely high efficiency; the provision of a motor which will run equally wellat all elevations under all air pressures; the provision of a motor which is susceptible of rapid and inexpensive manufacture; the provision of new and improved controlling and lubricating devices; while further objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent as the description proceeds.
In the drawings accompanying and forming a part of this application, I have shown one embodiment of my said invention as designed and contrived for an aeroplane motor, although it will be understood that these drawings are illustrative merely, and do not limit me. to the construction and arrangement of details therein shown, which may be varied very widely even for aerial use, to say nothing of other variations possible for marine, stationary, or land vehicle purposes.
- In these drawings Figure 1 is a rear end view of a complete motor embodying my invention; Fig. 2 represents a side elevation of the motor shown in Fi 1; Fig. 3 is a horizontal sectional view 0 the motor shown in Fig. 2; Fig. 4: is a transverse sectional view. upon the line M of Figs. 2, 3, and 7; Fig. 5 is a sectional view on the line 5 5 of Fig. 4; Fig. 6 is a transverse sectional view upon the line 66 of Figs. 2, 3, and 7; Fig. 7 is a vertical longitudinal sectional view taken on Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Oct. 12, 1920.
Application filed June 19, 1918. Serial No. 240.730.
the line 7-7 of Figs. 1 and 6; Fig. 8 is a perspective view of the crank bearing; Fig. 9 is a perspective view of one of the pumpoutlet valves; Fig. 10 is a perspective view of one of the inlet valves; Fig. 11 is a detail view in longitudinal section of one of the compression cylinders; andFig. 12 is a detail view in longitudinal section of one of the firing cylinders.
In the embodiment of my improved motor herein illustrated the crank case consists of a pluralityof similar cylindrical sections, bolted together end to end, each section carrying a plurality of radiating, double acting cylinders, each provided with a doubleended piston connected to the crank by means of wrist pins which project laterally through slots in the sides of the cylinders. In its present form. some of these cylinders, preferably all of the cylinders in one section, are compression cylinders which pump the explosive mixture into a single tank, or reservoir, whence it is fed as required to the firing cylinders, each of which is preferably of two cycle type.
Describing by reference characters the constructions illustrated in these drawings, 1, 1 represent the elements or sections of the crank case, which are preferably identical cylindrical members of cast aluminum and are formed with angularly spaced flat bosses 22 for the reception of the cylinders. In the present embodiment six such bosses are provided for each section, opposite bosses arranged in the same transverse plane, but adjacentbosses being staggered as shown in Fig. 2 so that the cylinders of each section are arranged in three planes, in order that their connecting rods may not interfere.
To the opposite ends of the crank case are attached suitable end plates, 5, preferably formed with bracket arms 5, of any suitable type, whereby the engine may be supported. The abutting ends of the crank-case-sections areconveniently secured and alined together by means of rings 6-6, 7-7, the former sup orting the ball bearings 8-.8, and the lat er the sleeve bearings 99 in which are journaled the crank shaft 10. This shaft is provided with a number of cranks or. throws equal to the number of cylinder-carrying sections; in the present embodiment I have shown three such sections. which is my preferred arrangement, and I have shown the crank-shaft as formed with three throws, 10 10 and 10. These throws are separated by cylindrical dlsk portions 11, and each is embraced by a bearing 12, shown in Fig. 10, consisting of a split sleeve having upon its exterior a plurality of pairs of radial ears 13, 14, 15, these ears be- Each of the cylinders consists of a hollow I shell formed at its lower end with a pair of similar, oppositely-projecting, hollow bosses 16 16, the bossses and cylinders being rigidly bolted to the bosses 22 of the crank case as shown in Figs. 1, 2, 4, and 5. At its outer end each cylinder is closed by a head 17, and at its inner end by a head 18, while each 'side wall of the cylinder is formed inside the corresponding boss 16 with a longitudinal slot 19. Slidably mounted in each cylinder is a piston 20, traversed by a wrist pin 21 whose ends project through theslots 1919 where they are articulated to the connecting rods 22, whose opposite ends are articulated to the lugs of the crank-bearing 12. The connecting rods of opposite cylinders are connected to the same lugs, these being the lugs which project perpendicularly to the cylinder axis; and thedistance between the lugs being substantially or exactly equal to the length of the wrist pins 21-21, it will be seen that the two connecting rods of each cylinder will at all times be substantially parallel to each other, and nearly in alinement with the corresponding rods of the opposite cylinder.
The cylinders shown are of two kinds, namely, firing cylinders and compression cylinders; and in the arrangement shown, which is a preferable arrangement, the firing cylinders are twelve in number and connected to the end sections of the crankcase, the compression cylinders being six in number and connected to the intermediate section of the crank-case. All the firing cylinders are identical, and are here shown as being of the two cycle, double-acting type, while the compression cylinders are also of the double-acting type.
Each of the firing cylinders is formed at one side, intermediate between the slots 1919, with a pair of laterally projecting, threaded sockets 25-25 equidistantly spaced from the middle of the cylinder and communicating with a short integral duct 26 having an inlet opening 27. Threaded into each of the sockets 25 is an inlet valve, which preferably comprises an externally threaded barrel 30 formed between its ends with an annular gro'ove'31 adapted to register with the duct 26, said barrel having a central longitudinalbore slidably receiving the shank 32 of an inlet valve 33 which seats upon one end of the barrel. The barrel is hollowed out underneath the valve head 33 and this cavity communicates with groove 31 by passageways 34, (see Fig. 10)
The side of the cylinder opposite the inlet valve is formed with outlet ports 35', here shown as discharging directly into the atmosphere. 'l'he' exterior of these cylinders is shown as provided with air cooling ribs, although it is obvious that water jackets couldequally well be employed; and by the same token it is obvious that a manifold could be employed to receive the exhaust gases and convey them to any desired point of discharge. For igniting the charge each of the heads 17 of the firing cylinders is provided with a spark plug36, while the lnner end of each of those cylinders is formed adjacent to its seat with a lateral The compression cylinders differ from the firing cylinders only in the arrangement of their valves and manifolds, and in the fact that they have no provision for spark plugs. Each of the compression cylinders is formed at each end with a pair of oppositely-proecting internally-threaded sockets 40-40, pro ecting at right Each cylinder is formed at each side with an integral duct 41 opening through the side walls of the corresponding socket so as to place the same in communication with the apertures 42-43, respectively, 42 being the compressor inlet, there is screwed into each of the corresponding sockets 40-40 an inlet valve which is preferably identical with the inlet valve employed in the working cylinders; and the opening 43 being the compressor discharge, there is screwed into the corresponding sockets 40- 40 a suitable pump-outlet valve, which differs from the inlet valve in having its seat oppositely ar' ranged. A convenientway of making. the same is illustrated in Figs. 9 and 11, wherein 45 represents the hollow valve-barrel at larly to Fig. 4 wherein there is shown in longitudinal section one of the working or firing cylinders together with its piston it angles to the wrist pin..
- is formed with grooves for the reception of piston rings in accordance with usual practice; and slidably fitted within the two short cylinders 53 are smaller pistons 56, 56 which are normally held in outward position by means of coil springs 57. Complete ejection of the piston 56 is prevented by a suitable removable stop 58 carried by the wall The stiffness of the springs 57 is such that the inner piston will belittle if any displaced nearing the compression stroke, but will be decidedly depressed at the beginning of the power stroke. This leads to a decided saving in cylinder size, space, and weight, facilitates scavenging, and gives more uniform power stroke, the initial force of the explosion being partly absorbed by the spring and by the gas inside the small cylinder, this force being returned gradually during the power stroke, so that when scavenging occurs there is no pocket to hold burnt gases.
ways found to be .essential since the gases beneath the small piston will themselves oppose its depression. This construction affords a high compression with a smaller quantity of change and employs that charge more evenly throughout the power stroke.
The piston in the compression cylinder consists merely of a hollow cylindricalshell having closed fiat ends as shown in Fig. 6 and traversed at its middle by an integral sleeve 61 in which is mounted the wrist pin 21. Adjacent to each end the wall 60 is grooved for the reception of the usual piston rings The pistons of the compression cylinders are also longer than those of the firing cylinders, since the latter must necessarily leave some compression space, while in the latter any such space would be highly objectionable. v
For cooling the interior of these pistons, both compression and firing, their side walls are formed at points adjacent to the piston pins with apertures 63, 63 arranged to register with the slots 19 as the piston reciprocates, thus permitting a puff of air to pass Y therethrough. The air employed for this purpose is derived from the interior of the crank case, suitable expedients being provided to secure a continuous rush of air therethrough. In the case of an aeroplane motor it is sufiicient to form the forward end plate with apertures 64 (see Fig. 3),- the- In fact the spring is not alsequent upon the propeller action, will force a constant streanrof airthrough the crank case and out throughthe bosses 16-16, thus keeping the inner heads 18 cool and simultaneously producing an air flow through the pistons. The outer ends of the bosses 16 are preferably covered by continuation housings 66, suitably apertured to permit the escape of this 'air. The inrushing air has a further advantage of sweeping around the tank 4 and thus reducing the compression temperature of the same and increasing the weight of the charge introduced into each firing cylinder.
The open character of the crank case clearly renders impossible the employment of a splash system of lubrication, wherefore a directed force feed system is employed. whose preferred arrangement is as follows.- Each crank section or throw of the shaft of this oil may be effected in any convenient manner, the simplest mode I have so far conceived being that of connecting the reservoir 75 with the pressure tank 4 by means of a controlled conduit77 so that thp mixture-pressure will force the oil through the system. The connecting rods are preferably lubricated by being made hollow and packed with grease.
According to the preferred-arrangement the compression cylinders are connected together in pairs by means of arcuate inlet manifolds 80, 81, and 82 communicating with the inlet openings 42 and each provided with a depending boss 83 adapted for the reception of the carbureters 84, 85, 86, re-
spectively. To the opposite or outlet aper-' tures 43 of thesame cylinders are connected the arcuate pressure-manifolds 87' connected to the conduits 88 which lead'to the tank 4.
The firing cylinders are even more simply arranged, the apertures 27 being connected to identical arcuate manifolds 89" all vof which communicate by means of pipes 90 with the tank 4.
My engine presents the unique feature that control can be effected either by closing all the carbureters simultaneously, or by completely closing some and leaving others open, thus producing an engine of 8, 16, or 24 cylinders at will.
There being twelve firing cylinders upon the engine here shown, each of said firing cylinders being of double-acting construction and of two-cycle type it will be seen that my present engine will aiford the crank shaft twenty four separate impulses to each revolution which is equivalent of a fortyeight cylinder motor of four-cycle type, thus producing a very even and continuous Of course a'proper balance must be main tained between firing cylinders and compres- .sion cylinders and this balance will depend to a considerable-extent upon the atmospheric conditions expected. Thus for sea-level use a given number of compression cylinders will feed more firing cylinders than wouldbe permissible for aeroplane ,use.- The arrangement of the two varieties of cylinders is largely a'matter of -choice, care being taken to preserve the best possible engine balance and to impose a minimum of strain on the crank shaft. I do not confine myself to the constructions and arrangements or the details herein shown, since the same can be modified very markedly without departing from the scope of my inventive idea or sacrificing the benefits of my improvements.
Certain subject matter herein set forth is reserved for subsequent applications, certain of which have already been filed and are identified as follows: Serial No. 259,968, filed Oct. 28, 1918; Serial No. 260,783, filed Nov. 2, 1918.
Having thus described my invention what I claim is 1. In an engine, a crank, a pluralit of cylinders arranged around said cran a single bearing member freely journaled on said crank, and paired connecting rods for the different cylinder-pistons, there being two rods articulated to each piston, all of said rods being articulated to said bearing member and said pistons being otherwise independent of each other.
2. In an engine, a crank, alined cylinders located upon opposite sides of said crank, pistons therein, a single bearing member journaled on said crank and having external attaching portions projecting perpendicularly to the axis of the corresponding cylinders, and a pair of connecting rods articulated to each piston and 'to said attaching portions.
3. In an engine, a crank, alined cylinders located upon opposite. sides of said crank,
pistons therein, a single bearing member.
journaled on said crank and having independent external ears projecting perpendicularly to the axis of the corresponding cylinders, and a pair of connecting rods pivoted to each piston and to said ears, the distance between the piston pivots being equal to. that between said ears, whereby said connecting rods may remain parallel to each other at all times 4. In an engine, a crank bearing adapted to be journaled on a crank and having a plurality of pairs of external ears arranged in successive planes longitudinally of said bearing, successive ears being angularly spaced for attachment to radial cylindersl 5. In an engine, a crankcasing comprising a plurality of similar hollow sections joined together end to end, a plurality of cylinders secured to' and radiating from each section, and end members for said casing, one at least of which'is 'formed to permit the free ingress of air, the sides of said sections adjacent to the cylinders being formed with apertures permitting the escape of air.
6. In an engine, a crank, a plurality of cylinders arranged around said crank, a single bearing member j ournaled on said crank, a crank shaft traversing said casing, a hearing located at the joint between each pair of sections, said bearing being formed to permit the movement of air therepast, and end members for the casing, at least one of which is formed to permit the free ingress of air, the sides of the sections being apertured to permit the escape of such air.
7. In an engine, a crank casing comprising a plurality of similar hollow sections joined together end to end, a plurality of double acting cylinders secured to and radiating from each section, said sections hav- 100 ing air-escape ports adjacent to the cylinders, and means for causing a flow of cooling air through the casing.
8. In an engine, a fixed casing, a plurality of cylinders radiating equidistantly from 105 said casing, each cylinder having both ends closed and having longitudinal slots in its sides, a piston ineach cylinder, a pin traversing each piston and extending through said slots, connecting rods articulated to 110 said pins outside of the cylinders, and a rotatable crank shaft inside said casing to which all said connecting rods are operatively connected.
p 9. In 'an engine, a casing, a plurality of 115 double ended two-cycle cylinders secured to and radiating from said casing, each cylinder having longitudinal slots in its sides, a piston in each cylinder, a pin traversing each piston and extending through said 12( slots, connecting rods articulated to said pins outside of the cylinders, a crank-shaft inside said casing to which all said connecting rods are operatively connected, means for passing air through said casing to cool '12: the inner heads of the cylinders, and means other than casing-pressure to feed combustible mixture to the cylinders.
10. In an engine, a casing, a plurality of cylinders secured to and radiating from said 13( I sleeve.
I casing, each of saidcylinders having slottedsides and closed ends, the walls of said cylindersbeingribbed for air cooling, a crank in said casing, pistons in said cylinders and operatively connectedto said crank byway .of the slots, and means for passing air through said casing wherebyithe inner heads of said cylinders are cooled. 11. In an engine, a casing, a plurality of cylinders secured to and radiating from said casing, each of said cylinders having slotted walls and closed ends, pistonsin said linders and having air passageways t erethroligh, a crank in said casing and operatively connected to said pistons b' way of said slots, said air passageways gein arranged to register with said slots at di erentj ti'mes a'nd means for passing air through said casin and through said slots and throu h sa1d"piston passageways.
'12. u an engine, a plurality of cylinders projecting from a common axis, a crankshaft journaled along such axis, a sleeve journaled on the crank throw, a piston in each cylinder, and a'pair of parallel connecting rods pivoted to each piston and to said sleeve, said rods being arranged in a plane transver F to the crank shaftaxis.
' 13. A crank caring for engmes comprlsing a split sleeve adapted to S111101111d the rior of said sleeve being formed with a plurality of sets of oppositely projecting pairs of attaching ears, the various sets being equidistantly spaced along said sleeve and also equiangularly spaced therearound.
15. in an engine a crank shaft having a plurality of crank throws, a cylindrical por- 'tion between adjacent throws and concentrlc with the shaft, the exterior of such cylindrisignature.
cal portionbeingcircumferentially ooved,
a sleeve bearing embracing saidcy drical portion and having therein an oil duct communicating with such throw being formed wlth' oil ducts com-v municating with said groov and openingtfi throu h the crank 'exterior.
16. 11 an engine, a crank, :aline'd cylinders located one on each side of said crank, each cylinder having slotted walls, pistons in said cylinders, piston pins projecting through the co slots, a bearmg. member journaled on said v crank and having oppositely projecting external ears'arranged transversely of the cylinder axis, and connecting rods articulated to said ears and pins, there bein one rod on each side of each cylinder an the rods' of opposite cylinders being approximately 1n alinement. v,
17. In an engine a pair of opposed cylinders having closed ends and slotted sides, a piston in each cylinder, a piston pin traversing said piston and projectin through the slots,a connecting rod artic ated to each end of each pin, and a crank located between said'cylinders with its axis perpendicular to sald plston pins, both sets of connecting rods being operatively connected to said crank.
' 18. In an engine, a crank bearing adapted to be journaled on a crank and having a plurality of sets of external ears adapted'for the reception of connecting rods, there being two rods and two sets of'ears for every piston which is connected to said bearing.
19. In an engine, the combination ,witha crank and a plurality of cylinders presented endwise thereto, of 'a bearing member journaled on said crank and having external bearings, two for each of said cylinders, said last bearings having their axes parallel to said crank shaft, a piston'in each cylinder, Y
and a pair of connecting rods articulated to each piston and to the corresponding external bearlngs, whereby a line connectlng said last hearings will always remain substantially perpendicular to the cylinder axis.
In testimony whereof, I hereunto aflix my ROYAL CARPENTER.
oove, each crank