Apparatus por the electrical precipitation of suspended matter in
US 1356462 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
A. F. NESBIT. APPARATUS FOR THE ELECTRICAL PRECIPITATION 0F SUSPENDED MATTER IN GASEOUS AND FLUID BODIES.
APPLICAHOR FILED IIOV. I7. 1914.
1,356,462, Patented 001;. 19, 1920.
A. F. NESBIT.
APPARATUS FOR THE ELECTRICAL FRECIPIIATION 0F SUSPENDED MATTER IN GASEOUS AND FLUID BODIES.
APPLICATION FILED now/.11. IQH.
1,356,462. Emma Oct 19,1920.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
'A. F. NESBIT. APPARATUS FOR THE ELECTRICAL PRECIPITATION 0F SUSPENDED MATTER IN GASEOUS AND FLUID BODIES.
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Anrmm r. nnsiii'r, or WILKINSBUBG, rnnnsvnvmn, nssmrion TO INTERNA- I'IonA PRECIPITATION COMPANY, A CORPORATION or CALIFORNIA.
APPARATUS FOR THE ELECTRICAL PRECIPITATION OF SUSPENDED MATTEII m a GASEOUS AND FLUID BODIES.
Specification of Letters ratent.
Patented Oct. 19, 1920.
Application filed November 17, 1914. Serial No. 872,820.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, ARTHUR F. NESBIT, a citizen of the United States, residing at Wilkinsburg, in the county of Allegheny and State of Pennsylvania, have invented new and useful Improvements in Apparatus for the Electrical Precipitation of Suspended Matter in Gaseous and Fluid Bodies, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to an improvement in means for removing suspended matter from gaseous and fluid bodies by the electrical precipitation process.
It has lon been known that electrical discharges, w ether of the brush, point, corona, or other types, may be utilized for the removal of suspended particles from gaseous and fluid media Very copious ionization may be produced by the types of electric fields mentioned, the ions being most easily produced by the use of one or more electrodes placed in or near the same fluid or gaseous medium, and the electrical discharge may be made to take place from one electrode to another, the surface of the active electrode being smaller than the surface of the other electrode, said electrodes constituting an asymmetrical pair. The electrode from which the discharge takes place is called the active electrode because the electrical intensity at or near its surface is very great in comparison with its value at any other portion of the electric field. The luminous, heat, and ionizing effects are usually localized and very intense in the neighborhood of this active electrode. Secondary ionization of the gaseous or fluid medium may also contribute very materially to the breaking down of the insulating properties of said medium. This secondary ionization, which may be due to the .collisions of the ions with the gaseous or fluid particles, gives rise to the production of a lar e number of positive and negative ions. he ions having charges unlike that of the active electrode, are attracted toward it, and are said to give up their charge to this electrode. Ions whic possess a sign of charge which is the same as that of the active electrode are repelled from the latter, and if the secondary ionization is sufliciently intense and continuous, this flow of ions will be designated as a stream of ions, or an electric current. The removal of suspended particles in gaseous and fluid bodies, by the electrical precipitation method, involves the action of electric winds, the ionization of the medium, and to a large extent, the formation of nuclei.
The electromagnetic Wave, it is Well known, is made up of two components, the electrostatic and the magnetic, and the former accounts for the electric currents in the form of electrical discharges, whether steady, disruptive, alternatin pulsating, or oscillating in character. hese electromagnetic waves may be the so called pure waves, in that their two components, due to the electrostatic field and the magnetic field, are of equal magnitude, and constitute the ether-distortion or ether-motion states, both traveling along together and mutually sustaining each other. These electromagnetic waves may be made to travel along between two wires, between two broad sheets of metal, between two outer sheets of metal, wholly or partly inclosing another sheet of metal, wire mesh, or a parallel grouping of wires. Between these forms of conducting surfaces, the electromagnetic wave moves along, and is prevented from spreading out, t at is, it is confined in much the same manner as a sound wave is confined within a speaking tube through which it asses.
One of the objects of the present invention is to utilize one or more of the well known phenomena associated with electromagnetic waves, when these waves are so controlled as to give rise to more or less faint nodes and loops on the conductors constituting the electrode-system, as well as in the dielectric medium through which the electromagnetic wave is passing. A further object is to provide an electrode system equally well adapted to operate at high efficiency, for electromagnetic waves of high or low fr uency, and of large or small amplitude. A urther object is to provide an apparatus which is applicable where electromagnetic waves may controlled so that either their electrostatic or magnetic components may be made, at will, the dominating ones. further object is to provide an apparatus which shall be adapted to electric potentials of low or high frequencies, and producing electrical discharges which may be s'teady, disruptive, alternating, pulsating or oscillating in character.
The invention will be hereinafter fully set forth and particularly pointed out in the claims.
In the accompanying drawings Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view illustrating a precipitating apparatus constructed in accordance with my invention. Fig. 2 is a horizontal sectional view on the line 2-2, Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view taken at right angles to Fig. 1. Fig. 4 is a similar view illustrating a slight modification. Fig. 5 is an enlarged detail view illustrating the arrangement of the electrodes when the grounded plates 20 are slightly corrugated in form. Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the electric circuits.
Referring to the drawings, 10 designates a supporting framework, provided with beams 11 WhlCll serve to support insulators 12 of any suitable or preferred construction. Extending through a casing 13, are bars 14 of suitable metal, the ends of which rest upon and are secured to the insulators 12, said bars serving to support the framework which carries the active electrode wires 15. Said electrode frame work comprises bars 16 connected with the bars 14 and connected by vertical bars 17, the wires 15 being strung under tension between the bars 17. When the weight of the bars 16 and the wires 15 is sufficient to give a fairly rigid structure that will han vertically, then the entire active electro e system may be suspended from the top only, by bars 14, the lower end of the frame hanging free. It is also obvious that the frame may be supported from the bottom alone. The Wei ht of the active electrode frame employe will depend upon the tension to which the wires 15 are stretched between the end bars 17, as the greater the tension the heavier the frame must be. I prefer, however to support the frame both at the top and the bottom, as illustrated in the drawings, and to connect the horizontal bars of the frame by means of a tie strip 18 through which the wires '15 are passed, said tie strip also serving to prevent or at least damp the vibrations of the wires 15. Any number of such damping strips may be employed, the number required being dependent upon the length of the wires 15 and the manner in which they are strung between the bars 17. The bars 16 are also connected by a tie rod 19, the
high voltage wires for supplying current to the electrode system being attached to said bar in any suitable manner.
The grounded electrode comprises the Walls 13 of the casing and a plurality of metal plates 20 which may be slightly corrugated, smooth, perforated or uniformly roughened, fine meshed wire netting, or gauze. It will be understood from the drawings that said plates 20 alternate with the frames carrying the active electrode wires 15. The plates 20 are supported by T-bars 21, one arm of each T-bar bein slotted to permit of the plates to be shove into place, and also to allow of a lateral adjustment for alinement with the active electrodes. The frames of the active electrodes are supported by brackets 22 which are free to slide along the bars 14 and when adjusted to proper position are held against displacement in any preferred manner, as for instance by .set screws. In Fig. 1 the plates 20 are illustrated as not as long vertically as are the end bars 17 of the active electrodes. In Fig. 2, however, said plates 20 are shown as longer horizontally than the upper and lower bars 16.
he casing 13 is provided with an inlet conduit 25 or conducting the gaseous or fluid bodies, containin suspended matter, into said casing, suita le deflecting dampers 26 being provided to aid in distributing the incoming gases or fluid bodies as they are deflected upward. Said dampers are mounted in a distributing chamber 27 and below said chamber is a suitable hopper 28 to receive the precipitate. The chamber 27 is provided with an extended side apartment 28' in alinernent with the conduit 25 for the purpose of insurin that the incoming or fluid will travel more or less completely across said chamber, whereby a more uniform distribution of the gases or fluids between the electrodes is assomplished. Above the distributing chamber 27 the casing is provided with extension spaces 29 having openings in their outer walls to receive suitable insulating bushings 30 through which the bars 14 extend. The extension spaces 29 very largely prevent the deposition of solid matter on the bushings 30, or those portions of the bars 14 which extend beyond the side and end walls of the casing, and which are not in the direct path of the gaseous or fluid streams which contain the matter to be deposited. The openings between the walls of the bushings and the bars 14 permit the suction action, produced by natural or forced draft through the casing, to draw air into the spaces 29, thereby aiding in keeping said spaces free from the precipitated materials.
In Figs. 1, 2 and 3, the wires 15 are shown as extending horizontally. In Fig. 4 I have gases type of electric circuit preferably em being as smooth as shown a modification which consists in arranging the active electrode wires 15' to run diagonally. The 0 eration is much more efiiclent with this diagonal grouping'of the active electrodes.
In the structure illustrated in the drawings, the flow of the gaseous or fluid media is vertical. It is obvious, however, that the direction of flow may be changed without departing from the spirit of my invention, but no matter what the direction of flow may be it is at all times preferableto keep the plane of the'plates 20 vertlcal in order that they may more easilybe kept free from and clean of deposited matter. It will also be understood t rection of flow of the gaseous and fluid streams through the apparatus, it is preferable that the high voltage wires be connected to the active electrodes at the upper ends through the tie strip 19. This method of connecting the high voltage supply circuit to the active electrode system especially with the diagonal grou ing of the wires makes the lower end of t e active electrode frame the same in its action toward the grounded electrode plates 20 and the walls of the casing, as the upper end of the fan parallel type of antenna in a ,wireless telegraph a paratus. The wires 15 are bare and pre erably cylindrical in cross section, practicable, and they may or may not be under tension. All parts of the active and grounded electrodes are as free as possible from sharp points or corners which would tend to. localize the electrical discharge. For the purposes of this invention it is immaterial whether the active electrode is of ne ative or positive sign, it being understoo that the coiiperatmg electrode is of the op osite sign.
With the type 0 electric current, which is unidirectional, yet intermittent, oscillating or pulsating 1n character, and of electrical circuits similar to those herein specified, there is a tendency for the electromagnetic waves, as they approach the lower end of the active electrode system in this apparatus, to set up violent whirls or vortices in the gaseous or fluid media, even before the entrance of such media to or passage through the recipitating elements. The greater the die ectric capacity of the gaseous or fluid media, the greater will be the electromagnetic radiations, and these same radiations are made more intense in the very direction which will enable a much higher rate of producing nuclei to'be obtained, and consequently a more efficient precipitation of suspended matter. a
In Fig. 6 I
loyed with the above described apparatus. eferring to said figure, the low voltage alterat whatever may be the di- 47, through have illustrated the general,
nating current supply is represented by the wires 35, 36 which receive current from a suitable generator. The transformer with its primar coil 37 and secondary coil 38, is shown wit center of a double spark gap 40, 41. The condensers 42, 43 are connected across the terminals 44, 45. Asymmetrical spark gap rectifiers 46, 47 are connected by wires 48 49 with the secondary coil 38, as shown. he active electrode members containing the wires 15 are connected by a wire 50 with the branch 39, as indicated at 51. The casine. and negative electrodes 20 are connected at 57 by a wire 52 with the inductances 53 and 54 leading from the spark gap rectifiers 46,
a wire 55, an inductance 56 being interposed between said wire and the first mentioned inductances. The casing 10 is grounded, as indicated at 58. The inductances 53,- 54 and 56 are for the purpose of sustaining the current during the interval when the voltage wave is falling ofl' and is too small to be maintained without their use, or the use of condensers elsewhere pro vided.
Should the electrical precipitation apparatus containing active and grounded electrodes be omitted, the secondary voltage may become of suflicient value to cause intense ionic streams across the gaps of the a middle tap 39 connected to the rectifier-s 46 and 47 and the hissing, which at first would be more audible. When this condition has been attained, either a slight rise in the secondary voltage or a very small decrease in the length of the gaps, causes the electrical discharge to take the form of an arc across the gaps. Simultaneously with the formation of these arcs, the secondary voltage must either be very materially lowered, or the gaps lengthene to maintain the voltage across the gaps approximately constant for working conditions. The resence, however, of the active and'grounded electrodes of the precipitation apparatus, as shown across the circuit terminals 51 and 57, eliminates the necessity of the same rapidity and nicety of ad'ustment of secondary voltage or lengthemng of the gaps, because a larger part of the total line voltage between the outside terminals 44 and 45 and the neutral point 39 now falls across the terminals 51 and 57. In other words the gaps 46 and 47 may be made quite short before an are forms, and also before there will simultaneously occur, between the active and ounded electrodes, a corona discharge su eient in magnitude to maintain a uiet or slightly humming are.
A large num r of possible electric circuits are admissible in the operation of my precifpitating apparatus, and also groupings o resistances, inductances, capacities, and spherical spark gaps, and I accordingly do rather faint, becomes much not desire to limit m self to the precise arrangement of these e ements shown and described. Furthermore, any form of rectifier may be employed, and the general make up of the electric circuit will vary accordingly, the rectifiers shown and described, and the circuits in connection therewith being employed for illustrative purposes only, and I therefore do not limit myself in this particular.
Having thus explained the nature of my invention and described an operative manner of constructing and using the same, although without attempting to set forth all of the forms in which it may be made, or all of the forms of its use, what I claim is 1. An improvement in means for removing suspended particles from gaseous and fluid bodies comprising a plurality of spaced apart plate-like grounde electrodes, and a pluralit of active electrodes alternat ng with said grounded electrodes, each'active electrode being provided with a plurality of electrode members located on a common plane extending parallel with the faces of said grounded electrodes and in the direction of flow of the stream, said members extending angularly to the direction of flow of the gaseous or fluid streams.
2. An im rovement in means for removing suspen ed particles from gaseous and fluid bodies comprising an active electrode formed of a rectangular frame having a plurality of parallel wires supported by opposite side bars of said frame, and extending angularly to the direction of flow of the gaseous or fluid streams, and a grounded electrode having one face opposite said wires.
3. Apparatus for electrical precipitation of suspended particles from gases, comprising a plurality of spaced plate-like receiving electrodes forming a gas-passage between them, an electrode frame between said receiving electrodes and in a plane parallel thereto and a series of parallel discharge electrodes in said frame angularly disposed with respect to the direction of gas-flow.
4. Apparatus for electrical precipitation.
of suspended particles from gases, comprising a plurality of spaced plate-like receiving electrodes forming a gas assage between them, an electrode frame etween said receiving electrodes and in a plane parallel thereto and a series of parallel filamentary discharge electrodes in said frame angularly gisposed with respect to the direction of gas- 5. Apparatus for electrical precipitation of suspended particles from gases, comprising a plurality of spaced plate-like receiving electrodes forming a gasassage between them, an electrode frame tween said receiving electrodes and in a plane parallel thereto and a series of parallel filamentary discharge electrodes held by said frame under tension at an angle to the direction of gas-flow.
6. Apparatus for electrical precipitation of suspended particles from ases, comprising spaced plate-like receiving electrodes formin a gas assage between them, an electro e frame tween said receiving electrodes and in a lane. parallel thereto and a series of paralle l discharge electrodes held by said frame under tension.
7. Apparatus for electrical precipitation of suspended particles from gases, comprismg a plurailty of spaced, vertical, plate-like receiving electrodes forming a vertical gas passage between them, a vertical electrode frame between said receiving electrodes and a series of parallel discharge electrodes in said frame at an angle to the vertical.
8. Apparatus for electrical precipitation of suspended particles from gases, com rising a plurality of s aced, vertical, p atellke recelvingmelectro es forming a vertical gasassage tween them a vertical electro e frame between said receiving electrodes and a series of parallel discharge electrodes held in said frame under tension.
9. Apparatus for electrical precipitation of suspended particles from gases, comprismg a plurality of spaced, vertical, plate-like receiving electrodes forming a vertical gaspassage betweenthem, a vertical electrode frame between said receiving electrodes and a series of parallel filamentary discharge electrodes held b said frame under tension, said dischar e e ectrodes being inclined to the line of ow of the gas.
10. Apparatus for electrical precipitation ofsuspended particles from gases, comprising a plurality of spaced, vertical, plate-like receiving electrodes forming a vertical gaspassage between them, a vertical electrode frame between said reciving electrodes having a vertical cross-bar intermediate its ends, a series of parallel discharge electrodes in said frame between one of its ends and said crossbar, said discharge electrodes being inclined to the line of ow of the gas and a second series of parallel discharge electrodes in said frame between its other end and said cross-bar, the discharge electrodes of said second series being inclined to the line of flow of the gas and substantially at ri ht angles to the discharge electrodes of t e first series.
11. Apparatus for electrical precipitation of suspended particles from gases, comprising a plurality of spaced, vertical, plate-like receiving electrodes forming a series of parallel, vertical gasassages, a vertical electrode frame in eac of said passages and a series of arallel dis'char e electrodes carried ri "d y in each of said frames at an angle to t e vertical.
12. Apparatus for electrical precipitation of suspended particles from gases, comprising spaced plate-like receiving electrodes formin a gas-passage between them, an electro e frame between said receiving electrodes and a series of parallel flexible linearly extending discharge members held rigi ly in said frame. r
13. Apparatus for electrical precipitation com )rismg opposing electrode systems, the disc arge system, comprising a frame can ing riigldly a lurality of flexible linear y exten ing disc arge members extending in parallelism with each other.
14. Apparatus for electrical precipitation comprising opposing electrode systems, the discharge system comprising a frame carrying rigidly a plurality of flexible linearly exten ing dischar e producing elements ex tending 1n paralle ism with each other, said elements intersecting the direction of flow of the stream.
15. .-\pp.lrallls for electrical precipitation compri-mg epposing electrode systems, the dischawc system comprisin a. rigid frame. a sup, -rt therefor, and a plurality of flexi ble linearly extending discharge producing elements rigidly carried by the frame and extending in parallelism with each other on a common plane corresponding to the direction of flow of the stream.
16. Apparatus for electrical precipitation comprising opposing electrode systems, the discharge system comprisin a rigid frame, a su port therefor. and a p urality of flexible inearly extending discharge producing elements rigidly carried by the frame and extending in parallelism with each other on a common plane, said frame and elements constituting a unit of single charge sign.
17. Apparatus for electrical precipitation comprising opposing electrode systems, the
discharge system comprising a lurality of flexible linearly extending disc ar e producing elements parallel with eac other and held substantially rigid.
18. Apparatus for electrical precipitation comprising a discharge electrode system consisting of a frame carrying parallel flexible linearly extending electrode elements, a sup port for said frame, and means for adjustably holding the frame on said support.
19. Apparatus'for electrical precipitation s stems,v
comprising opposing electrode means for passing a gas stream t erebetween, the discharge electrode system comprising a series of parallel electrode elements inclined to the direction of gas flow, and means for connecting the discharge electrode systems with a source of electrical energy at that end farthest from the gas entrance.
20. Apparatus for electrical precipitation com rising opposing electrode systems, the disc large system comprising a frame carrying rigidly a plurality of electrode elements extending in parallelism with each other and inclined to one side of the frame.
21. Apparatus for electrical precipitation comprising opposing electrode systems, the discharge system comprising a rigid frame carrying rigidly a plurality of electrode elements extending in parallelism with each other and inclined to one side of the frame.
In testimony wher of I have hereunto set my hand in presence of two subscribing witnesses.
Ammrr H. Ko'rson, W. J. Mooua.