US 1363553 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
ur vfema D. M. BARRINGER.
APPLICATION FILED JUNE 29. I918.
Patented Dec. 28, 1920.
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APPLICATION FILED JUNE 29. l9l8.
1,363,553. 7 Patented Dec. 28, 1920.
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Mme-Mom Daniel )[Barring'ag GEQMETRIGJRL Hfitiirturanrr iimneaiai PATENT OFFICE.
DANIEL MOREAU BARRINGER, OF HAVERFORD, PENNSYLVANIA.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Dec. 28, 1920.
Application filed June 29, 1918. Serial No. 242,516.
To all to hem it may concern Be it known that I, DANIEL MoRnAU BAR- RINGER, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Haverford, in the county of Montgomery and State of Pennsylvania, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Gun-Sights, whereof the following is a specification, reference being had to the accompanying drawings.
Although my invention may be said to relate primarily to sights for rifles or similar small arms, it is also applicable to machine guns and cannon, and it will, therefore, be understood that in using the expression gun-sights, I do not thereby intend to limit its use to any particular class or size of guns.
It will also be understood that the invention is adapted for use in connection with any desired adjunctive appliances, such as elevating devices and the like, but to avoid complication I have not shown in the drawings, nor shall I describe in the specification, any of these concomitant features.
The features of novelty characteristic of my invention reside in the construction of the rear sight of the gun and can be employed in connection with any desired form of front sight.
Furthermore, the characteristic principles of the invention lend themselves to emb0diment in structures comprising various de velopments of detail, and in order that the differentiation between several typical em bodiments may be more readily appreciated, I have, in the accompanying drawings, rep resented a device embodying the main characteristics in progressive steps of detailed development.
Thus, Figure I, represents in perspective a gun-sight embodying my invention in a very simple form; Fig. I being a view, in rear elevation, of the same embodiment.
Figs. II, III, and IV, are perspective views of sights embodying the invention with what may be considered as cumulative developments of details, Figs. II, III, and IV, being corresponding views, in rear elevation, of said respective embodiments.
In Figs. HP, and IV, solid black is employed to indicate conventionally the body or main portion of the respective devices, in order to emphasize, by the stippled bands, certain detail features under conditions characteristic of the use of the sight at night.
Fig. V, is an enlarged representation of the sight shown in Figs. II, and II, showing, in connection therewith, a preferred form of front sight, and so represented in fore-shortened perspective as to indicate the preferred relation between the tip of the front sight and the optical center of the rear sight when shooting point-blank.
Fig. VI, is a similar view of the sight, shown in Figs. IV, and IV indicating in a conventional manner similar to that employed in Fig. IV", the appearance of both the front'and rear sights when the device is used at night.
Referring to Figs. I, and I 1, represents the main block, or body of the sight, which is provided with a dove-tailed base 2, adapted to engage in a corresponding seat in the gun barrel, or in an adjunctive device mounted thereon. The rear face 3, of the sight (or that which is toward the observer), is inclined preferably at an angle of 45 to the horizon, such inclined face terminating, across its central region in a horizontal straight edge 4, but being continued upward on each side in two similar vertical projections 5, 5, thus forming a flat bottomed notch accurately defined to the eye as rectangular and symmetrically transverse to the axis of the gun-barrel, when properly viewed from the rear.
A straight groove is formed longitudinally along the center of the inclined face 3, and terminates accurately in the center of the rear edge 4:, of the notch, said groove being adapted to receive the strip 6, of mate,- rial which is relatively bright, as compared with the dark surface of the metal of the body. For permanency, I prefer to make this inlaid strip of ivory or some non-tarnishing metal, but paint, enamel or other adhesive material, contrasting in color with the main surface, might possibly be employed.
In Figs. II, and II, another embodiment is shown, the sight being similarly constructed with a body 21, dove-tail 22, rear inclined face 23, central notch 24, between the projections 25, 25, and inserted piece 26, of bright material, but with the additional feature that a deep groove 27, of semi-circular cross-section is formed longitudinally along the center of the notch 24, from front to rear, the upper extremity of the bright piece 26, terminating accurately at the bottom of the groove, as indicated.
At the rear extremity, the outline of the edge of the groove 27 is semi-oval, by reason of the angle of intersection of the inclined rear face 23, as indicated at 28. then, however, the sight is viewed from the rear, in the position of use, as shown in Fig. ID, the true semi-circular cross section of the groove 27, will be apparent.
Referring now to Figs. III, and III, a still further development of a typical device embodying the principle of the invention is shown. Save in one particular, about to be referred to, the structure of the sight shown in Figs. III, and III' is represented as identical with that shown in Figs. II, and ID, the several parts being indicated by similar figures raised by 10. Thus, the body of the sight is 31, the dovetail 32, etc.
Here, as in the case shown in Fig. II, the bright strip 36, terminates accurately at the bottom of the semi-cylindrical groove 37, but I form in the inclined face of the sight, a semi-oval shallow groove 39, optically symmetrical with the outline of the rear extremity 38, of the groove 37,but with slight interspace, as shown. Said groove 39, is adapted to retain a band of material which is luminous or visible in the dark. Such material, for instance a phosphorescent paint, can be rubbed into the groove, the surplus being completely wiped away so as to form a clearly defined luminous band, accurately surrounding, and optically corresponding with, the outline of the rear extremity 38, of the groove 37 The bright strip 36, in this instance bisects the luminous groove 39, and need not itself be luminous when the device is used at night. Under these conditions, the appearance of the rear face of the sight, when used in the dark, will be understood by reference to Fig. III, where the solid black portion indicates the general rear inclined face of the sight, the stippled portion 39, representing the luminous band, here shown as interrupted at the center of its bottom portion, by the non-luminous strip 36.
Referring now to Figs. IV and IV, a still further typical development is shown, in which I have indicated all the structural parts of the sight, with the exception of the feature about to be mentioned, as substan tially identical with those shown in Fig. III, the several parts being indicated by similar numerals again raised by 10. Thus, the main body is marked 41, the dove-tail 42, etc. In this instance, however, I provide two longitudinal grooves 40, which extend preferably along the entire inclined surface 43, near its edges, terminating in accurate central relation to the two uprights 45. Said grooves 40, are adapted to be filled with material luminous in the dark, in the same manner as is the groove 49, which surrounds the rear extremity of the groove 47, so that, in the dark, the rear of the sight will present the appearance indicated conventionally in Fig. IV, where the stippled lines 40, are shown foreshortened and dis posed with mathematical accuracy on each side of the central notch 47, and luminous band 49.
Referring now to Fig. V, I have therein shown a preferred form of front sight, in what I consider the most satisfactory elevation relatively to a rear sight, of the character shown in Fig. II. Said front sight comprises a vertical stem 50, Sllt'll'lOlllltCd by a head 51, and, as the result of experience I consider it desirable (though, of course, not essential), that when the observer aiming point-blank at a given object, the top portion of the periphery 51, should be tangential to the line which the rear edge of the notch 14, presents to the eye.
In Fig. VI, I have represented conventionally a preferred embodiment of front sight to be used in connection with the form of rear sight shown in Figs. IV, and IV, in this instance I consider it desirable that the stem 60, of the front sight should not be luminous at night, and hence have indicated it by dotted lines, but the tip or head 61, should have its rear face covered with a luminous material, such as phosphorescent paint, and for the best results, the upper surface of the periphery of the bead (51, should be tangential to the transverse edge line of the notch 34.
Having described these several typical embodiments of my invention, I will now proceed to describe what may be termed the optical characteristics due to the structural arrangement of the parts which embody the new and improved features.
A primary and important feature consists in the fact that an elongated sloping surface rising at an angle of approximately 45, to the horizontal is presented to the eye instead of a vertical surface, as in most rear sights. The result is that if an optically bright line extends along the exact longitudinal center of this surface, the eye will catch this line near its base and follow it up to the bottom of the notch in the upper portion of the sight, without conscious effort. To illustrate the matter by familiar examples, the eye will catch and follow a straight road extending up an evenly inclined hill from its lowest to its highest point, much more readily, and, so to speak, automatically, than it would follow a vertical chimney or tower from its lowest to its highest point. I believe that this phenomenon ,isdue to what may be considered as a part of the general principles, upon which the so-called laws of perspective depend, but this statement, however, is simply by way of explanation and is not intended to be restrictive. Whatever the true explanation, however, the specific effect here referred to is substantially absent if the angle of inclination of the rear face of the sight is greatly below 45.
Another desirable feature is that by the use of this optically bright line, in perspective I may employ a relatively wide or open notch, with the effect that the user of the si ht may readily see all around the object or point at which he is aiming. Of course this advantage of the bright band in connection with the wide notch is most perfectly realized when the notch is wide as compared with the front sight employech or, in other words, get a general view of portions of his objective adjacent the point aimed at.
lVhile this feature of a wide notch is not in itself new, its value is greatly enhanced when employed in connection with the inclined rear surface and bright central line thereon. This line produces its effect of causing the eye to locate the front sight in the center of the notch most perfectly when the line is, relatively, quite narrow in comparison with the notcln -irrespective of the relative width of notch and front sight. It may be added that the peculiar value of the combination above described is more notable when the observer is obliged to aim quickly at a moving object, the conditions being quite different from those which exist when aiming at an ordinary stationary target.
All these points are true of the simplest type of my inproved sight shown in Figs. I, and I, but with the progressive development of details indicated in the remaining figures, still greater accuracy of aim may be obtained almost unconsciously on the part of the observer, by reason of the optical characteristics afforded by the parts. Thus, in the arrangement shown in Fig. II, the bright line 26, terminates accurately at the bottom of the central groove 27, and the eye is not only additionally guided by the two uprights 25, on either side of the wide notch, but also the closer definition afforded by the rear edge of the semi-circular groove 27, to which the inclined bright strip 26, directly leads.
Referring now to the types of the invention shown in Figs. III, III, and IV, IV, the usefulness of the device is enhanced when the device is used in the dark, the eye being guided by the luminous band symmetrically arranged with relation to the line of profile, and, as shown in VI, the tip or bead of the front sight, being also luminous on its rear face, can readily be found by the observer and located centrally with relation to the straight bands 40, and to the optical center of the curved band 49, which surrounds the rear face of the groove 47, the eye being aided by the interruption of the luminous band 49, at the center of its lowest portions.
Having thus described my invention, I wish it to be understood that certain terms are employed in a relative sense and are not to be strictly interpreted. Thus, in speaking of the strip 6, and the corresponding elements in the other figures, I have referred to it as bright. By this term I do not mean that it should be so brilliant as to dazzle the eye, but merely that it should be distinctively conspicuous by contrast with the general inclined surface of the rear face of the sight, which ordinarily would be of the dull color characteristic of blued steel or gun metal. So also in referring to the luminous bands, I do not mean that they should be of such a degree of luminosity as to disturb the eye, but merely that by contrast with the surrounding surfaces they should be distinctly and clearly marked when viewed in the dark.
Furthermore, in employing the terms strip and band, I do not mean that these elements are necessarily continuous lengthwise, since a similar optical effect could obviously be obtained by a device having the desired general line, but l1011-CO11- tinuous in actual structure.
Finally, I desire to state that in recognizing the state of the prior art, relating to gun-sights I include Letters Patent of the United States No. 494,240, granted to me under date of March 28, 1893, and, of course, desire that the present invention shall be clearly distinguished from anything which is shown or described in said Letters Patent.
1. A gun-sight, comprising a body with an extended rear face, inclined away from the eye at angle of about 45 at even the shortest ranges, and terminating at its upper extremity in a wide notch affording the marksman a general view of portions of his objective adjacent the point aimed at, and having two similar vertical projections at its sides; in combination with a bright strip relatively narrow in comparison with the notch extending longitudinally along the central line of the inclined rear face of said body and terminating upwardly, at the rear edge of said notch, symmetrically between the proximate faces of said projections, so as to afford the eye automatic guidance to the center of the notch and facilitate and expedite centering of the point aimed at therein.
2. A gun-sight, comprising a body with an extended rear face, terminating at its upper extremity in a notch so wide in comparison with the sight with which it is to be employed as to afford the marksman a general view of portions of his objective adjacent the point aimed at, and having two similar vertical projections at the sides; in combination with a bright strip extending longitudinally along the central line of the inclined rear face of said body and terminating upwardly, at the rear edge of said notch, symmetrically between the proximate faces of said projections, so as to alford the eye automatic guidance to the center of the notch and thus facilitate and expedite centering of the front sight and the point aimed at therein.
3. A gun-sight, comprising a body with an extended inclined rear face, terminating at its upper extremity in a notch having two similar vertical projections at the sides; said notch being provided with a curved groove lying centrally along it from front to rear; in combination with a bright strip extending longitudinally along the central line of the inclined rear face and terminat ing at the bottom of the edge of said groove, and symmetrically between the proximate faces of said projections.
. 4. A gun-sight, comprising a body with an extended inclined rear face, terminating at its upper extremity in a notch having two similar vertical projections at the sides, said notch being provided with a curved groove lying centrally along it from front to rear; in combination with a bright strip extending longitudinally along the central line of the inclined rear face and terminating at the bottom of the edge of said groove, and symmetrically between the proximate faces of said projections; and a band of luminous material upon said inclined face, in symmetrical. relation to the rear edge of said notch.
5. A gun-sight, comprising a body with an extended inclined rear face, terminating at its upper extremity in a notch having two similar vertical projections at the sides, said notch being provided with a curved groove lying centrally along it from front to rear; in combination with a bright strip extending longitudinally along the central line of the inclined face and terminating at the bottom of the edge of said groove, and two straight bands of luminous material lying along the inclined rear face, respectively adjacent to the side edges thereof and symmetrical to the center of said notch.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto signed my name, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, this 27th day of June, 1918.
DANIEL MOREAU BARRINGER Witnesses:
JAMES H. BELL, E. L. FULLERTON.