US 1371350 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
S. A. CAMPBELL.
WRENCH. APPLICATION FILED OCT. 9, I920- 1,371,350. Patented Mar. 15, 1921.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
SOLOMON A. CAMPBELL, OF NEWTON. MASSACHUSETTS, ASSIGNOR, BY MESNE- 'ASSIGN- MENTS, TO SARAH W. CAMPBELL. OF NEWTON, MASSACHUSETTS.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Mar. 15, 1921.
Application filed October 9, 1920. Serial No. 415,858.
To all who-m it may concern:
Be it known that I, SOLOMON A. CAMP- BELL. a citizen of the United States and a resident of Newton, in the county of Middlesex and State of Massachusetts. have invented certain new and useful Improvements in renches, of which the following is 'a specification.
This invention is an improvement in handles or analogous devices for operating hand tools such as wrenches, screw drivers or the like, and certain important features of the invention are particularly useful as a. part of a multiple socket wrench. As one important feature of my invention I provide a head member including two parts or sections, which are connected for relative rotation in one direction, while held against relative rotation in the opposite direction. These parts or sections are so designed that the wrench socket, screw driver or other tool element may be connected to either part or section while the handle is connectible to only one part or section, whereby the tool element may be connected through the head to the handle for positive rotation in either direction, or connected through the head to the handle for positive rotation in one direction only. I am aware that ratchet wrenches have been designed in which the ratchet part may be locked against relative rotation of the parts in either direction so as to rigidly connect the tool element to the handle, but when using the wrench with the parts in this adjustment, all of the force applied to the handle is transmitted through the comparatively delicate or small parts of the ratchet mechanism. and these are liable to injury when a great strain is applied to the handle. \Vith my improved device the attachment of the tool to one end of the head produces a ratchet or one wayoperating tool, while the attachment of the tool to the other end of the head permits positive turning of the tool in either direction, entirely independent ofthe com aratively delicate parts of the ratchet 'mec anism.
As another important feature of my invention I provide an extension bar for connecting a wrench socket to either endof the head, which bar also may serve as a one way or both ways driven screw driver, and
as a carrier along which a plurality of.
sockets adapted for Various sized nuts may be strung or carried during shipment or storage of the device.
Other important features will be referred to hereinafter, and particularly pointed out in the claims. In the drawings, Figure 1 is a central section of certain of the separable parts in spaced relationship; Fig. 2 1s a side elevation of another arrangement or assembly of separable parts, some of them being in spaced relationship; 3 is a section of a plurality of sockets arranged or stored on the combined screw driver and extension bar, and Fig. 4 is a transverse section on the line 44 of Fig. 1.
In the construction as illustrated 1 provide a head member formed of two concentric parts or sections 10 and 11, with means for permitting relative rotation in one direction, and-preventing such relative rotation in the opposite direction. As shown the part or section 11 is in the form of a peripheral toothed wheel mounted in a recess in one end of the other part or section 10. The teeth have approximately radial opposite faces, and the part 10 carries a radially movable dog or pin 12, with a tooth or inner end portion presenting a cam face on one side only, and adapted to enter between adjacent teeth of the toothed wheel or part 11. Thispin or dog is normally pressed in by a spring 13 carried bya screw 14 and engaging in an annular groove in the head portion of the ratchet dog. To prevent the dog from being pulled out too far, I provide av safety catch in the way of a flange 15 carried by a pin 16 and entering the same groove as the spring. The spring holds the dog in operative relationship to the teeth, but permits the toothed wheel to be rotated in one direction against the cam to force the pin out, and thus permit relative rotation of the twoparts of the head but prevents such relative rotation in the opposite direction. The pin may be pulled out to the limit permitted by the flange 15, rotated about its own axis through '180 degrees, and released so that the cam will face in the opposite direction; thus the ratchet ma operate either as a right handed or le handed one.
The two parts 10 and 11 of the head are preferablyso connected that they cannot be easily separated. As shown, a washer 17 fits into a comparatively shallow groove in the end of the member 10, and the peripheral portion of the latter is spun over to hold the washer in place. The central aperture of the washer is somewhat smaller than the maximum diameter of the member 11, and receives a reduced portion of the latter and engages with a shoulder so as to prevent outward movement of the member 11, and at the same time center said member 11 and provide a bearing for it.
The two sections or parts of the head have similar and oppositely facing central passages or recesses 18 and 19 in alinement with each other. These may form a single continuous passage through the head, but preferably they are separated by a washer 20 at the inner end of the member 11 and at the bottom of the recess in the member 10. which receives the member 11.
The member 10 has means for detachably engaging with a handle whereby the member 10 may be positively rotated about the axis of the toothed wheel and the recesses or apertures 18 and 19. As shown, a portion of the member 10 beyond the inner end of the member 11, has a diametrically extending passage 21 adapted to receive a handle member 22. I have illustrated this handle member as a rod circular in cross section, and therefore the passage 21 would be of similar cross section, but it is of course evident that the handle 22 and the passage 21 may be of any desired cross sectional form. For frictionally holding the handle in position, I provide a spring pressed retainer illustrated as a ball 23 projecting slightly into the passage 21. The ball is located in a passage drilled in the part 10 and is held down by a spring .2 1. The outer end of the passage may be closed by any suitable form of plug 25 which also forms a stop for the end of the spring. The handle member 22 is shown as having annular grooves 26, adjacent to opposite ends and at an intermediate point whereby either end of'the handle may be inserted to only a short distance into the passage 21, and until the ball 23 enters a groove 26; thus the handle will provide comparatively great leverage or the handle may be inserted approximately half way and form a T with the head. The .passage 21 is at such a distance from the end of the member 10 that the passage 19 down to the passage 21, may be of substantially the same depth as the passage 18 down to the washer 20; thus the handle 22, when in place, may serve to limit the extent to which any tool or other part may be inserted in the aperture 19.
The apertures 18 and 19 are of similar depth and noncircular cross sectional form. If a tool or other part be inserted in the re cess 19, it may be positively turned in either direction by means of the handle. If it be inserted in the recess 18, it can be positively turned in only one direction, and dependent upon the facing of the dog 12. Thus, when a great deal of force is to be applied in tightening or loosening a screw, bolt, nut or the like, the work engaging part may be mounted in or connected to the head part 10, and no strain will be transmitted through the dog 12, while if comparatively easy work is to be done where a ratchet operation is desirable, the work engaging part may be connected at the other end of the head.
\Vhen using the device with, or as a part of a multiple socket wrench, there are provided a series of sockets 27, each of which has a central passage therethrough. One end of these several central socket passages may be all of the same size and of the same dimensions and cross sectional form as the passages 18 and 19, while the said passages at their other ends may vary in size and shape to fit different sized nuts or bolt heads. For connecting the sockets to either end of the head I provide an'extension bar having its opposite ends of such size and form as to enter any of the sockets and either of the head passages 18 and 19. In Fig. 1, I have shown such a bar 28, which is hexagonal in cross section the same as the passages 1.8 and '19, and the smaller ends of the socket passages. This is made comparatively short so that one half will go into a socket and the other end into either of the passages 18 or 19. This may permit the end of the socket to engage directly with the end of either of the head'portions 10, or 11 and be rigidly connected thereto, or it may rovide for slight spacing, or the bar may ave a stop 28, intermediate of its ends. To hold the bar frictionally tight in the members with which it engages, I have shown friction means thereon for resiliently engaging with the parts. The bar is shown as having a pair of balls 29 mounted in recesses therein and pressed out by springs, but limited in the outward movement by a swaging in of the metal around the aperture to reduce the giapieter slightly below the diameter of the I do not wish to be limited to any particular length of extension bar, although it will be apparent that that shown in Fig. 1, is of approximately the minimum length. In Fig. 2 I have shown a very much longer extension bar 30, having similar spring pressed friction balls 29 adjacent to opposite ends. This bar is shown as having one end formed as a narrow blade 31, adapted to serve as a screw driver. Thus the other end of the bar may be inserted in either end of the head and the device used as a one we or both ways driven tool. At the screw river end and above the friction ball 29, there is provided a stop 32 which may be of any suitable character, but is illustrated as a ball set in a recess and swaged in place, but without any spring behind it. This stop serves to limit the extent to which a rench socket may move on to the screw driver end, and permits ot' the use of endwise pressure on the head without the screw driver slipping into the socket past the desired point. This stop also serves another function in that during shipment or storage all of the sockets maybe strung along the bar 30 from the opposite end of the bar. and the stop will prevent them from being slipped oft the bar except at one end. The bar thus serves as a screw driver and as an extension piece between the head and a Socket. and as a carrier for all of the sockets when the latter are not in use. The bar 30 is shown as hexagonal in cross section. the same as the bar 28 and as the passages or recesses 18 and 19. This positively prevents any relative rotation of the bar in respect to the part or parts to which it is directly connected. If the passage 21 in thehead part 10 be hexagonal in cross section. the bar 30 might be used as the handle when the bar 28 is employed for connecting a socket head. Various other changes in details might be made. It the passage 21 were made to extend in only a short distance rather than entirely through the part 10 might be made materially shorter and the washer 20 serve as a bottom for the recess 19 as well as for the recess 18, with the two recesses of approximately the same depth. So far as certain broad features of my invention are concerned, I do not wish to be limited to the particular means for connecting the head parts 10 and 11. or for preventing relative rotation in one direction. Various devices other than a spring pressed dog and ratchet teeth might accomplish the same general result. For instance. a friction roller is employed in some types of ratchet wrenches. and might be employed in this.
In the construction illustrated it will be noted that the head has three openings or passages, two in one of the parts and one in the other, and two for attachment to sockets or other work engaging elements. and one for receiving the handle. I have built another form very similar to that illustrated, but in which two of the passages. one in each part, are adapted to receive the handle, and the third passage or aperture in one of the parts is adapted for connection to the socket. thus. instead of connecting the socket to either end of the head, as in the form illustrated, the socket is connected to only one end of the head and the handle'is connectible to either of the two parts. When connected to one, the ratchet is brought into play. while when the handle is connected to the other, the transmission of power is .direct and positive in either direction. This is practically accomplished by making the construction of the head exactly as shown in Fig. 1, except that the recess 18 is omitted, and the part 11 is provided with an extension beyond the plane of the washer 17 This extension has a transverse passage similar to the passage 21, for receiving the handle. The socket or other work engaging part is thus always connected by means of the recess 19.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent'is:
1. A tool including a head having two concentric members and means for permitting relative rotation in one direction but preventing relative rotation in .the opposite direction, a handle adapted to be detachably secured to one of said members substantially at right angles to the axis of said rotation. the said members at opposite ends of said head being similarly adapted for the attachment of a work engaging part to either member of said head.
2. A tool including a head having two concentric members, one inclosed within the other and means for preventlng relative rotation in one direction but permitting relative rotation in the opposite direction, the
outer member having a passage therethrough at right angles to the axis of said rotation and beyond the end of the inner member, and adapted to receive a removable handle member, the said members at opposite ends of said head being similarly adapted for the attachment of a socket to either member of said head.
3. A tool including a head having two concentric members, one inclosed within the other and means for preventing relative rotation in one direction but permitting relative rotation in the opposite direction, the outer member having a passage therethrough at right angles to the axis of said rotation and beyond the end of the inner member, and adapted to receive a removable handle member, the opposite ends of said head having similar oppositely facing noncircular recesses adapted for the attachment of a wrench socket to either member and at either end of the head.
4. A wrench including a head having two concentric members and means for permitting relative rotation in one direction but preventing relative rotation in the opposite direction, the outer member having a passage adapted to receive a removable handle member, said head members having similar oppositely facing non-circular recesses in alinement with each other; a work engaging socket, and an extension bar'adapted to enter either recess of said head and connect said socket to either member.
5. A wrench includin a head having two concentric members and means permitting relative rotation in one direction but preventing relative rotation in the opposite direction, a handle adaptedto be detachably connected to one of said members, said members having oppositely facing similar noncircular recesses in alinement with each other, and an extension bar having one end adapted to enter either of the said recesses and having the opposite end provided with a rigid stop, and a friction device intermediate said stop and the end, and a work engaging socket adapted to receive the last mentioned end and frictional device. and engage with said stop.
6. A tool including a head having two concentric members, one inclosed within the other and means for preventing relative rotation in one direction but permitting relative rotation in the opposite direction, one of said members having two passages or recesses therein, and the other member having a single passage or recess, one of the three recesses being at rightangles to'the axis of said rotation, and adapted to receive a removable handle, and one of said three recesses being in alinement with the axis of rotation, and in the other member from that receiving the handle, and adapted for the connecting thereto of a work engaging part; and the third recess being similar to one of the other two, but in the other member.
7. A tool including a head having two concentric members, one of said members having a chamber in one end thereofroceiving the other member, the periphery of the inner member being provided with teeth, a spring pressed pawl carried by the first mentioned member and movable radiallythrough the wall thereof into engagement with said teeth to permit relative rotation of said members in one direction but prevent relative rotation in the other direction; said members at opposite ends of said head having similar oppositely facin noncireular recesses adapted for the attac ment of a wrench socket to either member of said head.
8. A tool including a head having two concentric members, the inner member being provided with an annular series of teeth and the outer member being provided with a spring pressed pawl for engagement with said teeth to permit relative rotation of said members in one direction but prevent relative rotation in the opposite direction, said members having oppositely facing noncircular recesses adapted for the attachment of a wrench socket to either member.
9. A tool having a head including two members having oppositely facing noncircular recesses adapted for the attachment of a wrench socket to either member of said head and at either end of the head, one of said members having a chamber in one end thereof and the other of said members bein disposed entirely Within said chamber. a disk at the inner end of said chamber and constituting a partition between the recess of one member and the alined recesses of the other, means for preventing the removal of the inner member from said chamber and means for permitting relative rotation of said members in one direction but preventing relative rotation in the opposite direc tion.
10. A tool'including a head having a pair of members in axial alinement, and means for permitting the relative rotation of one of said members in one direction with rcspect to the other member about said axis, but preventing such relative rotation in the opposite direction, said members having oppositely facing non-circular recesses adapted for the attachment of a work engaging part to either member.
Signed at New York, in the county of New York and State of New York, this 5th day of October, A. D. 1920.
SOLOMON A. CAMPBELL.