US 1370798 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
H. of. EGERTON.
REINFORCED GRIPPING RUBBER SHOE SOLE. APPLICATION FILED JUNE3, 1918.
1,370,? 98. Patented Mar..8, 1921.
UNITED v STATES" PATENT'OFFIQE REINFORCED GRIPIPINQ RUBBER SHOE-SOLE.
Specification of. Letters Patent.
Application filed June s, 1918. Serial No. 237,858.
T ZZwhom-it may concern.-
Be it known thatI, HENRY C. EGERTON, a
citizen of the-United States, and resident of Ridgew'ood,'county of Bergen, State of New} Jersey, have made a certainnew and useful Invention Relating to Reinforced Gr1pping Rubber Shoe*Soles, of which the following'is a specification, taken in connection with the accompanying drawing, which forms part of the-same-.
This invention relates especially to rubber shoe soles in some cases, including heel "portions thereof and also. including separate,
heel members, which com-prise gripping elements or members of a relatively rigid character adapted to have'desirable strengthen-. ing and wear resistingproperties which may be embedded in the rubber or other shoe soles so as to form ribs, stud pins orother shaped members flush :Wlllll or more or less projecting from the normal wearing surface of the shoe sole, so as to give mcreased gripping engagement with the ground.
rlpplng members of this character may' advantageously be formed of or comprlse fabric or other fibrous material, at least in the' body-portions of such members, containing or impregnated with phenol aldehyde cementing material such as bakelite varnish or similar compositions which has been of such phenolic-condensation cementing material in the-finished shoe sole. The
gripping members when in the form of ribs, folds or generally similar projections mayin many cases be formed by shaping up the desired number of layers of fabric coated or .impregnated with such phenolic condensation cementing material and then curing or solidifying them into permanent form before 'or after they have been secured to' or.
incorporated with the rubber or other material constituting the main wearing surface of the sole. In some cases,.however, the gripping members may be given a relatively rigid character by forming them of such bakelite or other phenolic condensation cementing'material which may be molded into studs, pins, ribs, or other membe'rs to properlv cooperate with the sole wearing surface anc these gripping members may in some instances be toughened and rendered more desirable by incorporating therein varying amounts of fibrous material, such'aschopped threads, string or fabric, wood pulp, etc., or
. pieces of heavier cord or rope may be used for greater clearness. cured or solidified by heat so as to be in'the' stilf and strong moderately CLIIQCl'CODClltlOIling of the parts.
as the body orsl,ibs'tantial ofsuch gripping members after being impregnated incorporated by-giving them a frictioned orother coating or layer of rubber throughout more or lessofthe. surface with which the rubber sole composition engages and the gripping elements which may of course be incorporated or connected WliJhSOlG stiffening members or elements which may constitute backing layers 'or 'members on."the side of the sole opposite to its wearing surface,
Patented Mar. 8, 1921.
may contain phenolic condensation cementing material. which may either be curedor solidified befOrd-being connected or incor porated with the rubbersole-composition or Subsequently to such. incorporation which makes it possible to simultaneously cure the phenolic condensation cementing material and vulcanize the rubbersole composition and unite all the'parts together.
In the accompanying drawing showing ina somewhat diagrammatic Way. various illustrative embodiments of this invention,
" Figure l is a perspective view of a shoe solemember, parts'being shown in section Fig. 2 is a plan,.view of ments of this shoe sole indicatingthe shapone" of the ele- Fig. is a perspective. view showing the heel gripping member before incorporation of the rubber sole composition therewith.
" Fig. 4; is a perspective viewshowing an-' other construction.
' Fig. 5 is a corresponding longitudinalsection.
Fig. 6 is a perspective view showing the manner of forming heel stool: therefor.
.Fig'. 7 is plan view showlng another consti'uction.
'; Fig. 8 is an enlarged partial" section showing portions thereof.
I Fig. 9 is an enlarged perspective view of one of these elements.
v.lFig. 10 is an e nlarged sectional View of Fig. 11 is a perspective view showing still another arrangement, the parts being shown In the illustrative form of the invention shown in Fig. 1 the toeportion 1 of the shoe sole may be formed of rubber composition 3 on the outer or wearing surface and where an incorporated stiffener strip or member is used this rubber composition may be of the softer and stronger grades of vulcanized rubber giving increased, wearing'and other desirable properties as compared to the stiffer rubber sole compositions usually employed which contain such undesirably large proportions of relatively inflexible material. f desired a connector stiffener strip or mem= her 4 may be used having its upperZ-surface adjacent the rubber'com'position coated with a frictioned or other rubbercoating 6 which 'may be' united or incorporated in any suitable way with the canvas or other fabric of which thissti-flener member may be composed. The other side of this connector stiflener member may be coated or incorporated with phenolic condensation cementing material, such, for lnstance, 'asvbakellte varnlsh No. 1 and a similarly coated or incorporated convas orother stiffener strip or member 5 may be used throughout the entire-or any desired extent of the shoe sole to give increased stiffness thereto and be securely ,and
or other fabric 'ormaterial may be folded or formed into relatively rigid gripping members projecting toward or to the wearing surface of the shoe sole and as indicated- 1n Fig. 1 any desired-numberof transverse gripping ribs or 'folds 7 may be formed in this way which may project adjacent the wearing surface of the incorporated rubber sole composition 3. By folding one or more layers of 8 ounce army duck or generally slmllar canvas or fabrlc 1n thls way qulte' strong and heavy transverse gripping ribs may be formed in this connector stiffener member and it is usually desirable to have these ribs terminate adjacentto but not at the sides of the shoe sole. A- convenient way of shaping the blank for this purpose is shown in Fig. 2 in which indentations, such as 8, maybe stamped or out in the blank at the proper intervals and then when'theblank is formed or folded along the dotted'lines as by forcing these parts of the fabric successivelyinto slots or recesses in a suitable metallic mold, for'e'xample, the adjacent faces of the impregnated fabrlc are brought i'nto contact or united by the incorporated phenolic condensation cementingfmaterial so: that the stiffener member may be cured-in this form so' as to subsequently retain its shape. Gripping studs may be simultaneously formed in this stiffener member by cutting or shaping the fabric to form several flaps, such as 9, 1n the desired parts of the shoe sole and; these may jecting studs or pins 10 of any desired size and shape which are relatively rigid and strong after the heat curing of the cementing material. The blank shown in Fig. 2 may be forced into such a mold beginning with the shank portion of theblank and successively forcing each fold 7 into its corresponding slot whichof course draws the front end of the blank backward so that finally the folded blank has the desired sole outline indicated by the dotted line 1 in Fig. 2." The flaps 9 may then be forced into the stud recesses in the moldv and additional phenolic condensation material in which any suitable fibrous material or elements have been incorporated may beforced between these flaps and also between the folds of fabric forming the other gripping members, if desired, so as to completely fill the spaces between them and give additional stiffness, strength ahd wearing properties to thread or other fibrous materials, such as wood pulp or fibrous pieces may be incorporated with phenolic condensation cementing material of any suitable character and dried, or pieces or relatively short lengths of cotto-n waste, thread, cord, or fabric may adthe outer surface of this connector stiffener" member has been previ'ouslycoated with a the members after curing. For this purpose A frictioned or other rubber coating the'cur ing or solidifying of the incorporated phenolic condensation cementing material is preferably effectedat moderate heat insufficient to undesirably vulcanize or harden the rubber coating and if this is done at moderate temperatures of, say, 200 Fahrenstilfening elements projecting from'the con necting backing layer or'member on the other side of the; shoe sole from its wearing surface, may,
if desired, be completely cured '.'or solidifiedwithout undesirably vulcanizingjor hardening the rubber layer or composition which maybe present on the other side of the connector member. If desired may be united to the connector stiffener heit, 'or less fora number o f-hours these member during this heat curing process by I forcing them against the same in a suitable mold during this heat curing operation which permanentlysolidifies the phenolic condensation cementinggmaterial which may be applied or incorporated in any suitable way-with one or more of these elements.
Such a shaped composite sole stiffener may then be united orincorporated with the rub ber. sole composition '3 of any desired character and forced strongly against the same in a suitable mold during the vulcanizing heat treatment at 300? to 400 Fahrenheit sire'd, a special heel of any suitable constructhe blank which may be of one or more laytion may be permanently united to the shoe sole, as is indicated in the drawings.
.For this purpose the connector stiffener member 4' may. be formed with portions adapted to'constitute suitable gripping ribs or members and as indicated in Fig. 2 a cut 15 may be formed extending about half way inward from one side of the sole and ers of canvas 5 or' other fabric previously coated or impregnated with phenolic condensation cementing material may have a portion between the'dotted lines 19 adapted to be folded upinto a longitudinal gripping rib or fold 11, as shown in Figs. 1 and 3, which would of course bring the .side 16 about into line with the dotted heel outline 17in Fig. 2. A transverse gripping fold,
such as-12, may be similarly formed by ffolding up a. corresponding portion of the blank and it i'sus'ually desirable to cut or punch out a central portion 20 along the lines of these folds to prevent undesirablecrumplin'g of the fabric. If desired,-also one or more additional gripping and wear resisting ribs or folds, such as 13,- maybe-- formed in the heel portion by forming the blankwith a corresponding lateral eXtension 18 which when folded up along the dotted-lines may form the diagonal gripping fold-or rib 13 extending along the outstance, so as'totake the heavy wear'which usually occurs at this point. If desired also one or moreof these, gripping ribs or members may be further'reinforced and stiifened by folding .up additional layersnof coated or impregnated fabric or othermaterial inside or outside of the folded portion of the mainblank. .Such an arrangement is shown in Fig. '1 in connection with the diagonal rib or fold '13, the strip 14 of canvas or other 4 arated tongues v26 may be .p'ut'in side of the rear portion of the heel, forinfabric which may be similarly impregnated fected by successively forcing the corresponding portions of the blank into slots or recesses in a metallic mold so that the material assumes some such form as is-indic ated in Fig. '3. Additional phenolic condensa-f tion cementing material withorwithout' incorporated fibrousmaterial such as wood pulp or fiber, or string or fabric lengths or pieces may be forced into these folded'portions during the heat curing, and if desired," a similarly impregnated fabric strip vor member 5 may be forced against the face of the connector stiffener member and the wh'ole heat cured or solidified into the de-' sired form by sufficient heat treatment to cure the phenolic condensation cementing material used; :YAs indicated 'inF'ig. 1 the suitable rubber composition which Inay-b'e' elements described which 7 are preferably body of the h'eel 2 may be 'formed of any molded or'incorporated with the stiffening provided with'africtioned orother. rubber. coating 6 and with junction holes 5 6.to. be
penetrated by connecting plugs of the -vul canized rubber composition. t'o 'i-ncrease the," gripping action of the rubber and promote its.permane'nt and strong unionwiththe."
Another arrangement is shown in Figs. 4
and 5 as comprising a relatively rigid grip- 7 ping flange'or-member 27 which may'extend moreor less around the forward por--' tion of the shoe sole to more effectively I minimize side slip. The main 'connector stiffener strip or member 22 maybe origi- .nally formed with a central. aperture and with more orless separated tongues or projections 23' extending into-the same; :This
, strip of impregnated canvas-or other fabric may be forcefdvinto a mold so. that theseton'gues-or projecting portions are forced into upwardly projecting position as indi- ,cated in Figs. 4 and 5; and are separated by the junction holes or slots 24 to more thoroughly unitethe rubber subsequently molded thereto. 7 Then a cooperating or inner connector member 25 havingsimilarly sep- V I place in the mold and the. tongues ,forced into the so that on heat curing in such mold the stif same slot into contact with the tongues 23- fener member may be permanently retained in this desired shape and the curing-of the incorporated phenolic condensation stifienrib 27 having weakened portions where the cooperating slots occur in the inner and -ing material may unite the projecting 00- I outer layers thereof, this gripping rib enform a roll orlength of heel stock of the desired size, thegripping rib or fabric preferto these. elements during the .heat curing v process which permanently units and ;st iif-' ens all these parts of the sole backinglayer or member. The Wearing surface of the shoe sole may be' formed of any suitable rubber composition such as 28, which may be molded upon the other parts as is indicajted roughly in -Fig. 5 and these elements-'- gnmember and the main stiffener members 21,
may bevul'canized and united in a suitable.
'22, forming-the backlng layer or member of mold. so as to" effect their strong union which is preferably promoted by originally providin'g the connector stiffener members with frictioned or other. rubber coating 6.
-Any desired form of heel construction maybe used with 'a shoe sole ofthis character "and if desired the; heel 29 shown in Figs.
4t 5 may-"be of suitable rubber composition'in which is incorporateda suitable spiral gripping heel rib or member 33 which may have separated relatively rigid convolutlons adapted to grippingly engage the ground or other surface which may cause the yielding of the adjacent portions of the.
rubber. Such a gripping rib may be formed of several united layers of fabric having their inner .portions carrying phenolic condensation cementing material which may be v incorporated therewith in any suitable way while the outersurfaces of these fabric strips may advantageously be previously coated or frictioned with any suitable rubber composition adapted to unite with the rubber composition used for the 'heel body. A convenient Way of forming such a heel is indicated in Fig. 6 :where a plurality of 'stripsof fabric 31, 32 which may be specially woven duck, canvas or the like, may have originally applied thereto a frictioned or other coating 6 of rubber composition on their outer faces. The. fabric may then be impregnated with suitable phenolic condens ation cementing material such .as bakelite varnish or the like, which may be partly or substantiallydried either before'or after the strips are forced together and thecomposite fabric strip may then preferably have punched or otherwisefor'med therein suitable junction holes 51 to promote-the efiec tive-funion of the rubber composition on two sides of the strip. Sheets or layers 35, 36
of suitable rubber composition may then be forced against the outer sides of these two strips of fabric as by rolling, for instance, which forces the raw rubber composition through the junction holes and effects union of these rubber connecting plugs therethrough and then this rubber fabric strip maybe rolled up as indicated in Fig. 6 to pletely united as indicated in ig. 4 Such cut or severed into the .desired short lengths 'by band knives or other means so that the individual heels of this material may be applied to such a shoe sole as is indicated in Fig. 5, a relatively thin rubber cushion layer .34 being preferably though not necessarily interposed between this .composite heel the "shoe sole. The entire shoe sole may then be forced into a suitable mold and Vulcanizedat-the desired heat which vulcanizes the rubberelements and permanently unites the parts togetherin anobvious way.
Of course. any'of these forms of heel constructign may be used alone for separate shoe heels and applied in any way to the shoes of any desired construction, or if desired any of these forms of heel may be used with the other forms of shoesole construction. Fig. 7, for example, shows such a heel element as described in connection with Figs. 5 4 to' 6 being used on a sole of the general character shown in F igs; 1 and 2 and pro yided with-relatively rigid transverse grippingmembers 7 and with gripping flaps and studs 9 arranged in the desired locations in the sole, all these parts being molded together and heat cured or'vulcaniz ed so as to form a unitary structure. If desired also additional gripping pins or studs, such as 38, may be used in this or any other form of shoe sole described and thesestuds may as indicated in Fig. 8 be formed of central portions 39 of fiber elements or heavy cord or rope of twisted or braided construction which may be coated or thoroughly impreg- 110 nated with phenolic condensation cementing material so that it is adapted to be, permanently united to one of the similarly im- -pregnated stifi'ening elements, such .as.5,
during the heat treatment. For some purposes itis desirable to have the outer surface of such a'me'mbef covered with a fabric sheath of any suitable construction to facilitate theconnection of the rubber solecomor less dried. This fabric sheath may then be frictioned by passing through rolls or the like so that a frictioned rubber coating 6 may be incorporated therewith and facilitate the vulcanizing union of the rubber sole composition 3 with this gripping member. Fig.
10 shows another arrangement in which twisted or braided cord or small rope may be used for such gripping members, the cord 41 such as relatively hard braided or twisted cord a sixteenth to an eighth of an inch in diameter more or less being preferably first impregnated with phenolic condensation 'cementing material and then forced through a layer of rubber sole composition 3 upon which a stiffener connector member 4 may have been previously secured. This cord may be sewed through such a rubber sole ele'ment, if desired, on any suitable lock stitch sewing machineand the relatively lightlower thread subsequently removed if desired, or of course thesecord loops may be forced thrdugh previously punched or formed holes in the rubber sole composition to form such loops as are indicated in 'Fig. 10. The parts may then be put into a suitable mold in connection with one or more additional stiffener layers 5 of fabric such as canvas or other cloth or paper preferably coated or impregnated with phenolic condensation cementing material and then a single heat treatment-may simul-' taneously cure and solidify the phenolic condensation cementing materialand also vulcanize the rubber sole composition and unite all the parts as of course may also be the case if any of the previously describedi constructions are similarly formed.
Another'arrangement is shown in Figs. 11 and 12 as comprising a rubber sole member 44 of any suitable rubber composition which before vulcanization may be molded into shape and formed with suitable stud" holes 46 in the front and also in the heel portions 47, if desired. A connector stiff= ener layer of fabric 48 may be applied to this rubber sole member and previously formed with correspondingly located holes 49, or if. desired this strip or layer of fabric may be v first applied to the layer of rubber. composition forming the main wearing-surface of thesole and then the stud holes punched or otherwise formed therein. This stiffening onnector member 48 preferably has a friccloned or other rubber coating next the rub ber and is also coated or impregnated with phenolic condensation cementing material and after these two parts have been assembled and the stud holes formed therein they maybe put in a suitable-metallic mold and the holes filled with phenolic condensation cementing material 57 in which is preferably incorporated fibrous material of any suitable character, such as cut string or fabric, wood pulp or cotton in such lengths or pieces as to allow the more or less plastic composition to be forced thoroughly into the holes during the heat curing This'may be done to a considerable extent at least when the mold is forced together preferably 65 after another stiflener layer or member 50 'the rubber to the wearing surface thereof as ping studs which may extend to or more or bodiments, forms, proportions, elements,
of canvas or other fabric coated or impregnated with phenolic condensation cementing material has been put in place. The heat ouring of the parts, at, say, 300 or so Fahrenheit for an hour or so may cure or solidify the phenolic condensation cementing material and simultaneously vulcanize the rubber and unite all of the parts so that the gripping studs or pins 52' may project down through shown in Fig. 12. Fig. 13 shows another arrangement in which projecting gripping studs or bosses'55 may be formed in the in-' corporated and united rubber sole composition 56. The layer of suitable fabric 53 preferably having the frictioned coating 6 of rubber on its lower side may beforced into the soft or plastic unvulcanized' rubber so as to form-the projecting bosses or gripless adjacent the wearing surface of the shoe sole, the fabric yielding in the case of flexi ble or knitted fabrics 0r folding at the adj acent points to allow these projections to be formed. The corresponding recesses may be filled with any suitable material, such, for example, as phenolic condensation cementing material and incorporated fibrous or other filler form the body 54 of these studs and heat cured and united to another stiffener backing member 52, if desired.
Thesegripping members more or less formed of-fabric'carry-ing cured phenolic condensation stiffening material are extremely strong and are practically independent of any ordinary heat changes to which D footwear should be subjected, maintaining their waterproof and impervious properties throughout such temperature changes and they are free from serious cracking or other injury in marked contrast to the softening ofheated pyroxylin or similar cementing material under moderate heat and its tendency to crack when chilled. Furthermore such impregnated fabric materialis-very strong and rigid and a. coupleof connected layers of eight ounce duck about a sixteenth of an inch thiclcand containing; about 50% or so of curedphenolic condensation cement- I ing material has a bending-modulus of rup- 115 turpl-of 15,000 to 18,000 pounds per squareinc This invention has been described in conncction'with a number ofillustrative emparts, shapes, materials, compositions, methods ofpreparation, production and use, to h the details of which disclosure the invention is notof'course. to be limited, since what is 50 ener member in which said her of fabric carrying phenolic condensation cementing material, said connector stiffener member being folded to form a series of transverse gripping ribs projecting ad acent the wearing surface of the sole near its forward. portion, a stiffener member carrying phenolic condensation cementing material united to the relatively fiat surface of said connector stiffener member and vul- 10 canized rubber sole composition connect:
.ed to sand connector st1ffener member and in which said bedded.
2. The integral stiffened rubber shoe sole gripping members are emcomprising a sole connector stiffener mem- 'ber carrying phenolic condensation cementing material, said connector stiflener member forming a gripping rib projecting adj acent the wearing surface of the'sole, a stiffener member carrying phenolic condensation cementing material united to the relatively fiat surface of said connector stiff ener member and vulcanized rubber sole composition connected to said connector stiffener member and in which said gripping members are embedded.
3. The integralstiffened rubber shoe sole having relatively rigid gripping members projecting adjacent its wearing surface and comprising a solevconnector stiffener member having projecting portions of fabric having a coating of rubber composition on one side and curedphenolic condensation cementing material on its other sideand impregnating the fibers thereof,'said connector stiffener member being folded-to form a series of transverse gripping ribs projecting adj acent the wearing surface of the sole near its forward portion and having a series of flaps .40 forced toward said wearing surface, additional phenolic condensation cementing material and incorporatedfibrous material connected to said flaps to form gripping studs in conn eption therewith, a stiffener mem- 4 her carrying cured phenolic condensation cementing material united to the relatively flat'surface of said connector stiffener member and rubber sole composition molded upon and vulcanized to said connector stiffgripping members are embedded. i
4. The integral stiffened rubber shoe sole having relatively rigid gripping members projecting adjacent its wearing surface and comprising a sole connector stiffener memberQof fabric having a coating of rubber composltlon on one s1de and nred phenolic condensation cementing material on its other side and impregnating the fibers thereof,
said connector stiffener member being folded to form a series of transverse gripping ribs projecting adjacent the wearing surface of the sole near its forward portion and having a seri s of flaps forced towardsaid wear 5 ing surface, additional phenolic condensa tioncementing material connected to said flaps to form gripping studs in connection therewith, and rubber sole composition molded upon and vulcanized to said connector stiffener member in which said gripping members are embedded.
5. The'integral stiffened rubber shoe sole having relatively rigid gripping members projecting adjacent its wearing surface and comprising a. sole connector stiffener member of fabric having cured phenolic condensation cementing material on its other side and impregnating the fibers thereof, said connector stiffener member being folded to form a series of transverse gripping ribs projecting adjacent the wearing surface'of the sole near its forward portion and rubber sole composition molded upon said -connector stiffener memberin which s d g pp members are embedded; i
6. The integral stiffened rubber shoe, solehaving a stiffener backing member carry-ing cured phenolic condensation cementingma terial and connected gripping members ce mented thereto and projecting adjacent the wearing surface ofthe sole and comprising a series of transverse gripping ribs adjacent the forward portion of the sole' and gripping studs having cord center portions carrying phenolig condensation cementing material and. united thereby-to said stiffener backing embedded in the rubber sole composition.
7. The integralstiffened rubber shoe sole I having a stiffener backing member carrying cured phenolic condensation cementing material and cemented gripping members projectingadjacent the wearing surface of the sole and comprising a transverse gripping -i-ib adjacent the forward portion of the sole, .and gripping studs carrying phenolic condensation cementing materlal and united thereby to said stlffener backing embedded in the rubber sole composition.
' 8. The integralstiffened rubber shoe sole having a stiffener member carrying cured phenolic condensation cementing material and connected gripping members projectin adjacent the wearing surface of the sole an comprising gripping pins embedded in the rubber sole composition and formed of braided cord center portions carrying phenolic condensation cementing material and thereby united to said stiffener member and comprising gripping pins embedded in the rubber sole composition and formed of cord center portions carrying phenolic condensation cementing material and thereby united to said stiffener member and a braided fabric sheath around said center portion and vulcanized .to the adjacent rubber sole composition. v
10. The integral stiffened rubber shoesole having a stiffener member carrying cured phenolic condensation cementing material and connected gripping members projecting adjacent the wearing surface of the sole and comprising gripping pins embedded inthe rubber sole composition and formed of fibrous center portions carrying phenolic condensation cementing material and thereby united to said stiffener member and a fabric sheath around said center portion and vulcanized to the adjacent rubber sole composition.
11. The integral stiffened rubber shoe sole having a stiffener member carrying cured phenolic condensation cementing material and connected gripping members projecting adjacent the wearlng surface of the sole and comprising gripping studs embedded in the rubber sole composition and formed of fibrous center portions carrying phenolic condensation cementing material and united thereby to said stiffener member.
12. he stiffened rubber shoe sole comprising a stiffener member and connected gripping members embedded in the rubber sole composition and comprising woven fibrous portions carrying cured phenolic condensation cementing material and extending adjacent the wearing surface of the shoe sole to secure increased grip on the ground.
13. The rubber shoe sole comprising gripping members embedded in the rubber sole composition and comprising portions carrying cured phenolic condensation cementing material and extending adjacent the wearing surface of the shoe sole to secure increased grip on the ground.
14. The stiffened rubber shoe sole having a backing stiffener member and an integral heel vulcanized to said shoe sole and comprising a spiral gripping heel rib formed. of fabric strip carrying cured phenolic condensation cementing material and extending toward the wearing surface of the heel and forming substantially rigid separatedgripping members and connected rubber composition forming the body of said heel and a rubber cushion layer between said heel rib and the backing stiffener member at the heel of said shoe sole.
15. The stiffened rubber shoe sole having a backing stiffener member and an integral heel vulcanized to said shoe sole'and comprising a gripping heel rib formed of fabric carrying cured phenolic condensation cementing material and extending toward the Wearing surface of the heel and forming substantially rigid gripping members, and connected rubber composition forming the body of said heel.
16. The rubber shoe sole element comprising a spiral gripping rib formed of a plurality of united fabric strips impregnated with cured phenolic condensation cementing material and extending substantially across the wearing surface of sole element and forming substantially rigid separated convolutions provided with junction holes, vulcanized rubber composition forming the body of said sole element and substantially surrounding and vulcanized to said rib and forming connecting plugs extending through ment and substantially surrounding and i vulcanized to said rib.
18. The stiffened rubber shoe sole element having a backing stiffener member and incorporated' spiral gripping members formed of a plurality of united fabric strips carry ing cured phenolic condensation cementing material and extending toward the wearing surface of the sole element to form substantially rigid separated gripping members providedwith junction holes and connected rubber composition forming the main wearing surface of said sole element and forming connecting plugs extending through said junction holes.
19. The stiflened rubber shoe sole element having a backing stiffener member and incorporated gripping members formed of fabric carrying cured phenolic condensation cementing material and extending toward the wearing surface of the sole element to form substantially rigid separated gripping members, and connected rubber composltion forming the main wearing surface of said sole element.
20. The stiffened rubber shoesole element having an incorporated gripping member formed of fabric carrying cured phenolic "condensation cementing material and extend:
ing toward the wearing surface of the sole element to form a substantially rigid gripping member, and connected rubber composition forming the main wearing surface of said sole element.