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Publication numberUS1372453 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 22, 1921
Filing dateSep 3, 1919
Priority dateSep 3, 1919
Publication numberUS 1372453 A, US 1372453A, US-A-1372453, US1372453 A, US1372453A
InventorsFrancis Radford William
Original AssigneeFrancis Radford William
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Reversible socket-wrench
US 1372453 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


Patented Mar. 22, 1921.




- Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented Mar. 22, 1921.

Application mease t mber 3, 1919. Serial no, 3 1,319. a

To all whom it may concern: T

Be it known that I, WILLIAM F. Rnoronn, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Boston, in the county of Suiliolk and State of Massachusetts, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Reversible Socketrenches, of which the followingis a specification.

This invention is an improvement inthat further object is to provide simple and easily removed means for holding the parts lnassembled relationship but permitting them to be very quickly taken apart for cleaning, inspection, replacement, or repair. A further object isto A rovide a simple and easily operated means or reversing the operation of the wrench by reversing the position of the gripping roller.

forms illustrated in the accompanying drawings. l T

I these drawings: T h Figure 1 is a face view of one form of my improved wrench, one'retaining plate being removed, and portions being broken away.

Fig. 2 is a face View of the wrench.

Fig. 3 isa central longitudinal section on a plane atright angles to the plane of Fig.2. .Fig, a is a face View of the socket member or work engaging part, T l 5 is an edge vie of h track mem g. 6 is a ide lev i n of the oll r-1 Fig. 7 is aview similar to Fig. 3 but show- T ing a somewhat snnlified form, and

Fig. 8 i a viewfo the roller employed in the form shown in Fig. 7

Ifmy improved constfl ctionthere are employed two main parts, namely, a handle member 10 and work en 'aglng part or c in mb r 11. The hen 1 m mber m y be of any desired form, shape, or character, but is provided with a cylindrical aperture 12 receiving the socket member and'wlthin which the latter may rotate. The socket member or work engaging part presents an Other objects and ad vantages are also secured by the preferred unbroken cylindrical peripheral surface and opposed end surfaces which may be flat and parallel if desired. It also has moth for engaglng with the work to prevent its rotat1on in respect to the work. As shown, the

work engagingpart has a non-circular socket or aperture adapted to fit the work. If the device s deslgned for use with the ordinary square nuts or bolt heads, this aperture or socket ismade squareand of a proper size to recelve and fit the nutor bolt heads.

The peripheral portion of the, socket member is of substantially the same thickness as the adjacent part of the handle member, and is retained in the cylindricalaperture 12 by a pair of removable face or retaining plates 1a. Thesemay be made of sheet metal and cut to conform to the adjacent portion of the handle. Each plate hasa central aperture 15, smaller than the outside diameter of the socket memberll but larger than the socket T of said member. s The plates may be Secured in place in any suitable manner, as for instance, by screws 16, which. may be readily removed to permit the ins ection, cleaning, replacement, or repairott e parts.

To it control the relative rotation of the work engaging part and the handle, said handle is provided with a recess 17 at one side of and communicating with the cylindricalrecess 12. Within this recess 17there T is provided a roller 18 atrack member 19,

and aplunger 20. The track member 19 presents a curved surface toward the periphery of the socket member and on such an are that the end portions ofthe inner suriaceof the member 19 converge toward theperlphery of the member 11. In other words, the distance between the opposed surfaces is greater at the centerpointof the member 19than at the ends. The rollerlS is disposed between the track member 19 and the periphery of the socket member and is of such diameter that it may freely rotate when at or adjacent its middle positiombut looks when forced toward the other 1 end of the track member 19. T

a The track member 19, the socket member 11,-and the roller 18, may he madeof hardened steel and possess great wear resisting qualities. By means of the track member it is not necessary to harden or temper any portion of the handle member and the socket. member may present a smooth uninterrupted cylindrical surface with which theroller may engage. When the head of 3 acco'mplishthis I provide the plunger member 20 whichfits in a socket 21 communicating withthe central portion of the recess 17 and is pressed toward and into said recess by a. coil spring 22. The plunger has a shoulder portion engaging with the rear surface "of the track member so as to normally press the track member toward the socket member and the plunger also has a reduced end 23 extending loosely through an aperture in the track member, and to a point slightly beyond the inner surface of the latter. f This plunger member serves a plurality of functions. It holds the track inengagement withthe roller and the roller in engagement withfthe socket member at all times; it presents a stop preventing the roller from passing center position and gripping it at the other side when the handlemember is oscillated clockwise from the position shown in Fig. 1; it limits or prevents lateral'sliding movement of the track member in the recess 17; and it presents a center upon which the track member may tilt in either direction dependent upon the position of the roller. With the parts constructed and assembled as shown in Fig. l, a movement of the handle member counterclockwise will cause the roller to jam beltween the periphery of the socket member I "and thelefthand end portion of the track turn with the handle.

member 'and cause the socket member. to During a reverse movement of the handle member, the roller will release and move toward the central po- .sition as far as the stop 23 and in that position will permit the free clockwise turn- "ing of the handle member. 50,

In order to render the wrench capable of 'gripping movement in either direction without removal of the wrench, or in those "constructions where the handle is so designed that the wrench can not be conveniently operated the other side up, I provide means whereby the. roller may be shifted to the opposite side of the stop 23 when desired. This means is illustrated as projecting ends 24 extending through curved slots 60" 25 in the retaining plates 14. These slots may be made of such width and length that the projecting ends are not guided or in any way controlled by theslots, although the slots mayserve as guides, if desired.

The ends project beyond the outer surface of the retaining plates to a suilicient extent, as for instance, as shown in Fig. 3, so that the workman may apply lateral pressure to these projecting ends to force the roller past the plunger 20 to a position upon the opposite side thereof. During such movement, the plunger will of course be forced endwise to a limited extent against the action of the spring 22. lVith the roller upon the opposite side of the plunger, it will be apparent that the handle member will grip during a clockwise turning and will release during a counter-clockwise movement.

7 In the ordinary straight bar handle construction, the wrench may be made sym metrical so that either surface may be applied to the work. With one surface applied the wrench will grip when moved in one direction and with the other surface applied, it will grip when moved in the opposite direction. Thus in such a form it is not essential that means he provided for reversing the position of the roller. In

Figs. 7 and S I have shown a simplified form in which the roller 18 does not have any projecting ends and the retaining plates 14; do not have any slots corresponding to the slots 25 shown in Fig. 2. With this construction, the roller will always operate at the same side of the plunger although in case one end portion of the track member becomes worn, mutilated, or for any reason fails to properly operate, one of the retaining plates may be removed and the roller forced to the other side of the plunger, or removed and inserted at the other side, or the track member may be removed and inserted with the other end opposite to the roller. The wear will then come on the other and previously unused end portion of the track.

In my improved construction, all of the working parts are hardened but the wrench body or handle need not be hardened and therefore can be made of any desired metal. Without my improved track it would be necessary to harden the portion of the wrench body with which the roller engages as the desired durability cannot be secured without such hardening. The socket member presents an unbroken surface for contacting with the roller and this will grip efficiently in any position and as it has an unbroken surface it can be thoroughly hardened without danger of loss by fracture. All of the parts are of comparatively simple form and easy and inexpensive to manufacture. The operating parts are completely housed but access thereto may be easily gained by the removal of a part which normally does not sustain any wear or strain and may be of light inexpensive material. The track member may tilt to accommodate itself to the roller and socket member and the spring and plunger hold the parts in engagement at all times so that there is no lost motion and no possible position from which the roller will not be quickly brought into operative locking engagement upon the slightest relative rotation of the socket memher and handle. The track member maintains a constant friction on the roller irrespective of which side of the plunger the roller happens to be.

Having thus described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. A. wrench having a work engaging part presenting a cylindrical periphery, a handle member having an aperture receiving said part and within which it may rotate and presenting a recess at one side thereof, a track member loosely mounted within said recess, a roller between said track member and said periphery, and means for holding said track member at all times in engagement with said roller.

2. A wrench having a work engaging part presenting a cylindrical periphery, a handle member having an aperture receiving said part and withln which it ma rotate and presenting a recess at one si e thereof, a track member within said recess, a roller between said track member and said periphery, and a spring for pressing said track member toward said periphery.

3. A wrench having a work engaging part presenting a cylindrical periphery, a handle member having an aperture receiving said part and within which it may rotate and presenting a recess at one side thereof, a track member within said recess, a roller be tween said track member and said periphery,

a plunger projecting through the center of

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2735324 *Sep 11, 1953Feb 21, 1956 Friction action ratchet wrench
US4491043 *Mar 10, 1981Jan 1, 1985Dempsey John DStepless wrench including quick release mechanism
US4553453 *Aug 1, 1984Nov 19, 1985Dempsey John DStepless wrench including quick release mechanism
US5115699 *Jun 1, 1990May 26, 1992Mertens James HContinuous drive ratchet tool
US6612205 *Mar 19, 2002Sep 2, 2003Darwin JonesRatchet
U.S. Classification81/59.1
International ClassificationB25B13/46, B25B13/00
Cooperative ClassificationB25B13/462
European ClassificationB25B13/46B1