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Publication numberUS1360541 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 30, 1920
Filing dateOct 25, 1915
Priority dateOct 25, 1915
Publication numberUS 1360541 A, US 1360541A, US-A-1360541, US1360541 A, US1360541A
InventorsLevin Isaac H
Original AssigneeLevin Isaac H
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electrolytic apparatus
US 1360541 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

l. H. LEWN.

ELECTROLYTIC APPARATUS.

RENEWED APR. 23, 1920.

APPLICATION FILED 0CT.25, 1915- 1,360,541.

Patented Nov. 30, 1920.

2 SHEETS-SHEET I.

I. H LEVIN.

ELECTROLYTIC APPARATUS. APPLICATION FILED 0CT.25, 1915. RENEWED APR. 23, 1920.

1,360,541. Patented Nov. 30,1920.

Z SHEETS-SHEET 2 the hydrostatic and the UNITED STATES PATENT orr ce.

IS AAG H. LEVIN, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.

ELECTROLYTIC APPARATUS.

' Specification of Letters Patent. Patented Nov. 30, 1920.

Application filed October 25, 1915, Serial No. 57,727. Renewed April 23, 1920. Serial No..37'6,166.

and State of New York, have invented certam new and useful Improvements in Electrolytic Apparatus, of which the following is a specification, reference being had there- 111, to the acconpanymg drawlngs, which form a part theyeof.

My invention relates to electrolytic apparatus and more particularly to improvenients in such apparatus of the filter press ty 3e. hefilter press type of electrolytic apparatus. has certain advantages as. compared with the uni-polar type of apparatus, in that its structure is more compact; it may be more conveniently assembled; it is less liable to disarrangement of parts; and it has greater capacity for gas production with a given floor space. It may be more readily inspected and the electrolyte feed mechanism, and gas offtake mechanism, thereof, may be so constructed as to readily control gas pressures throughout the apparatus. In this type of apparatus the electrolyte feed mechanism and the gas ofl'take mechanism usually include therein conduits formed by openings in the electrodes themselves and the electrodes are separated by a diaphragm, usuwhich is absorbent while beimpermeable to the gases sides thereof.

ally of asbestos ing practically generated upon the opposite The electrodes are usually made of iron,- I have discovered that the presence of a certain small percentage of impurities in the gases produced are traceable to the decomposition of electrolyte in the electrolyte feed and gas ofi'take conduit. By controlling the hydrostatic and gas pressures within the various cells, I have found that I am enabled to avoid the presence of electrolyte in the gas ofitake ducts in sutlicient quantity to avoid the formation of gases in these conduits in volume sufficient to result in any substantial percentage of impurities in the gases, but in the electrolyte feed ducts such decomposi- .tion does occur with a resultant admixture of gases showing impurities in the product of'a suiiiciently high percentage to be material. I have also discovered that irrespective of the degree of pressure applied to the the diaphragm through adjacent edge -ofof the electrolyte does electrodes, seepage and Y occur and I conceive that a certain percentage of impurities may be produced in the gas by reasonof the decomposition of this electrolyte between the electrodes.

By my present invention, I am enabled to secure a highly eifectivc insulation of the ad aCent electrodes to prevent the seepage of the electrolyte between the electrodes through the absorptive properties of the edge of the diaphragm; and to raise the percentageof purityof the gases produced, by preventlng the'decomposition of the electrolyte while in the ducts formed by the open- 1ngs in the various electrodes. I also am enabled to form both a fluid and a gas-tightjoint between adjacent electrodes, thus preventing not only the escape of the electro-' lyte, but also the escape of gases. The escape of gases is a matter of considerable importance, not becauseof waste of the gases,

but because apparatus of this character are usually employed in manufacturing plants and the escape of the gases is generally considered a substantial fire risk.

The invention consists in the novel features ofconstruction and combination of parts hereinafter set forth and described and more particularly pointed out in the claims hereto appended.

Referring to the drawings Figure 1 is a front elevation of a bi-polar electrode showing a diphragm in relation thereto, the diphragm being broken away;

Fig.2 is a vertical section of a group of electrodes;

Fig. 3 is an enlarged view of one of the lugs of the electrode with the insulating linm positioned therein;

ig. .4 is a detail of one of the sections of the insulating lining; and

Fig. 5 is a perspective view of a corner of the diaphragm.

Like letters refer to like parts throughout the several views.

In the filter press type of electrolytic apparatus, the cells are formed by a series ofbi-polar electrodes, the gases passing from the top of these electrodes, and the electrolyte being delivered adjacent the bottom thereof. This type of electrode, at {this time, is old in the arts, the present invention relating more particularly to certainQdefinite characteristics of the apparatus, the effect of which is to secure a higher percentage'of purity than was possible with the old appa- In the accompanying drawings, I have illustrated merely those portions of the apparatus, the operative effect of which is modified by my present invention.

Each of the electrodes used in this type of apparatus is the same as every other and a description of but one of them will be entered into. In this electrode it indicates a frame, having-within it a metallic plate 5. Gas oft'take ducts are provided above the metallic plate I). and electrolyte feed ducts, toward the bottom of said plate, are also provided. Ordinarily to avoid the escape of gas from one gas ofttake duct to the other, orthe flow of electrolyte from one electrolyte feed duct to the other, the ducts are formed in lugs projecting from the frame a and spaced away from each other so that any flow of the gas or electrolyte from the ducts would be to atmosphere. In the accompanying drawings,- the lugs having the openings forming the gas otftake duct are shown at c rl and the lugs having the openings forming the electrolyte feed ducts are shown at c f. Each lug 0 has therein an opening 0 communicating by a short duct 0 with the interior of the frame 0 upon one side of the plate I). The lug (Z has an opening cl communicating with the other side of the plate 6 through the short duct (Z The lug 0 has an opening 0 therein communicating through the short duct c with the space within the frame a upon one side of the plate 6, and the lug g has a similar opening 9 which communicates through a similar short duct 5/ with the other side of said plate. This construction and arrangement is old in this art.

y grouping a plurality of such bi-polar electrodes face to face, a series of cells is formed, one face of the plate 6 of one electrode forming the anode for a cell and theface of the plate 7) of the adjacent electrode presented toward said anode, forming the cathode.

Each of the lugs crlcf about the opening therethroug'h, is countersunk as at provided with such a countersink.

Mounted in each of said openings is a nipple, having the two-fold function of forming a fluid proof connection between adjacent electrodes and of insulating said ducts in a manner to prevent decomposition of any electrolyte therein. This nipple is preferably made of soft vulcanized, highly elastic rubber, although other substances the short duct leading from said lug opening to the interior of the electrode frame. The end of each of the extensions gg is adapted to abut against-a similar extension of the nipple carried by the adjacent electrode, thus forming a continuous insulating.

lining for each of the ducts 0'(Ze"f.

The nipples 9 have their field of greatest utility in connection with the electrolyte feed ducts inasmuch as the likelihood of decomposition of the electrolyte while in these ducts, is greater than with the gas olftake ducts wherein after the apparatus is in operation there may be little or no electrolyte. In that form of electrolytic apparatus of the filter press type wherein there is a continuous circulation of the electrolyte through the electrolyte feed ducts, the cells and the gas ofi'take ducts, decomposition of the elec-. trolyte will occur in all of said ducts. The result of such decomposition in these ducts is the presence of both gases produced in the apparatus, in each of the products thereof or a material increase in the percentage of impurities in each of these gases. ()rdinarily the gases produced in this type of apparatus are oxygen and hydrogen, and where decomposition of the electrolyte oc curs in the ducts. there will be a measurabl quantity of hydrogen in the oxygen pr duced and a measurable quantity of oxygen in the hydrogen produced. I have determined by the actual operation of apparatus employing insulated ducts, that the percentage of impurities in the gases produced ma be reduced to a point where these gases wil be approximately 99.8 pure.

.For the purpose of aiding in the accurate positioning of the nipples, I provide the flange g with a nub 7 visible exteriorly of the apparatus.

By using a soft rubber nipple, the pressure applied to the electrode when assembling the device will form a seal at four points of each nipple; the abutting edges will be forced together in a manner to form a tight joint at this point: the edge of the opening in the conduit will form a tight seal, the outer edge of the flange y will form a tight seal with the inneredge of the countersink and the top of said flange will be bulged outwardly so as to form a seal against the outer edge of said countersink. The nipple g. spanning as it does the space between the lugs of adjacent electrodes will prevent the closing of the circuit through said lug from one electrode to the. other in a manner to eliminatepr minimize likelihood of decomposition of the electrolyte while 1n the duct.

Each side of the frame a is provided with achannel (1 extending entirely about same. A diaphragm k is positioned between adjacent electrodes. This diaphragm here tofore has consisted of an' absorbent/sheet, impervious to gases, asbestos generally being used. This sheet had its edges clam'ped between the frames 0/ adjacent the electrodes, and it was found impossible to prevent the escape of electrolyte through capillary attraction to the outer side of the rim. By

my invention, I avoid the presence of electrolyte between the frames a by preventing contact of the diaphragm with said frames,

and by forming a gas and liquid tight seal completely surrounding the plate 6. within said frame. I also form a more perfect insulation between adjacent frames, and restrict the path of the current to the space within said frames occupiedby the electro lyte and divided by the diaphragm.

In securing this result, I provide the diaphragm h with an enlarged rimh' completely enveloping the 'edge. of said diaphragm, as shown more particularlyv in Fig. 5 of the drawings. This rim is made of insulating material, preferably of soft rubber.

. channel.

.I have found in actual practice that a diaphragm and electrode made as described prevents the escape of the electrolyte or gases at any point about the electrode and that an apparatus provided with the form of insulating packing, both as to the frames a and as to the various ducts carried thereby, produces gas having'a higher percentage of purity than it was possible to produce by apparatus not having these characteristies.

The various countersinks c d -e --f and channels a may be formed when casting the electrode itself, the construction heretofore described not requiring such accuracy in the formation of these countersinks or channels as to require a machine finish.

It is not my intention to limit the invention to the precise details of construction shown in the accompanying drawings, it being apparent that such may be varied to adapt the invention to different designs of apparatus of the filter press type without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Having described the invention what I claim as new and desire to have protected by Letters Patent is '1. An. electrolytic apparatus of the filter press type embodying therein a plurality of electrodes, each having therein openings adapted to form independent electrolyte feed ducts, a'diaphragm between adjacent electrodes, and a substantiall continuous lining of insulating material or said electrolyte feed ducts.

2. An electrolytlc apparatus of the filter press type embodying therein a plurality of electrodes each having therein opemngs adapted to form independent gas-ofit'take ducts, a diaphragm between adjacent electrodesand a substantially continuous lining .of insulating material for said gas off-take ducts. v

3. An electrolytic apparatus of the filter press type embodying therein a plurality of electrodes each having therein adjacent the bottom thereof openings adapted to form independent electrolyte feed ducts and openings adjacent the top thereof adapted to form gas ofltake'ducts, a diaphragm between adjacent electrodes and a substantially continuous lining of insulating material for said electrolyte feed 'ducts'and said gas offtake ducts.

4. An electrolytic apparatus of the filter press type embodying therein a plurality of electrodes, each having therein openings adapted to form independent electrolyte.

feed ducts, a diaphragm between adjacent electrodes, and a nipple formedv of insulat-L ing material having a flange centrally thereof and extensions upon opposite sides of said flange adapted to enter said openings to form an insulating lining therefor.

5. An electrolytic apparatus of the filter press type embodying therein a plurality of electrodes, each having therein openings adapted to form independent electrolyte feed ducts, a diaphragm between adjacent electrodes, and a soft rubber nipple having a flange centrally thereof and extensions upon opposite sides of said flange adapted to entersaid openings to form an insulating lining therefor.

6. An electrolytic apparatus of the filter press type embodying therein a plurality of electrodes each comprising a frame having a plate within same, a plurality of lugs projecting from the bottom of said frame, said lugs having openings ther'ethrough countersinks about each endof said openings, short ducts extending from the openings of said lugs respectively to within said frames upon opposite sides of said plate, a dia phragm between adjacent electrodes, a nipple formed of insulating material having a Y 7. An electrolytic apparatus of the filter press type embodying therein a plurality of electrodes, each having therein openings adapted to form independent gas ofitake ducts, a diaphragm between adjacent electrodes, and a nipple formed of insulating material having a flange centrally thereof and extensions upon opposite sides of said flange adapted to enter said openings to form an insulating lining therefor.

8. An electrolytic apparatus of the filter press type embodying therein a plurality of electrodes, each having therein openings adapted toform independent gas offtake ducts, a diaphragm between adjacent electrodes, and a soft rubber nipple having a flange centrally thereof and extensions upon opposite sides of said flange adapted to enter said openings to form an insulating lining therefor.

9. An electrolytic apparatus of the filter press type embodying therein a plurality of electrodes each comprising a frame having a plate within same, a plurality of lugs projecting from the top of said frame, said lugs having openings therethrough and countersinks about each end of said opening, short ducts extending from the openings of said lugs respectively to within said frames upon opposite sides of said plate, a diaphragm between adjacent electrodes, a nipple formed of insulating material having a flange centrally thereof and extensions upon opposite sides of said flange adapted to enter said gpenings to form an insulating lining there- 10. An electrolytic apparatus of the filter press type embodying therein a plurality of electrodes, each comprising a frame having a plate within same, a plurality of lugsprojecting from the top and from the bottom of said frame each of said lugs having openings therein adapted to form with openings of adjacent lugs a continuous duct, short ducts extending from each of said top lugs and each of said bottom lugs respectively to within said frame upon opposite sides of 12. An electrolytic apparatus embodying therein a plurality of bi-polar electrodes each comprising a frame, and a platelj'within said frame, said frame having upon each side thereof a continuous channel extending thereabout and a diaphragm having upon the edge thereof an elastic rim completely enveloping the edge of the diaphragm and adapted to enter said channel whereby contact of the diaphragm with said rim is prevented. I

13. An electrolytic apparatus embodying therein a diaphragm consisting of an absorbent, gas impervious sheet having molded about the edge thereof so as to completely envelop said edge. a head of soft vulcanized rubber.

14:. In an electrolytic apparatus a nipple for insulating the ducts leading to and from the cells consisting of a central flange of soft rubber having tubulaiextensions upon each side thereof, one side of said extension being shorter than the other.

In witness whereof I have hereunto afiixed my signature in the presence of two subscribing witnesses, this 22nd day of October 1915.

ISAAC H. LEVIN.

Witnesses;

CLAmon FRAINGK, JUDITH PARDEE.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2867575 *Aug 27, 1954Jan 6, 1959StamicarbonSelective ion-permeable membranes
US2916430 *Jan 13, 1958Dec 8, 1959Carwin CompanyElectrolytic cell
US3468787 *Aug 31, 1967Sep 23, 1969Chemech Eng LtdGraphite electrodes with double-walled loop current leakage seal and electrolytic cell therewith
US3962065 *Apr 14, 1975Jun 8, 1976Scoville Frank JChlorine gas or hypochlorite producing apparatus
Classifications
U.S. Classification204/256
International ClassificationC25B9/18, C25B9/20
Cooperative ClassificationC25B9/206
European ClassificationC25B9/20B2