US 1359045 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
L. D. FISHER.
ORDNANCE. APPLlcAnoN man MAR.2r, m2o.
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APPLIcAnoN FILED MAR. 21, :920. 1,359,045.
L. n. FISHER.
APPLICATION man MAR. 21, m2o.
Patntd Nov. 16, 1920.
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LESLIE D. FISHER, OF CLEVELAND, OHIO, ASSIGNOR T0 AUTO-ORDINANCE CORPORA- TION, OF NEW YORK, N. Y., A COBYORATION 0F NEW YORK.
I, LnsLiED. FISHER, a citizen of the United States of America, and resident of Cleveland, in the county of Cuyahoga and State of Ohio, have invented new To @M whom 'it may Be it known that and useful Improvements in Ordnance, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to improved automatic ordnance ot' the type wherein the powder pressure in the chamber is utilized to provide the power required for the operation of the breech closure, and more particularly to improved breech locking and operating means and improved ring and ejecting mechanism adapted for use with ordnance of the character described.
The invention utilizes for its operation only that component of the pressure developed in the powder chamber which is directed rearwardly against the base of the cartridge. This pressure causes the cartridge case to thrust against the breech closure and in turn causes that member to be unlocked and opened. This method of operation greatly simplifies the construction of an automatic or semi-automatic piece of ordnance since itrvery considerably reduces the number of parts.. No separate channels and pistons to be operated by thefgas of discharge are necessary nor are any so calle inertia members with their usual shock and Jar. y
It is an object of my invention to provide an improved piece of ordnance adapted to be operated by power supplied by Vthe explosive pressure of the ropelling charge and to provide a breech c osure adapted to be directly unlocked and opened by said pressure and to be closed and locked by power accumulated in springs or equivalent elastic means during the unlocking and opening movement. It is an object to provide such a mechanism which comprises but few and simple parts, and which is certain and positive in its operation. It is also an object to provide a new and improved firing mechanism and a simplified combined firing pin and ejector in connection with such ordnance. Other and further objects will appear as the description proceeds.
I have shown a specific embodiment of my invention as applied to a piece of ordnance of small caliber adapted tor use with fixed ammunition having a projectile of ap- Specifieation of Letters Patent.
Patented Nov. 16, 1920.
Application filed March 27, 1920. Serial No. 369,325.
proximately two pounds in weight, this size of gun being generally known as a Two pounder. l have illustrated in connection with my invention a form of magazine and magazine actuating device which may be later .covered by a divisional application.
This specific form of my device is shown for purposes of illustration only and my invention may obviously be used in connection with ordnance of any caliber. Also any suitable form of magazine or ammunition feeding device may be used therewith without in any way modifying the utility or operation of my invention.
In the accompanying drawings,
Figure l is a general view of the breech assembly, the fixed shield and receiver being1 'in section hg. 2 is a side view of the breech portion of Fig. l, the barrel also being in section;
Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 2. with the outer locking member of the breech block also in cross section;
Fig. 4 is a plan view, partly in section, slilowing the breech and magazine assemblies and the firing mechanism, the breech being open;
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 4, save that the breech is closed and is shown in section;
Fig. 6 is a detail view of a portion of the firing mechanism;
Fig. 7 is a side viewpartly in section showing the breech partly closed;
Fig. 8 is an enlarged detail view in sec tion of the breech and tiring and ejecting mechanism;
Fig. 9 is a, view taken on line 99 of Fig: 4;
ig. 10 is a View taken on line lO-l of Fig? 5;
ig. 1l is a view similar to Fig. 9 save that here the gun has almost completed the counter recoil movemen Fig. 12 is a view of the breech block partly in section showing the retaining lug;
Fig. 13 is a detail view of the breech block retaininor lug; and
Fig. il is a broken away plan view showing the manual operation slot.
n the embodiment shown the gun comprises the barrel l5. recoil yoke 16. recoil cylinder 17, recoil piston rod 1R secured b v the nut' 19. recoil slide 20 and thc tixcrl guide and shield mcnibci 2l all of which :ire of the usual construction and form no partof the present invention. The outer portion of the breech of the gun is threaded and has secured thereto the receiver 22 which has the closure member 23 at its rear end. The breech recoil guide rods 2+ are Screwed into the rear face ol' the breech and have their other ends seated at 25 in the rear closure member 23. Surrounding these rods 2l are the breech recoil springs 2G. Guided by the rods 24 is the breech block carrier 27 having the supporting pintle 28 secured thereto. The carrier 27 is provided with the forwardly extending lugs 29 which extend into seats 3U in the rear of t'he breech portion of the barrel, thereby taking up any thrust tending to rotate the carrier when in the closed position. The rear closure member 2li has the recoil buffer 31 located centrally thereotl and supported by the buffer spring 32 which is held in place by the closure plug itil. T he recoil butter is faced with a resilient material 34 held in place by screws 35. livoted at 3G in the lower portion of the receiver is the cartridge lifter tray 37 which as shown in Figs. 9 and 1l is normally held in the raised position by the springs 3S.
The breech block 39 is carried by the pintle 2h and has the internal lands 40 interfitting with lthe external grooves 4l on the pintle :28. rl`he external surface of the breech block carries the mutilated threads or lugs 42 which interfit with similar lugs 43 on the interior of the breech recess.
.\s best shown in Fig. 8, a spiral torsion .spring -14 surrounds the rear portion of the pintle L. the rear end of the spring being secured at 15 to the pintle and the front end ot' the spring being secured to the breech blocli at 46.
As shown in Figs. 5 and 8 a wear plate SH3 is inserted in the front face of the breech member where that member comes in contact with the cartridge. This wear plate has a circumferential groove into which the pins $.17 project in order to retain the plate against longitudinal movement, but to perniit it to rotate. This plate greatly minimizes friction and facilitates the opening and closing ot' the breech.
The tiring mechanism. best shown in Figs, 5. (S. and n* comprises a tiring pin 47 slidable in a sleeve 48 which latter is formed with the shoulder 49, which has a sliding tit in an axial opening 5() in the piutle 2S. The front end of the tiring pin 47 extends` beyond the front end of the sleeve 4S and is restrained t'rom passing backward b v the Ishoulder 51. The rear end ot' the firing pin extends beyond the rear of the sleeve 4S and carries the disk 5:2 at its end. rThe spring 53 surrounds the rear extension ot' the firing pin and is held in compression between the dish 5;! and a washer 54 which bears against the rear end of the sleeve 48. Surrounding the sleeve 48 is the tiring spring 55, one end bearing against the shoulder 49 and the other against the tripping sleeve 56 which partly incloses it. As shown in Fig. 5, the scar 5T is provided to coact with shoulder 49. The pin 5H shown in Fig. is provided to limit the rear ard movement of the sleeve 5G. The forked end 59 of the tiring actuator lever G() bears against the rear end of the Sleeve :36, the lever is pivoted at G1 in the member 27 and its outer end is pressed rearwardly by the small spring G2 wherebv the inner end is maintained in contact with the sleeve 56. The rear end of the sleeve 48 carries the oblique lugs 63 whose purpose will hereafter be discussed.
Secured to the right side of the guard member 21, are the cuide lugs G4 and 65 and the housing 66. assing through these guide lugs is the firing actuator rod G7 which carries a handle at 68, a collar 69 pinned to the rod between the guide lugs. and a spring 70 surroumling the rod und bearing at one end upon the collar 69 and at the other upon the lug (S4. At the forward end of the rod 67 and fitting into the. housing 66 is the cylindrical member 7l which carries the pivoted firing cam 72, normally held perpendicular by the sprlng 73, and the cooking cam 74, normally held perpendicular by the spring 75. Extending beyond the member 71 is the rod 76 having the feather 77 adapted to prevent rotary movement of the rod and of the member 71..
In Figs. 9, 10, 11, I have shown a form of magazine adapted for use with mywimproved gun. This magazine comprises the cartridge holding chamber 78 which is supported on the casing 21 by the bracket 79. The device is shown in horizontal section in Fig. 4.
The bottom of the magazine is closed b v the tray 80 which is hung at each end upon a pivotv 81, the pivot being surrounded by a torsion spring 82 tending to retain the tray in the closed position. The bottom ot' the tray carries the cam guide 83. Extending fron'i the casing 2l is the bracket 84 carrying the cam roll 85 adapted to cooperate with the cam guide 83 in opening and closing the magazine by rotation of the trav 80.
Figs. 12 and 13 show a spring pressed lug 85, which extends from. the inner side of the member 27 and is adapted to retain the breech block in the open or rotated position while the breech is open. The lug is pressed outward b v the spring S6 and eoacts with one of the locking lugs 42 as shown in Fig. l).
Yhile the breech is autouiatieall)v opened and closed after tiring a shot. it may bc desirable to open it manually to remove an untired cartridge or when loading the first cartridge of a series. For this purpose the slot 87 shown in plan in Fig. 14 is provided. As shown in Fig. 5, this slot extends through the casing 21, the receiver 22 and through the rear of the barrel member 15, openingr into the breech recess. Opposite the end of the slot there is a cavity 88 in the breech block and the breech block may be opened by inserting a rod or pin through the slot into the cavity 88 and moving the pin a5 guided by the slot, which movement Will, first rotate and then translate the breech block. The receiver remains stationary during this movementand the opening 89 normally retained closed by the thumb screw 89' is rovided in the receive'r for the removal of an unfired cartridge. This is necessary since the opening 90 in the left side of the receiver will be covered by the magazine unless the receiver is retracted. 'Ilie opening 91 is provided in the right side of the receiver to permit translation of the actuator lever 60.
In the operation of my gun, assuming that a start is made with the chamber empty and the breach closed, the breech block is first moved to the rear in the receiver by means of a pin introduced through the slot 87 in the manner described. A cartridge is now placed on the receiver by manually rotating the tray 80. The tray upon being released is returned to its closed position by the springs 82. The breech block is now released and is carried forward by the springs 26. The cartridge is held in position by the member 37 as shown in Fig. 7 and is carried into the chamber by the movement of the breech block, the extractor 94 fitting over the flange on the base of the cartridge. When the block has been com-V pletely translated by the springs 26, the
` torsion spring 44 comes into play and rotates the member 39 upon the pintle 28, which causes the 4lugs 42 on the member 39 to interlock with the lugs 43 on the interior of the breech recess. 'Iilie interfitting lands and grooves 40 and 41 between the pintle 2H and the member 39 are upon the Same pitch as the lugs 42 and 43 so that the pintle 28 and part 39 remain in close engagement when the member 39 moves forward owing to the obliquity of the lugs.
When the breech was retracted the cock` ing cam 74 was engaged b v the end of the member GU which was thereby caused to partially rotate about its axis 61. theinner end 59 meanwhile moving rearwardly and engaging the cam lugs (S3. thereby moving the firing pin and ejector assembly rearwardly sufficiently for the scar 5T to engage the shoulder 49 ofethe firing piu sleeve.
iben the breech block closed the member till passed thc rocking can] T4, tbc latter tilting in a manner similar to that; of the firing cam as indicated in F ig. 6.
The breech now being closed the various elements are positioned as shown in Figs. 5 and 8, and a cartridge is in the chamber. The handle G8 is pulled rearwardly, moving the rod 67 and member 71 in that direction. The outer end of the firing cam T2 is in engagement with the housing (5G and consequently the cam cannot tilt but instead moves rearwardly the outer end of the member 60, the inner end of the latter member consequently moving forward and pressing the sleeve 56 over the cam surface of the sear 57, thereby depressing the scar and releasing the firing pin which is driven forwardly by the compressed spring 55, thus firing the cartridge.
The locking lugsl 43 in the breech recess are preferably placed upon what is known as the Blish angle as defined in the patent to Blish, No. 1,131,319, March 9, 1915, and the breech block remains immovable until the pressure in the bore has been reduced to a predetermined working pressure. This pressure then forces the lugs 42,:1gainst the lugs 43 and due to their relative Obliquity the block is rotated against the resistance of the springs 26. After the rotation of the block is completed it is positioned as shown in Fig. 12 relative to the lug 85 and as the block starts to move rearwardly the lug 85, which has been held pressed 1n its socket by .the rear face of the piece, `is released and retains the block in rotated position against the torsion of the spring 44.
The empty shell is carried back with the block by the extractor 94. The firing pin is again cocked by the cam lug 74 as has been heretofore described. When the block reaches the rear of the receiver the disk 52 bears against the base of the central cavity of the recoil buffer 31, the spring 53 is compressed and thc firing pin is pressed out against the base of the cartridge which ejects the cartridge through the opening 90.
Before the spring 53 is fully compressed the rear of the member 28 comes to rest against the facing 34 of the buffer. the spring 32 being somewhat compressed.
The barrel and receiver together are moved forward by the piston 18 of the re coil cylinder before the springs 26 act to return the breech block. In this movement of the receiver the cam roll S5 acts against the cam guide 83 to tilt the tray and throw `another cartridge in the receiver, which cartridge is lifted by the tray 3T and is forced into the breech as heretofore described.
vWhen the breech block is fully translated the `lug S5 is depressed by the breech face to release the breech block proper il!) which is rotated into locking engagement by the torsion nf the spring 44.
The recoil and reloading and return of the piece takes place so rapidly that it is impractical for the operator to release the firingr lever before the piece is ready to fire again. In the counter recoil the member' 60 will pass the firing lug 72 by tilting the latter as shown in Fig. 6. The firing handle is then released and the assembly 7l moves forward, the firing lug 72 passing the member 60 by tilting the latter against the spring 62. The piece may now be fired a second time by again pulling the firing lever.
As shown and described my improved gun comprises a connection with a barrel having therein the usual firing chamber, a com posite breech closure which is reciprocated into and out of position to close the firing chamber. The closure comprises a locking portion rotatable relative t0 the remaining portion of the closure, the rotation accomplishing the locking and unlocking by means of intcritting locking surfaces upon the locking portion and the interior of the breech recess. These locking surfaces are preferably formed at such angles that the closure is held closed during high breech pressure but is automatically unlocked in direct response `to the pressure when it has decreased to a relatively low and safe working pressure. A helical connection has been provided between the locking portion of the breech and the pintle upon the carrier p0rtion, the helix having substantially the same obliquity as that of the locking surfaces.
l. A gun comprising a breech closure having a locking portion rotatable relatively1 to the remaining portion into and out of locking position, a spring for rotating said locking portion into locked position, a catch for holding said locking portion in unlocked position, and means automatically to trip said catch in the latter stage of the closing movement of the closure.
2. In a gun of the class described a combined tiring pin and ejector comprisingr a firing member and a sleeve therefor, the
sleeve adapted to press the firing member forward to fire a cartridge when the breech is closed and the rear end of the firing member adapted to be pressed forward to cause the firing member to eject the cartridge during the opening movement ofthe breech.
3. In a gun of the class described a combined firing pin and ejector comprising a firing member and a sleeve therefor, the sleeve adapted to press the firing member forward to fire a cartridge when the breech is closed and the rear end of the firing member adapted to be pressed forward by contact with a fixed portion of the receiver to cause the firing member to eject a cartrid e durinlg the opening movement of the breec 4. gun comprising a barrel and a breech closure therefor, said breech closure being adapted to be rotated in unlocking from said barrel, a torsion spring tending to maintain said block locked and adapted to store energ f in the unlocking movement, said store energy being adapted to rotate the block in the locking movement and a locking lug adapted to retain said breech closure in its rotated position while open, and to release it upon closing.
5. A gun comprising a barrel and a breech closure therefor having an axial opening therethrough, a combined firing member and ejector therein comprising a firing pin, a sleeve therefor, said sleeve having a shoulder adapted to be engaged by a sear, the ring pin having a shoulder engaged by the forward end of said sleeve, a tripping sleeve surrounding said first mentioned sleeve,-a firing s r1n retained between the shoulder on t e ngrst mentioned sleeve and the tripping sleeve, and means adapted t0 move said tripping sleeve forward whereby said sear is moved out of engagement with 'said shoulder and the firing pin is moved forward by said firing spring.
Signed by me at Cleveland, Ohio, this 28th day of February 1920.
LESLIE D. FISHER.