US 13663 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
UNITED STATES 'PATENT OFFICE.
HEZEKIAH B. SMITH, OF LO\VELL, MASSACHUSETTS.
Specification of Letters Patent No. 13,663, dated October 9, 1855.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, HEZEKIAH B. SMITH, of Lowell, in the county of Middlesex and Commonwealth of Massachusetts, have invented a new and useful Self-Moving, Stopping, and Reversing Power Mortising-Machine; and I hereby declare that the follow ing specification, in connection with the accompanying drawings and references thereon, constitute a lucid, clear, and faithful description of the construct-ion and use of the same.
In referring to the drawings, Figure 1 denotes a plan or top view. Fig. 2, a front side elevation. Fig. 3 an edge view of t-he same. Fig. 4, is a transverse and vertical section on line A, B, Figs. 1 and 2 showing parts beyond.
Invention-The nature of my invention consists of the mortising machine hereafter fully described, which is so constructed that large timber can be mortised thereon, and so that the carriage carrying the chisel will be fed or moved downward by power to form the mortise by the movement of my machine until t-he mortise is formed the required depth. Then the downward movement will cease, and allow the timber to be moved along so that one head of the mortise will be formed. Then by removing the foot from a lever or its equivalent, the carriage is moved upward by power until t-he cutting edge of the chisel is above the surface of the timber, when the chisel instantly reverses by power and the carriage is again moved down by power, by pressing down the treadle, or lever by the foot so that the chisel will form the mortise the required depth in the timber, which is then moved along unt-il the chisel forms the other head of the mortise, all substantially as hereafter described.
Construction-To enable persons skilled in the art to which my invention appertains, to construct and carry out the same, I will describe it as follows. I construct a strong frame of iron, seen at A, A, to which is tted the iron chisel carriage seen at B in such manner that it may slide up and down by power. To the top of the carriage B, I suspend the shaft D, in bearings so as to revolve, and on which is placed the crank or driving wheel C, it being firmly secured to it. To the wheel C, is fastened the wrist O, which carries, and operates the revolving chisel Y2, by means of the connecting rod E, pin V, socket F, and chisel piston G, the piston G is kept from dropping out of the socket F by means of the pin H, which passes through the socket F into the groove formed in the chisel piston G, as seen at Fig. 4L.
On the carriage B I form two stands or bearings seen at K, K, to the upper one the socket F is fitted so as to slide freely up and down by operation of the wheel C, to the lower stand K is fitted the reversing cylinder I, so that it may easily turn therein to reverse the chisel Y2. To the reversing cylinder I, is fitted the steel plunger Gr, this plunger has a spline fitted and fastened to it as seen at J, Figs. 2 and 3, this spline is fitted to the reversing cylinder I, so as to easily slide therein as the chisel plunger Gr is moved up and down. The upper part of the reversing cylinder I is grooved so as to receive a band as seen at M, this band passes around the two friction rolls L, L, and thence up around the pulley N, on the shaft D by which it is operated. On the lower part of the reversing cylinder I is formed the two stops seen at Y, Y, which strike the vertical moving bar B2, when the chisel is in position to cut either head ofl the mortise, when itis moved down by the lever A2 so that the stop Y will come in contact with it. I form two recesses equidistant from each other in the reversing cylinder, seen at Z into which the bar B2 projects when moved upward to stop the chisel when reversed by the stop B2, striking against the projections of metal left in the recesses Z, the band M playing loosely around the cylinder I, and pulleys N and L, will slip around the cylinder I when it is held by the bar B2, and catch Y, or by the projections of metal in the groove Z, when the chisel Y2 is mortising the wood, but will instantly turn or reverse the chisel piston or plunger Gr, and chisel Y2, when the bar B2 is moved up or down by the lever A2.
This device hereinbefore specified for simply reversing the chisel is embraced in, and forms part of my original invent-ion of mortising machine patented by me J anuary 10th 1854. Therefore I lay no claim to it here, but briefly describe it, and its connection with the other parts of my machine which constitute the subject of the present application for patent.
' I form the lower part of the movable carriage B of sufficient thickness to receive the screw G2, by the revolving of which this carriage B is raised or lowered with great power to force the carriage B, down, and the chisel Y2 into the wood, of sufficient depth, it being impracticable to move up heavy timbers to the chisel which renders it necessary to move down the carriage B, chisel Y2 and parts operating them.
A stand seen at U2 F ig. 4L, is cast with, or otherwise formed on the frame A constituting the lower bearing for the screw G2. On the lower end of this screw is fitted and fastened a bevel gear seen at H2, which gears into and is driven by the corresponding bevel gear T2 firmly fastened upon the horizontal shaft J2. The bearings for it are seen at T2, and S2. To the out end of the shaft J2 is fitted the pulleys U, and W, and clutch K2. This clutch slides on the shaft J2 andis kept from turning on this shaft, by the spline f.
I form two projections on the pulley XV as seen at a, a, which correspond with two similar projections b, b, from the side of the clutch K2. I also form two more projections seen at c, c, from the opposite side of the clutch K2, and two corresponding ones seen at CZ, CZ, from the sidev of the pulley U, these constitute the reversible clutching apparatus by which the chisel Y2 is moved both up and down by power.
l construct a main driving shaft seen at K which is suspended to a portion of the iron frames seen at X2. To this shaft is secured the balance wheel T, with its crank pin seen at 72, also the driving pulleys S, R and Q. The driving pulley S is connected to, and drives the pulley U by belt. The pulley Q is likewise connected to, and drives the pulley YV by belt. The pulley R connects with and drives the pulley P, and consequently the shaft D, and mortising chisel Y2. The balance wheel T, occupies the same position which is intended to be occupied by the driving pulley in a large machine.
I construct a metallic lever seen at N2 which is operated by foot to so connect the clutches so that the carriage B and chisel Y2 will move downward by power. Said lever turns in the stands N 2. This lever is kept upward by the spring R2. A portion of the lever N2, seen at L, is projected upward into the groove g in the clutch K2 which projection operates to ship the clutch K2 from the pulley U to the pulley W as desired, or to disconnect it from either of them.
T form an arm seen at O2 which connects with the projection L2. This arm is operated upon to stop the chisel Y2-from descending too far downward, and to reverse the movement of the screw G2, by the pulley Q2 coming in contact with the bent portion J of the arm O- and pressing it off so as to uncoupla the clutch K2 from the pulley W if the foot be, or be not on it, when and after the chisel Y2 penetrates the wood the desired depth.
After the stopping of the downward movement of the carriage B, and chisel Y2 by shipping the clutch K2 from the pulley TV, the foot is then removed from the lever N2 which is then instantly raised up, by the spiral spring R2, thereby connecting the clutch K2 with the pulley U, which moves up the carriage B2, and chisel Y2 out of the mortise, which upward movement is stopped by the pulley P2 coming in contact with the bent portion J of the lever O2 which presses off this lever and unclutches the clutch K2 from the pulley U, the carriage B, will thus remain up until the lever N2 is again pressed down by the foot or otherwise as before described, when the chisel Y2 moves up out of the mortise it is instantly reversed as before described, when it is ready to again be moved down by power, by placing the foot upon the lever N2 and pressing it down so as to connect the clutch K2 with the pulley WV which will readily be seen.
The pulley Q2 is made adjustable to give any required depth to the mortise by means of the slot which is formed in ther stand E2, it is not necessary to have the pulley P2 adjustable, as the chisel Y2 and carriage B, are always raised to about the same height when moved upward by power. l The lever A2, the out end of which is kept up by the spring C2, strikes the fixed stand D2 when the carriage B` moves upward by which the reversing cylinder I, and chisel Y2 are allowed to be reversed by the band M, which reversing operation will readily be seen, and understood by inspect-ion of the drawings.
U 86.-111 using my wit-hin described power mort-ising machine, T first place the timber to be mortised, upon the stationary metallic bed piece F2, then press the lever N2 down by the foot, which moves the clutch K2 so as to clutch with and revolve the' pulley W, shaft J2, bevel gear I2 which gears into and drives the gear H2, and screw G2, ony which the gear H2 is placed, in the right direction to move the carriage B and chisel Y2, down until the chisel Y2 penetrates to the proper depth into the timber for the desired mortise.
The gage of the depth of the mort-isc is effected by first setting or adjusting the friction pulley Q2 in such position by means of the slot z' in the stand E2 that this friction pulley Q2 will come in contact with the bent portion J of the lever O2 which will push off this lever, and raise the lever N2, whether the foot be, or be not on it, and consequently unshipping the clutch K2 from the pulley W by the arm L2. Then the timber is moved or slid along by any desired means, until one end or head of the mortise is formed. Then the foot is removed from the lever N2 which lever will then be instantly drawn up by the spring R2, and throw back the lever Q2 and arm L2, which will move the clutch 172 into connection with the pulley U by which means the sorevv G2 and intermediate connections are revolved in an opposite direction so as to raise the carriage B, and chisel Y2 out of the mortise. The upward movement of the chisel Y2 and carriage B is stopped by the friction pulley P2 coming in Contact withthe bent portion J of the lever O2, and pressing it and the arm L2 and clutch Y2 forward and consequently unclutching it from the pulley U, after the cutting edge of the chisel Y2 is above the upper surface of the timber which is being mortised. Then the chisel Y2 is instantly reversed by the parts embodied in my patent of January l0, 1854 hereinbefore briefly described, so as to form the opposite head of the mortise. Then the carriage B carrying the chisel Y2 is again moved down as before stated, and so on for any desired number of mortises. Thus it will be seen that the largest mortises desired, can be formed in the hardest timber, by simply 1. I claim moving the ohisel carriage B to, and' from the wood to be mortised, by power, essentially in the manner and for the purposes set forth.
2. I claim in combination the bent lever O2, clutches K2, a, c, and d, pulley stops P2 and Q2, or their mechanical equivalents by which the chisel carriage B will stop its own motion, at, or near any desired point, Substantially in the manner and for the purposes set forth.
HEZEKIAH B. SMITH.
litnesses WILLIAM B. MERRiLL, E. W'. SCOTT.