|Publication number||US1355476 A|
|Publication date||Oct 12, 1920|
|Filing date||Jan 27, 1915|
|Priority date||Jan 27, 1915|
|Publication number||US 1355476 A, US 1355476A, US-A-1355476, US1355476 A, US1355476A|
|Original Assignee||Hering Carl|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (13), Classifications (13)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
C. HERING. 7 METHOD OF nssmoyme CELLULAR STRUCTURES.
APPLICATION FILED JAN. 27; I915- ATTORNEY Patented Oct. 12, 1920.
CAIRL HERING, 0F PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA.
METHOD OF DE STROYING- CELLULAR STRUCTURES.
T 0 all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, CARL HERING, a citizen of the United States, residing in the city of Philadelphia and State of Pennsylvania, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Methods of Destroying Cellular Structures, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to the destruction of cellular structures, as of bacteria, animalculae, small living organisms, or of vegetable or animal material by exerting thereon positive, negative or alternating pressures.
As an example of an application of my invention, sterilization by destruction of the cellular structure and therefore the life of germs or bacteria by pressure may be referred to. The applied pressure does not injure or objectionably alter the medium or liquid within which the germs or bacteria exist and the alteration of the condition of the medium or liquid by prior methods of heat or chemical treatment, is avoided.
The method consists in confining the matter to be treated in a closedvessel filled with a pressure transmitting medium, such as water, oil or other liquid, and applying to the liquid positive, negative or alternating pressures, the application of the pressure preferably being sudden or with high speed with the result analogous to an explosive effect. The liquid being substantially incompressible transmits the applied pressure hydraulically directly and instantly to any cellular structures like bacteria which are within the liquid itself or within a container within the liquid. To exert the hydraulic pressure on the cells most effectively and most rapidly it is preferable to first exhaust all gases so that the vessel may be completely filled with the liquid, the absence of gas or air serving to prevent a cushioning effect that might otherwise occur. The pressure produced in the liquid, as by a blow, is communicated to the outside of the cells themselves and reaches the smallest cells, presumably even the embryonic cells or minute eggs. In the application of pressures, the rapid change from a positive to a negative pressure, or vice versa, is intended to occur so rapidly that the cells themselves cannot adjust themselves quickly enough to the changes in pressure to prevent their rupture.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Oct. 12, 1920.
Application filed January 27, 1915. Serial No. 4,621.
In some cases a positive or a negative pressure, momentary or sustained, may suffice to destroy cellular structure or prevent their propagation. In other cases, alternatmg positive andnegative pressures may be more eflective. In other cases the suddenness of change of pressure, akin to an explosion or a blow may be most effective. In still other cases a prolonged repetition of pressure changes may be most effective. In still others a prolonged positive pressure followed by quick release of such pressure or by a negative pressure, or vice versa, may best serve the purposes, as in the treatment of flesh or meat for making it more tender. By alternating negative and positive pressures a suitable liquid may be forced to enter the cells, thereby either destroying life, as in the case of bacteria, or flavoring cellular foods like meats, or for preservative purposes, the flavoring material or preservative being contained in the liquid.
While my method is applicable chiefly to the destruction of cellular structures in liquids, such as waters, milk or the like, it may be applied to cellular structures in or of solids, as for sterilizing clothing, by immersing the solids in liquid confined in a closed vessel, on which liquid the pressure is exerted.
The pressure may be exerted mechanically, as by a piston or plunger, by heat, or by explosions, the positive and negative pressures resulting being transmitted to the cells; or the pressures may be produced by any other suitable method or means.
The material to be treated may be confined in a suitable receptacle disposed within the pressure transmitting liquid to prevent escape of the material to be treated or to prevent its mixture with the pressure transmitting liquid.
As herein employed the term negative pressure refers to a pressure outside of the cells less than the pressure within them. And a positive pressure refers to a pressure outside of the cells greater than that within them.
Alternating pressures are a series of positive pressures each followed by a negative pressure.
A negative pressure many times that available by a vacuum may be obtained by first maintaining a high positive pressure until the pressure within the cells has become adjusted with that exerted on the outside, and then releasing the outside pressure.
Under the microscope the appearance of animalculae, like vinegar 'eels, Rotifers, amoebae, .parameciidae, etc., after treatment by my process indicates that they had been destroyed by explosion from the inside. Some of them, like the parameciidae, disappear almost entirely under a prolonged treatment, making the solution containing them slightly turbid, the turbidity being due to finely divided and lifeless globules into which the originals have been subdivided For an illustration of some of theemany modes of carrying out my invention refervation, of a simple form of treating appa- 'ciprocate withv a liquid tight fit.
ence is to' be had to the accompanying draw ing, in which:
Figure 1 is a sectional view, partly in eleratus. F ig..2.is a similar view of a modified from of treating apparatus.
Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view, parts in elevation, of means for repeatedly applying high positive pressure followed by slowly increasing negative pressure.
Fig. 4. is a vertical sectional iew, some parts in elevation, showing treating apparatus for repeatedly applying high sustained positive pressures followed by sudden nega-- tive pressures.
Referring to Fig. 1, V is a member, as of metal, having bores within which the piston or plunger P and its extension P of less diameter are adapted to longitudinally re In the space F, constituting a part of the bore in which the piston P moves, may be filled the cell 'or germ containing liauid through a hole closed by the screw Within the space F there is therefore confined the liquid to be operated upon, which liquid completely'fills the cavity. A pressure exerted on the left end of the plunger P will produce a ositive pressure in t e liquid in the cavity and a pressure on the right end ofthe member P. will .produce a negative pressure in the liquid within the space F These pressures may be applied to the pistons or plungers gradually, or with suddenness, as by hammer blows.
By these means very high pressures, either positive or negative, or alternating positive or negative, may be produced within the liquid which transmits these pressures to the germs or other cell "structures" therein causing a destruction of -their cellular structures and the life of the organisms.
In Fig. 2 is illustrated-a similar apparatus. In this case the space F is again completely filled with liquid within which may be disposed the rubber sack or bag B completely filled with liquid containing the cellular structures or organisms to be operated upon. By applying pressure on the right side of the pin .carried by the plu er P a negative pressure will be produce and by exerting pressure on the left end of the plunger P a positive pressure will be produced. In either or both cases the resulting pressures are transmitted through the liquid outside of the sack or bag B through the walls of the sack to the liquid within it,
thus transmitting the pressure to the cells or organisms within the bag, and they are as completely operated upon as if the bag itself were absent. By this arrangement, however, the liquid within the bag B is prevented from mixing-with the outer liquid which transmits the pressure.
In Fig. 3 a bottle or. receptacle B is completely filled with milk or other liquid to be treated and covered by a rubber or other cap R which preferably contacts throughout its lower surface with the liquid within the jar B. The bottle or jar B is deposited in the vessel V completely filled with water or other liquid W through an opening closed by the screw A. Extending through, a wall of the vessel- V is a plunger P. which is raised to normal position by the sprin S. A weight H on the lever L pivoted at F is periodically raised by the cam C rotating in the direction indicated by the arrow, and as often released, and when released falls and strikes a blow to the upper end of the plunger P whereby a high positive pressure is produced in the liquid .W and transmitted tween the interior of the vessel V and a source of liquid under pressure? There is therefore normally appliedto the liquid W a positive pressure corresponding with the pressure of the source with which the pipe D communicates. The cam C in rotating in the direction indicated by the arrow allows the hammer H to strike the plunger P, whereupon the valve E is suddenly moved from its seat a slight distance, with the result that the normal positive pressure in the liquid V is suddenly released. Immediately, however, the valve E is returned to its seat by the liquid delivered by pipe D, this return to normal pressure being relatively slower than the release of pressure caused b 1 the downward movement of the plunger By this means a prolonged positive pressure is applied to the contents of the jar or bottle B, followed by a sudden high negative pressure, and the process is repeated as long as desired.
In both Figs. 3 and 4 the cams may be rotated by hand or by any suitable means such as an electric or other motor, at any suitable rate, and as long as desired.
Cellular structure such as that of vegetable material, may be similarly treated for its destruction. For example, wood may be placed within a liquid, and by applications of positive, negative or alternating pressures thereto a destruction of the cellular fiber will occur. This treatment may be availed of for the making of wood pulp for the manufacture of paper.
Or flesh or meat may be so treated within a liquid to affect its cellular structure to make it more tender for edible purposes.
While I have herein referred to the pressure transmitting liquid as completely filling the vessel it will be understood that the presenceof a small amount of a gas,
, such as air, or elastic fluid, such as steam,
will not defeat my process, but will involve use of somewhat greater power.
The pressures which may be applied according to my herein described process may in some cases be extremely high, for example, tons per square inch.
WVhat I claim is:
1. The method of producing disruptive or disorganizing changes in living cellular organisms in a liquid, which consists in producing in the liquid rapid successive positive and negative pressure changes.
2. The method of effecting destructive change in organic cellular structure in a liquid, which consists in subjecting liquid containing the same to a succession of percussive pressure changes of suflicient frequency and number to set up substantial disorganizing changes in the cellular structure.
3. The method of destroying organic cellular structure in a liquid, which consists in subjecting liquid containing the same to alternating positive and negative pressure changes of suflicient intensity and frequency to set up substantial disorganizing or disruptive changes in the cellular structure.
4. The method of rupturing cellular structure, which consists in subjecting liquid containing the cellular structure to rapid changes of pressure at the rate of many changes er minute of suificient intensity and num er to rupture the cellular structure.
5. The method of destroying cellular structure, which consists in subjecting said structure in a liquid to a prolonged rapid succession of percussive ressure changes.
In testimony whereof l have hereunto affixed my signature in the presence of the two subscribing witnesses.
NELLIE FIELD, ALICE S. MARSH.
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|U.S. Classification||422/39, 43/124, 99/472, 99/467|
|International Classification||A61L2/02, A61L2/06, C02F1/36|
|Cooperative Classification||A61L2/02, C02F1/36, A61L2/06|
|European Classification||A61L2/06, C02F1/36, A61L2/02|