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Publication numberUS1376277 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 26, 1921
Filing dateApr 13, 1918
Priority dateApr 13, 1918
Publication numberUS 1376277 A, US 1376277A, US-A-1376277, US1376277 A, US1376277A
InventorsJr Henry B Higgins
Original AssigneeJr Henry B Higgins
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Attachment for internal-combustion engines
US 1376277 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

UNITED .STATESPATENT OFFICE.

HENRY n. Brooms, or DENVER, COLORADO.

ATTACHMENT FOB INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, HENRY B. Hie-ems, Jr., a citizen of the United States of America, residin at Denver, in the county of Denver and tate of Colorado, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Attachments for Internal-Combustion Engines, of which the following is a specification.

My invention relates to internal combustion engines and has special reference to improvements designed to more effectually atomize the fuel therefor, and to more reliably insure the delivery of the vaporized fuel to the cylinders of the engine at predetermined times with reference to the instants of ignition and the moments compression of air charges therein. My invention is designed primarily for the benefit of two-cycle internal combustion engines, but nevertheless, is well adapted for use with internal combustion engines of other types, notablv with those of the four-cycle type. As will be made clear hereinafter, the invention is well adapted for use on any internal combustion engine, whatever its type, so long as it is of a kind which compresses either its charge of explosive mixture. or a charge of fresh air, as distinguished from engines of the kind which are operated by pre-compressed charges from other sources.

In carrying out my invention I utilize the compression of air or gas in the working cylinder to operate the a paratus to bot atomize and inject the fue and in practice I employ,

that end, other means which are adjustable and by which I am able to vary and fix the time of fuel injection and the instant of the ignition of the pre-compressed charge.

In the accomplishment of the objects of this invention, preferably employ a supplemental cylinder which is in communicaon} with the main or working cylinder of the; engine, and with an atomizer leading into the explosion chamber" adjacent the spark plug or other ignition device. The supplemental cylinder is provided'with' a' plunger adapted for actuation by. the com; pression in the working cylinder, to compress a charge of air or other aen-formprometer of combustiomnnd to thereby discharge it to the atomizer. 'Additio'nal means are provided whereby the reel rocations of the plunger will operate to eliver liquid fuel to the atomizer,

of the ciprocation by a cylindrical with the mechanism essential to which fuel will efiect a ipecifiggtion of Letters Patent. t t 1 a laud-ma; aieegwn 1a, 1018. Serial na ezasaa.

mixture with the air therein, and be disgharged therefrom to the combustion cham- My invention will be readily understood on reference to the accompanyin drawing in which I have diagrammatica 1y represented the invention in the complete form which I deem best.

The drawing, which forms a part of this specification, is a sectional elevation of the upper portion of the working cylinder of an internal combustion engine equipped with my invention.

Referring specifically to the drawing, 1 indicates the working cylinder of an internal combustion engine, here shown as of the two-cycle type, and 2 the piston thereof. A smaller cylinder 3 is externall provided upon the top of the cylinder 1, an is in communication with the interior of said cylinder 1 through the ports 4 and 5. A plun er 6, having an enlarged head 7 is locate and adapted for reciprocation within the cylinder 3, theplunger 6 being guided in its recasing 8 mounted upon the top of the cylinder, 3. The upper ortion of the casing 8 is screwthreade and carries a screw-threaded ring 10, bearing upon a thrust washer 11. Between the thrust washer 11 and the plunger head 7 is carried a coiled spring 12 which always exerts a downward thrust upon the plunger head 7. Adjacent the topl of the cylinder 3 and in communication t erewith t irough the port 13, is an atomizing chamber 14, carryin a plurality of se arated disks 15, said isks being preferab y provided with graduated central perforatlons forming an inverted frusto-conically shaped port or passage leading into the combustion chamber of the working cylinder of the engine. Through this port extends a conicallyshaped end 16 of a pin-valve 17. The upper portion of the chamber 14 is internally screw-threaded to receive an externally and internally screw-threaded tubular member 18, the upper portion of said member 18 being provided with a packing gland '19.

The lower portion of the pin-valve 17, just above end 16,'is externally screw-threaded for engagement with the internal threads of the member 18, whereby end 16 may be raised or lowered with respect to the port formed in the disks, by the proper manipulation of the thumb 1ece 20.

Upon the top of the cylindrical casing 8 ball valves 32 and 33.

is mounted a fuel pump 21, rovided with a connection 22 leadin to t e fuel source and a branch 23 to whic is connected a pipe or duct 24 leading to the atomizing chamber 14.

As shown in the drawing, said ump member 21 is also provided with a ownwardly extending member 25. The members 22, 23 and 25 are all longitudinally channeled, and are in communication with each other.

Centrally connected to the upper face of the plunger head is a ri id stem 26, which extends upwardly throug the coiled spring 12, the upper end 27 of said stem alining with and entering the channel in the member 25, and constituting a working plunger therefor. It will be noted that the pump member, as a whole, is provided with what ma be termed four fuel passages 28, 29, 30 an 31, as clearly shown. These passages are all interconnected, the flow of fuel, under the impulse of the pump, being overned by Suitable packing members are of course provided to prevent leakage.

The output of the pump is controlled by displacement plunger 34 adapted for free rec1procation in a cylinder 35, the upward movement of said plunger being limited by a regulating screw 36, having a, thumb-piece 36 at the top, whereby the screw may be raised or lowered at will. In the movement of the plunger 27, the liquid in the channels 28,29 and 30 will impart movement to the plunger 34, causing it to rise or fall-as the lunger 27 moves upwardly or downwardly.

t is obvious that the screw 36 might be moved away from the plunger 34 and the column of liquid fuel might therefore be caused to merely reciprocate within the channels, since not enough pressure would be developed to open the valves 32 and 33. As the stroke of the lunger 34 is shortened, however, by manipu ation of the screw 36, the plunger 34 cannot dis lace as much fuel as is pumped in by the p on er 27, ast the valve 33, and hence the di erence etween these volumes is pumped past the valve 32 to the atomizing chamber 14.

If the screw 36 is turned to its lowest positiomthe plunger 34 remains stationary, and the pump is delivering the full charge of fuel to the atomizing chamber, under each upward reci rocation of the plunger 27.

Connecte to the plunger 6 is a downwardly and outwar ly extending contact member 37 adapted, during the upward movement of the pluniger 6, to engage a downwardly and inwar ly extending ad ustable contact member 38 fixed to the casing of the motor by a suitable slotted bracket 40, provided with a vertical slot 39. A bolt 41, provided with a winged nut 42, holds the contact to the bracket, whereby the desired adjustment may be effected, as will be clearly slotted to admit of the vertical movement of the rivet or other member which secures the contact 37 to the plunger 6.

The lower face of the head 7 is provided with an inte ral annular ring 7, of a diameter substantially less than that of the plunger head. When the head is at the limit of its downward stroke, the ring 7 engages the bottom of the cylinder 3, a suitable packing or shock absorbing element being rovided upon the bottom of said cylinder, if found desirable.

In the operation of my device, the parts being in the position shown in the drawing, it will be clear that the rise of the piston 2 will compress the air in the cylinder 1, and that this pressure will be communicated to both the upper and the lower faces of the head 7 through the ports 4 and 5. The ring 7 of such proportion, however, that there is a lar er area of the head 7 exposed on the lower ace than on the upper. Consequently, at a certain point in the upward movement of the piston 2, the compression in the cylinder 1 will become effective to cause an upward movement of the plunger head 7. Once the ring 7 a has left its seat, the whole lower face of the head is exposed to the pressure caused by the rising piston 2. The result will be that the plunger 6 will be caused to very rapidly move upwardly, which movement will out off the port 5 and cause a sudden compression of the hot air or gas which has entered the cylinder 3, and it will be noted that the only point of egress for this compressed hot air is by way of the duct 13 which leads to the atomizing chamber 14. The air rushes through said duct and annular passa e and between the perforations in the disfis 15 and the pinvalve 16 into the'combustion chamber, carrying with it the fuel particles which have been delivered to the atomizing chamber, through the instrumentalities to be described.

The rise of the plun' er 6 carries with it the stem 26 and there ore causes the plunger 27 to rise in the channel 28 of the pump member, which channel is at all times filled with liquid fuel. Manifcstly the rise of the lunger 27 imparts a pressure upon the fuel in the channel 28, which pressure is communicated to the ball valves 32' and 33, in consequence of which, on account of the construction of the apparatus, the valve 32 is unseated, and the valve 33 is seated, in a manner which will be readily understood.

By a continued upward movement of the plunger 27, the fuel in the channels 28 and 29 will be forced past the valve 32,-to the duct 24, and thence to the atomizing chamber 14, where it is taken up by the compressed air, as heretofore the combustion chamber adjacent the spark plug 43, which produces the necessary spark at this time, because of the synchronous engagement of the contacts 37 and 38.

l'pon downward movement of the piston 2 the pressure is released and the spring 12 tends to. move the head 7 down to its seat. This movement opens the iort 5 and releases the contacts 37 and 38. t also causes the plunger 27 to initially move downwardly within the cylinder 28, which movement seats the ball valve 32 and unseats the ball valv 33. A further movement of the plunger 27 will cause the fuel to be drawn past the valve 33 and into the channel 30, and the apparatus as a Whole is then ready for another cycle of operation.

It is to be understood that, in the adjustability of the thrust washer 11, and the consequent variance of the pressure tobe exerted by the spring 12, I have provided an effective method of timing the delivery of the vaporlzed fuel from the atomizing chamber to the cylinders of the engine, with reference to the instant of ignition, which is governed by the adjustable contact 38, and this is a very important feature of my invention. This adjustment may easily be made while the motor is running.

In the application of my invention to engines of the four-cycl type, it is to be understood that the thrust washer 11 must be so ad'usted that the port 5 will always be closec while the exhaust valves of the work ing cylinders are open, or that a suitable valve must be inter osed in said port so that the scavenging e ect may not operate to draw fuel through ports 5.

From the foregoing it will be observed that my invention contemplates instrumentalities whereby a portion of the heated air may be taken from the working cylinders of an internal combustion engine, and additionally and suddenly placed under great compression by the ascent of the working piston, and thenceconducted to an atomizing chamber; that the compression in the working cylinders, caused by the ascent of the piston also operates the fuel pump and ejects the fuel into the atomizing chamber simultaneously with the delivery of compressed air from the supplemental chamber, and i ,that simultaneously therewith also the sparkplug is caused to explode the mixture which enters adjacent thereto.

The theory upon which I base the better operation of the engine, when equipped with my apparatus, is that the combustion in the cylinder is prolonged, or made progressive,

explained, and forced into to which the invention working cylinder it being obvious that the operation of the atomizer pump is -not actually instantaneous, but is a relatively prolonged operation with respect to the movement of the main piston, and the time consumed in the entrance of the fuel.

Various embodiments of the invention may be suggested to those skilled in the art pertains, but I desire to secure b Letters atent all such embodiments as all fairly within the scope and spirit of the appended claims.

IVhat I claim is:

1. An attachment for internal combustion en ines provided with a working cylinder an piston, a source of fuel supply, an ignition element and an atomizin element, comprising means actuated b t e compression of air in the working cy inder, whereby a charge of compressed aeriform promoter of combustion and of liquid fuel are simultaneously delivered through the atomizing element to the combustion chamber, and means for timing the delivery of the compressed aeriform promoter of combustion and liquid fuel to the combustion chamber with reference to the instant of operation of the ignition element, substantially as described.

2. An attachment for internal combusti dn engines provided with a working cylinder and piston, a source of fuel supply and an atomlzing element, of a supplemental cylinder in communication with the working cy inder, a plunger in said supplemental cylinder adapted for actuation by compression in the working cylinder, means whereby the actuation of the plunger may compress a charge of aeriform promoter of combustion received from the working cylinder and deliver it to the combustion chamber through the atomizing element, and additional means actuated by said plunger whereby a charge of liquid fuel may be delivered to the atomizing element and mixed with said compressed aeriform promoter of combustion prior to its passage to the combustion chamber, substantially as described.

3. An attachment for internal combustion engines provided with a working cylinder and piston, a source of fuel supply, an atomizing element and an ignition element, of a supplemental cylinder in communication with the working cylinder, a plunger in said supplemental cylinder adapted for actuation by compression in the working cylinder, means whereby the actuation of the plunger may compress a charge of aeriform promoter of combustion received from the and deliver it to the combustion chamber through the atomizing element, additional means actuated by said plunger whereby a charge of liquid fuel may e simultaneously delivered to the atomizing element and mixed with said compressed aeriform promoter of combustion prior to its passage to the combustion chamber, and adjustable means for timing the delivery of the mixture to said combustion chamber, with respect to the instant of ignition, substantially as described.

4. An attachment for internal combustion engines provided with a working cylinder and piston and an atomizing element, comprising a supplemental cylinder communicatin with the atomizing element and provide witha plunger having a head thereon, ports for the ingress of compressed air from the working cylinder above and below said head, whereby inward movement of the head under the influence of ressure from the working cylinder may ad itionally compress air above the head and deliver it to the atomizing element, and means for causing the said compression in the working cylinder to impart first a gradual and then a sudden inward movement to said head, substantially as described.

5. An attachment for internal combustion engines provided with a working cylinder and piston and an atomizin element, comprising a supplemental cyllnder communicating with the atomizin element and provided with a plunger having a head thereon, ports for-the in ss of compressed air from the working cy inder above and below said head, whereby inward movement of the head under the influence of ressure from the working cylinder may ad itionally compress air above the head and deliver it to the atomizing element, and means for causing the said compression in the working cylinder to impart first a gradual and then a sudden inward movement to said head, said means comprising an annular ring provided on the lower face of the head, the diameter of the said ring bein less than the diameter of the head, substantially as described.

6. An attachment for internal combustion engines provided with a working cylinder an piston, an atomizing element and a source of liquid fuel, comprising a supplemental cylinder communicatin with the atomizingl element and provi ed with a plunger aving a head, a port connecting said cylinders below; the head and a duct connecting said cylinders above the head, whereby compressed air from the working cylinder may enter the sup lemental cylinder above the head, and sald head may be moved inwardl by the compression in the working cylindlar to additionally compress the air in the supplemental cylinder and deliver it through the atomizing element to the combustion chamber, and a pump connected to said fuel source and to said plunger, whereby reciprocation of the plunger may deliver a charge of fuel through said atomizing element to said combustion chamber simultaneously with delivery of the compressed air, substantially as described.

7. An attachment for internal combustion en mes provided with a working cylinder an piston, an atomizing element and a source of liquid fuel, comprising a supplemental cylinder in communication with the working cylinder, said supplemental cylinpressed air through the atomizing elementto the combustion chamber, a pump connected to said fuel source, a member fixed to said plunger and connected to said pump, whereby reciprocation of the lunger may deliver a charge of fuel throug said atomizing element to said combustion chamber,

simultaneousl with the delivery of compressed air t ereto and means carried by said plun er whereby the ignition elements are cause to operate at the instant of the delivery of said fuel and air to the combustion chamber from the atomizing element, substantially as described.

8. An attachment for internal combustion engines provided with a working cylinder and piston and an atomizing element, comprising a supplemental cylinder communi eating with the atomizing element-and provided with a plunger having a head adapted to seat on the bottom of said supplemental cylinder, ports establishing communication between said supplemental and working cylinders, one of said ports opening above and one below said plunger head, whereby the rise of the plunger in the working cylinder may cause a charge of heated compressed air to enter the supplemental cylinder above the head, and may thereafter raise the plunger to additionally compress the charge thereabove and e'ect it to the atomizing element, substantial y as described.

9. An attachment for internal combustion engines provided with a working cylinder an piston and an atomizin element,.comprising a supplemental cylinder communi' eating with the atomizing element and provided with a plunger having a head adapted to seat on the bottom of said supplemental cylinder, ports establishing communication between said supplemental and working cylinders, one of said ports opening above and one below said plunger head, whereby the rise of the plunger in the working cylinder may cause a charge of heated compressed air to enter the supplemental cylinder above the head, and may thereafter raise the plunger to additionally compress the charge thereabove and eject it to the atomizing lelement, and means connected to the plunger for simultaneously delivering a charge of liquid fuel to said atomizing element, substantially as described.

10. An attachment for internal combustion en 'nes provided with a working cylinder an piston and an atomizing e ement, comprising a sup lemental cylinder commumcati plun era apted for reciprocation in said supp emental cylinder and havin a head adapted to seat on the bottom wal thereof, a port leading from the working cylinder to the bottom face of said head, and a port similarly leading to the top face thereof, whereby the compression in the working cylinder may be communicatedto both faces of the plunger, and means on said plunger whereby sald compression may cause it to first rise slowly to close the upper port, and then rise quickly to compress the air thereabove and eject it to the atomizing element, substantiall as described.

11. An attachment for internal combustion e ines provided with a workin cylinder an piston and an atomizing sement, compr sing a supplemental cylinder commumcating with sald atomizing element and provided with a plunger having a head adapted to seat on the bottom thereof, ports leading from said wor cylinder to the top and bottom faces of said head, whereby both faces are subject to the compression in the wor cylinder, the ex osed area of the bottom ace being greater t an that of the top face, and means whereby upon the initial upward movement of the plunger a still larger area of the bottom faoethereof is exposed to the compression, whereby said plunger is caused to rise suddenly and additionally compress the air thereabove and eject it to the atomizing element, substantially as described.

12. An attachment for internalcombustion engines provided with a working cylinder and piston and an atomizing e ement, comprising a supplemental cylinder communicating with said atomizin element and provided with a plungeraving a head adapted to seat on the bottom thereof, ports leading from said working 0 linder to" the top and bottom faces of said ead, whereby a both faces are subject to the compression in the working cylinder, the exposed area .of the bottom face bein greater than that of the top face, means w ereby u n the initial upward movement of the p unger a still larger area of the bottom face thereof is ex: posed to the compression, whereby sald plunger is caused-t0 rise suddenly and'additionally compress the air thereabove and eject it .com

Icombustion chamber, substantially as descn said atomizingelement, substantially. as del scribed.

13. A device of the comprising, in combination with the working cylinde p s on and combustion chamber outside of sai with t e atomizing element, a

of an internal combustion engine, an atomizing element, tpneumatically 0 erable means cylinder for ad itionally compressing an aeriform promoter of combustion received therefrom, said means operating to simultaneously deliver said compressed aeriform promoter of combustion and a charge of fuel under pressure through said atomizing element to the combustion chamber, and ad'ustable means for governing the instant o delivery of the compressed aeriform promoter of combustion and fuel through the atomizing element, substantially as described.

14. An attachment for internal combustion engines provided with a workin cylinder and piston and an atomizing e ement, comprising a supplemental cylinder communicatingwith said atomizing element, a plunger adapted for reciprocation in said supplemental cylinder, and having ahead adapted to seat on the bottom wall thereof, a spring member governing the .actuation of said plunger, ports leading from the working cylinder to the top and bottom faces of said head, whereby a charge of compressed air from the working cylinder ma supplemental cylinder above the ead and be additionally compressed and thereafter e ectedto the atomizing element by a rise 0 the plunger, and means for adjusting the tension of said spring member to vary the mstant of rise of the plunger, substantially as described.

15. An attachment for internal combus tion en 'nes provided with a working cylinder an iston, an i' ition element, and an atoniizerileading to t e combustion chamber,

enter the comprising a supplemental cylinder comm'uthe ignition element, and adjustable means co-actin with said last named means for timing t e actuation of the arking element with respect to the instant o ejection of the air through the atomizer to the In testimony whereof I aflix'my signature.

nanny- HIGGINS, Jn. W'itn to signature: 7

L. Wan-mu, Nam: J. Scum-r. I

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2512644 *Jul 17, 1947Jun 27, 1950Hauber Erwin JFuel injector for internal-combustion engines
US2539798 *Oct 10, 1945Jan 30, 1951American Bosch CorpFuel injection system
US2689527 *Feb 11, 1949Sep 21, 1954Borg WarnerFuel injector pump
US2793628 *Sep 7, 1955May 28, 1957Floyd Baron BFuel injection system
US3101701 *Sep 18, 1961Aug 27, 1963Fuka VaclavFuel injection system
US3117564 *Apr 13, 1961Jan 14, 1964Walker Mfg CoFuel injector-igniter
US3124111 *Sep 18, 1961Mar 10, 1964 Fuel injection system
US3981286 *Feb 3, 1975Sep 21, 1976Werner Erik SiemensMethod and apparatus for forming and burning a fuel-air-mixture in an air-compressing piston internal combustion engine
US4018192 *Jul 3, 1975Apr 19, 1977Eft Sheldon EWater injection system for I.C. engines
US4062327 *Sep 4, 1975Dec 13, 1977Peter Brian KnightsInternal combustion engine
US4098560 *Dec 22, 1975Jul 4, 1978Physics International CompanyFuel injection pumps for internal combustion engines
US4141675 *Dec 8, 1977Feb 27, 1979Physics International CompanyGas-actuated fuel pump wherein the pump piston is driven by a spring
US4373671 *Apr 13, 1981Feb 15, 1983Ford Motor CompanyElectromagnetic fuel injector
US6725845 *Jul 26, 2002Apr 27, 2004Barry L HoltzmanFuel injection pump with opposed regulating springs
US8870091Dec 1, 2011Oct 28, 2014McVan AerospacePressure compensated fuel injector
US9404459Sep 27, 2014Aug 2, 2016McVan AerospacePressure compensated fuel injector with solenoid pumping
US20040016422 *Jul 26, 2002Jan 29, 2004Holtzman Barry L.Fuel injection pump with opposed regulating springs
Classifications
U.S. Classification123/250, 417/380, 239/87, 184/29
International ClassificationF02M67/04, F02M59/10
Cooperative ClassificationF02M2700/075, F02M67/04, F02M59/107
European ClassificationF02M59/10D, F02M67/04