US 1375094 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
G. A. HUMASON.
REAMEB. APPLICATION FILED JAN. 5| |920.
2 SHEETS-SHEET l.
Patented Apr. 19, 1921.
2 naaf 2 GRANVILLE, A HuMAsoN, INVENTUR ATToRNEy G. A. HUMASON.
| |920- l ,375,O91hD Patented Apr. 19, 1921.
2 SHEETS SHEET 2-l GAHUMASON) y INVENTOQ UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
GRANVILLE A. HUMASON, OF HOUSTON', TEXAS, ASSIGNOR T0 HUGHES TOOL COM- PANY, 0F HOUSTON, TEXAS, A CORPORATION OF TEXAS.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Apr. 19, 1921.
Application fuea January 5, 1920. serial No. 349,644.
To all fw tem t may concern Be it known thatI, GRANVILLE A. HUMA- soN, a citizen of the United States, residing at Houston, Harris county, TeXas, have invented a certain new and useful lmprove- 'ment in Beamers, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same.
My invention relates to rotary reamers for use in progressively enlarging the hole dug by a pilot drill or bit. It has particular application to reamers of the roller disk type for the purpose of drilling oil or water wells or in mining.
One object of inyinvention is to provide a multiple reamer wherein disk reamers are arranged in stages `above each other in such relation as to progressively enlarge the hole, thus to make it possible to drill a hole of large diameter with minimum expenditure of energy.
Another object is to provide a novel means of securing the reamers and the pilot together whereby the parts can not be accidentally loosened and lost in the hole.
Another object is to provide a means of detachably mounting the reaming disks so that they may be speedily placed in position and securely held in such position when thus mounted.
Another object isvto provide cutters that will be strong and durable and thus able to withstand the severe strains incident to deep well drilling.
Another object is to provide a cutting disk adapted to cut for long periods without the necessity of resharpening and which if desired may be reversed to present a new cutting surface.
Other objects and advantages will more Clearly appear' in the detailed description which follows and will be more particularly pointed out in the claims hereto appended.
Referring to the drawing forming a part of this specification and wherein like numerals areapplied to like parts in the several views: Figure-fl is a central longitudinal section of' my improved reamer, the pilot bit being shown in elevation. Fig. 2 is a transverse section on line 2--2 of Fig. l. Fig. 3 isa similar sect-ion on the line of Fig. l. Fig. 4 is a side elevation of one of mv reamers taken at right angles to the position shown in Fig. l. Fig. 5 is a transverse section on line 5-5 of Fig. l. Fig.' G is a perspective view of the detachable cutter mounting plate. Figs. 7 and 8 are views showing a side elevation and top plan views, respectively, of a modified formr of attaching shank. Fig. 9 is a side view partly in central longitudinal section on line 9-9 of Fig. l() showing a modified embodiment of my invention. Fig. l() is a top plan view of the reamer shown in Fig. 9.
l have ascertained by experiment that a hole of large diameter may be drilled more easily and with a minimum expenditure of energy by drilling a hole oit small diameter' with an ordinary drill and by successively enlarging this hole by reaming cutters arranged in separate stages thereabove, the cutters of each stage arranged to increase the diameter of the hole left by the neXt lower set of cutters. lVith the aim in view of utilizing this principle,' have shown a pilot bit 5 or well-known construction at the lower end ol my apparatus, arranged to dig the pilot hole. Said bit has conical cutters 6 and an upper threaded shank 7 and an oblong, rectangular, tapering Vreduced shank 8, and a central nipple Sfor better attachment to the lower end of a reamer 9, recessed on the base` to receive the shank 8 and the nipple 8 or" the bit.
rThe means of attachment of the bit to the reamer and of the reamers to each other is an important feature of my invention. The lower end of the head of the reamer is reduced in diameter, as indicated at l0, so as to set well withinthe periphery of the upper threaded shank 7 of the bit. This provision. allows space outside said reduced shank l0 and above the bit for an annular metal ring ll, said ring being threaded on to the end l0 of the reamer. Outside this ring l1 is set a collar l2, interiorly threaded at the lower end to secure the same to the shank 7 of the bit. The upper end of lthe collar 12 has an inwardly extending flange 13 to con-V tact closely with the reduced endl() of the reamer and thus overlap the ring 1l `and protect the threaded portion from water and sand. is a Vsupplementary means of further securing the parts together, I have provided pins 14 which are inserted into holes, provided to receive them, in the base 1() of the reamer. Said holes extend in parallel relation through the ring 11, the reamer base and the shank of the bit into grooves in the upper reduced shank 8 of the bit and serve to retain the bit in place. The bolts end flush with the sides of the ring 11- and are themselves retained in position by the ring 12 therearound. It will be noted that the rings 11 are necessarily of a vertical height such that when the ring 12 is secured in place on the shank 7 of the bit, and tightened in place, the lange 13 will contact with the ring 11 at the point where the shank S is tightened securely in its seat. rllhe central nipple 3 lits in a recess in the water course 31 and serves to further prevent lateral play of the bit in the shank 10 and to take up some of the lateral strain.
The reamer 9 comprises a cylindrical casting having the reduced lower end 10 for attachment to abit and has a central reduced upper shank 15 for attachment to the next upper reamer 16. It has two opposite reaming cutters 20, 20, said cutters being diskshaped and of large diameter. The cutters are mounted in slots 17, 17, inclined inwardly at the upper end and are rotatable on pins 18 threaded at one end into the head 9 and supported at the outer end in a detachable plate 21. The plates 21 are dovetailed in cross section, each plate having also an inwardly projecting longitudinal lug 33 as shown in Figs. 3 and 5, and are mounted in correspondingly shaped slots in opposite sides of the head of the reamer. They are secured in adjustable position by means of the set screws 19 threaded into the head. The disk-shaped cutters 2G are ot' a diameter greater than that of the usual reaming cutter in order to provide an extensive peripheral cutting surface Jfor the reaming operation. The outer periphery of the cutters is toothed, as shownv at 311, and may be bevelcd slightly, as shown at 22, at a point of contact with the vertical side of the hole. These cutters are intended to be reversible and may, if desired, be beveled on both sides. rI`he cutters are so mounted that, when tted in proper place, the outer periphery oi the cutters will extend outwardly in position so that the whole thickness ot the cutter is presented in cutting Contact with the side of the hole, thus enlarging the hole by approximately the thickness of the cutting disk. The reamer 9 is attached to the next upper reamer 16 by substantially the same means used to attach the bit 5 to the said reamer 9.
rIlhe reamer 16 is provided at its reduced lower end with an inner recess shaped to receive the upper shank 15 of the lower reamer. This shank is rectangular in shape and tapered somewhat, as shown, and is locked in placel in the head by means of two locking bolts 241 which are mounted in the holes in the ring 25, the lower end of the reamer 16 and of the upper shank 15 of the coperating lower reamer. These bolts pass through the outer ring 25 and this ring is threaded on to the reamer 16 and is held in place by means of a locking collar 26, similar in structure to the previously described collar 12. This collar 26 is threaded at its lower end into Contacty with the upper head 'of the reamer 9 and is adapted to secure the two reamers together to lock the set screws 19in position and to further serve to retain the detachable plates 21 in position. It will also be noted that the inner face of the de tachable plate 21 lies within the outer circumference of the lower reduced end of the reamer 16. rlhis will further prevent any tendency of the plates 21 to be driven upwardly out of the dove-tailed grooves in which they are mounted.
The structure of the reamer 1.6 is identical with that of the reamer 9 and need not be described in detail. The diameter of the upper reamer 16, however, is greater than that of the reamer 9 in order that the cutting disks 27, mounted therein, will project outwardly a distance such that the hole will again be enlarged thereby to an amount approximately equal to the thickness of the cutter. The cutters 27 are held in inclined position on pins 28, secured at their outer ends in detachable plates 29 in the same manner as was previously described in connection with the reamer 9.
I have shown two reamers above the pilot bit 5 but my structure contemplates the use of a series of reamers, two or more in number, and I have indicated at 30 the lower end of a third reamer above the two already described. I do not wish to limit myself, however, to any particular number of reamers and it is obvious that any number may be used suiiicient to produce a hole of the desired diameter.
In order to provide a supply of flushing water to carry away the disintegrated material from about the cutters both upon the bit and upon the reamers, I have provided a central channel 31 to which water is to be conducted from the center of the hollow drill stem to which my series of reamers is attached. The channel 31 extends throughout the series of parts to my drill and has branching ducts 32, 32, etc., leading to the slots in which the reaming cutters are mounted. rThe lower end of the channel 31 terminates in the slot 23 between the two cone-shaped cutters 6 of the bit itself.
In assembling the reamers and bit together in operative position, by the use of my novel attaching means, the collar'12 is placed over the lower reduced shank 10 of the reamer and moved to its highest position next to the head 9. The ring 11 is then threaded in place and the shank 8 and nipple 8 are seated in the recessesl in the shank 10 with the grooves in the shank 8 registering` properly with the holes in the shank 10 and in the ring 11. The pins 14 are then placed in position and the retaining collar l2 is dropped down and threaded in place on the bit at 7. Thus `the bit is locked against rotation by its position in the shank 10 and held firmly in its seat by'means of the pins 14 and thecollar 12. It will be noted that ythe tightening ofthe collar 12 down against the ring 11 will serve to draw the bit 5 more firmly in its seat.
The shaping of t-he detachable plates 21, in the manner described, is to provide a plate easily inserted in position and which, when so placed, will serve to ltake up any lateral strain on it due to the cutters 20. Any outward strain at the lower end of the plate will be taken up by the bearing of shoulders on the inner face of the dovetailed portion and the lug 33 upon the walls of the slot in the head and by the ring 26 on the outside of said plate. Any tendency toward an upward shearing strain is received by the base of the reamer above and by the pins 19 and the ring 25.
In Figs. 7 and 8 I have shown a modification of l,mypattaching means. In this embodiment the shank 35 of the reamer is shaped like the frustum of a square pyramid with grooves 36 in the sides thereof for the accommodation of' the locking pins 14. These grooves are formed on all four sides of the said shank and'by this means and because the shank is square, the reamer may be reversed 9() degrees in its position relative to the other reamer and thus make it possible to place the reamers with each set of cutters offset or staggered relative to those in the reamer above or below; or the cutters may all be set in the same vertical line, as desired.
In the modification shown in Figs. 9 and 10 I have formed the upper shank 36 eX- tending transversely across the head as shown in Fig. 1() and with a rounded head 42 thereon. This head is fitted by a lateral sliding action into a slot similar to the one shown at 37 in the reduced shank 38 at the bottom of the reamer head 39. The use of the enlargement at the head of the shank 36 makes the use of the fastening pins unnecessary. This head, in other respects, closely resembles that in the modification previously described. In assembling reamers of' this construction the ring 41 s placed on the shank 38 and moved up out of the way. The ring 40 is then threaded in place above the margin of the keyhole shaped slot 37. The shank (shaped like the shank 36) of' the reamer below is then slid into the slot 37 and the locking ring or collar 41 is droppedin place and threaded on to the head of the lower reamer. The advantage of thisform of locking means is apparent. It makes it possible to easily and quickly assemble the reamers in place and at the same time holds the parts firmly in place and leaves no parts liable to Abecome loosened and lost. The advantage ,of this structure of joint, which is adapted particularly for its use as a connection between the differentparts of a drill, results-.from thelocking of one section to another by means of the retaining collar. InF ig. 1 for example, if the shank 8 of the bit becomes twisted off, thus tending to lose the bit in the hole, thev collar 12 still will retain it attached to the shank 10 of the reamer. The rotation of the shank 10 and ring 11 will then continue but the bit and the attaching collar'12 could remain stationary and the subsequent withdrawal of the drilling apparatus from the hole rwould bring with itthe broken bit. The great difiiculties resulting from the loss of a bit in the hole are thus prevented. This operation acts similarly at each of the joints and is an important part of my invention.
The cutting disks on the reamer maybe toothed and formed with .a.V-shaped groove 43 in the periphery thereof, This sort of cutter, illustrated at 44` in Figs. 9 and 10, is thus reversible. The V-shaped groove 43 is broad angled and the cutter so inclined as to presentone of the toothed sides of said groove in horizontal position and adapted to cut away and enlarge the side of the hole as shown in Fig. 10 The inner half` of the cutter performs no cutting function but it is obvious that when one side of Ythe cutter becomes dulled the cutter may be removed and reversed so that the other half of the cutter' will be presented in cutting contact with the side ofv the hole. Thus I have provided a cutter of novel form adapted to be reversible and thus acting to outwear an vordinary cutter before it is necessary to resharpen it. Also should the diameter of the hole become reduced, due to the wearing of the cutters on the reamer below, the inner portion of' the disk not ordinarily adapted to cut, will be in position, and willserve to cut a part of the side of the hole.
In order lto provide for the outlet for the flushing water which is introduced to the reaming cutters and to the bit by means of the central water ducts, previously described, the following provision is made. The sides of the head of the reamer are cut away between the two cutters forming an open channel or flute 45. (See Fig. In order that these channels may pass the collars 25, 26, however, itis necessary that the channels be inclined inwardly forming a closed duct 46 passing under the collars and again passing outwardlyv beyond the same. These ducts 46 are formed with a thin wall between them and the collars 26, etc., so that the threads thereon and on the rings 25 will be protected. Waterwill thus nd an upward passage, even though the annular space outside the heads of the reamers may become clogged.
A reamer of the construction shown and described herein has several points of advantage. It is enabled by the use of the cutters of large diameter, such as here shown, to operate in the well for a long period before the extensive cutting surface, provided by the disks of such comparatively large diameter, will become worn and dull. Also, the cutters being reversible, it will be possible to use first one side and then the other, thus obtaining longer wear before resharpening is necessary. By the use of locking means which I have provided for use in attaching the bit and reamers together, I am enabled to lock the different parts se curely together and entirely avoid the danger of the parts becoming loosened and lost in the hole. Furthermore by locking the outer end of the cutter shaft in a detachable plate, as shown, the said plate may be renewed when it becomes worn, at the point where the cutter shaft is secured thereto, and a new one supplied. This provision also aids in the rapid disassembling of the parts of the bit and allows a more convenient access to the slots 17 in which the cutters are mounted for the purpose of cleaning the Silme.
I-Iaving thus described my invention the uses and advantages of which will be clear without further description what I claim as new and desire to protect byv Letters Patent is:
l. In a rotary reamer the combination of a head, and two opposite disk-shaped cutters mounted therein on pins inclined from the longitudinal axis of the head, the outer end of said pins supported in detachable plates dove-tailed in said head, retaining means therefor comprising a second head adjacent thereto and a locking ring threaded thereon, and an inner longitudinal lug on said dove-tailed plate for the purpose described, said plate and lug adapted to contact with the retaining means adjacent thereto.
2. In a rotary reamer, a head, and a reversible cutting disk mounted in inclined position in the side thereof, said cutter' having an obtuse angled V-shaped groove in the peripheral face thereof and adapted to cut with but one face of the peripheral groove, in one position of the cutter.
3. In a rotary reamer, a head, opposite re-A versible reaming cutters rotatable therein, each of said 'cutters having a toothed peripheral V-shaped groove, said cutters being mounted in an inclined position in said head whereby said cutters present only the outer half of said V-shaped groove in cutting contactwith the material for the reaming operation.
4:. In a rota-ry reamer, a reversible cutter, the periphery thereof being provided with an obtuse V-shaped groove, said cut-V ters being mounted in such position that the outer half of said groove is presented in horizontal position to the side of the hole and adapted to perform the cutting operation.
5. In a rotary reamer, ahead, and acutter mounted in incilned position therein, lsaid 'cutter being'provided with a toothed peripheral groove, one face only'of which is presented in a position at right angles to the side of the hole and adapted to perform the cutting operation, said cutter also being reversible lto present the other face of said groove in similar cutting contact with the side of the hole. Y
6. In a rotar reamer, a head, a reversible cutter mounte therein in inclined position, said cutter being rovided with anV obtuse angled groove in t e periphery thereof, said groove being toothed and adapted to cut away the side of the hole with one-half of its periphery in one position of said cutter and with the other half in reversed position.
7. In a rotary reamer, a head, a reversible 'cutter thereon, said cutter having etwo inwardly inclined peripheral faces forming an obtuse-angled V-shaped groove with continuous walls thereto, said cutter being so inclined as to present the outer of said walls only to the material being cut.
8. In a rotary well drill, a pilot bit, and reaming cutters above said bit, said cutters being disk-shaped and mounted on axes inclined upwardly from the longitudinal axis' of the head, the outer ends of said axes being retained in detachable plates dovetailed in the head and secured against removal by attaching screws held in place by an outer collar, and by contact with the head of a similar reamer above.
9. In a rotary well drill, a pilot bit, reamers arranged above said bit, connections between said reamers comprising an upper beveled rectangular shank on a lower reamer, a nipple on said shank, a lower slotted shank on an upper reamer, said slotted shank being threaded eXteriorly, a ring thereon, pins through said shanks and ring and a locking collar threaded over said ring and onto said lower reamer.
l0. In a rotary well drill, a pilot bit, reamers arranged above said bit, said reamers being connected together by a flattened beveled shank on one fitting within a recess in the one above, a lring threaded over suchconnection, pins through said ring and shank and a locking collar over said shank and said pins. V
11. In a rotary Well drill, a pilot bit,A
reaniers arranged in interlocking relation with each other thereabove, yconnecting rings between said reamers, a flushing Water discharge to the cutters on said bit and reamers, means to conduct Said Water upward outside said reamers comprising flutes in the heads thereof and passageways under said connecting rings.
In testimony whereof I hereunto affix my 10 signature this the 30th day of December, A. D. 1919.
GRANVILLE A. HUMASON.