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Publication numberUS1377722 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 10, 1921
Filing dateMar 9, 1918
Priority dateMar 9, 1918
Publication numberUS 1377722 A, US 1377722A, US-A-1377722, US1377722 A, US1377722A
InventorsMarconi Guglielmo
Original AssigneeMarconi Guglielmo
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electric accumulator
US 1377722 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

2 SHEETS Patented May l@ UMULATOR.

G. IVIARCON! ELECTRIC ACC APPLlcAnoN man MAR.9,1918.

G. MARCONI. ELECTRIC ACCUIVIULATOR.

APPLICATION FILED MAR. 9, 19I8. LSTJQQD Patented May W192i.

2 SHEES--SHEET 2.

1 in wavy lines) which PAEN'r trice.

GUGLIELMO MARCONI, 0F LONDUN, ENGLAND.

ELECTRIC ACC'UMULATOR.

Specification of Letters Eatent.

Patented tray io, rear..

application Bled March 9, 1911.8.` Serial No. 221,501.

To all whom t may concern:

Be it known that ll, GUGLIELMO MARCONI, a subject of the King of Italy, residing at Marconi House, Strand, London, England, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Electric Accumulators, of which the following is a specification.

This invention relates to electricaccumulators in which chlorin is employed as the active element at the positive pole and zinc or other metal at the negative pole.

According to this invention l employ a solution of an alkaline chlorid (which eX- pression hereinafter means the chlorid of an alkali or of analkaline earth) together with the chlorid of an electropo'sitive metal such as zinc.

My invention is illustrated by the accompanying drawings, of which Figure 1 is a vertical section through an accumulator, Fig. 2 is a part transverse section to a larger scale, and Fig. 3 is a part vertical-section.

a is a cylindrical container of steel having its interior coated with zinc to a thickness of from 1 to 2 mm. It is closed at the bottom by an insulated cover b. c, 0, are porous cylinders of asbestos or porcelain closed at the top; each is surrounded with small gauze cylinders d (shown in Fig. 1

by straight lines `only to avoid confusion of the drawing) of copper or iron wire coated with zinc and amalgamated and the whole assemblage is bound together by al large cylinder all of similar gauze (shown in Fig. fits close against the interior of the container a. In the middle of each cylinder c is a rod e of carbon having a metallic core f to increase its conductivity, theremainder of the interior of the cylinder being lled with powdered or granular porous carbon g of low resistance. The cores f are not essential, but if they are employed the carbon rods should be rendered impermeable by mixing with the paste of which they are formed a small quantity of a vitreous substance, such as an insoluble silicate or quartz. The lower end of each cylinder c is closed by a plug hf of insulating cement unaffected by chlorin.

rllhe ends of the cores f, or of the rods e if cores are not employed, are electrically connected to a disk v1 of wire gauze connected to the cover b by solder y'.

lo is a layer of insulating cement, such as Sealing wax, asphalt or va mixture of b1tumen and pitch, introduced hot through a tube l. Above the top of the cylinders c is a layer of carbon grains m, grains m bemg separated from carbon parts e and g by the ends of cylinders c. n is an aqueous solution of calcium chlorid and zinc chlorid which can be introduced through a cock o. p 1s a pressure gage filled with oil to prevent any corroslve action upon it, and g is a safety valve. lin the center of the assemblage of cylinders 0 is a circulating tube' r formed of porcelain, through which passes a closed tube s of metal coated withl zinc and containing a coil the ends of which are connected to binding screws t. u is the positive terminal of the accumulator and fu the negative terminal. One binding screw t is connected to the terminal u and the other tothe terminal v so that a current may dow through the coil and heat it and so cause a circulation of the solution. After the whole has been assembled and the solution introduced air orhydrogen is forced into the container to a pressure of the order of twenty atmospheres.

The action of the accumulator is as follows During charging the chlorid of zinc is decomposed into chlorin and zinc. The latter is deposited on the surface of the gauze constituting thevnegative electrode, and the chlorin which is liquefied by the pressure is partly absorbed by the powdered carbon, while. some remains free in the solution. During discharge the reverse action takes place, the anions of chlorin and the cations of zinc recombining to form chlorid of zinc. rlhe presence of the calcium chlorid prevents shortcircuiting being caused owing to the growth of laments of zinc through the pores of the cylinders containing the positive electrodes, and decreases the diffusion of the chlorin through the liquid.

'While ll prefer zinc, l may use in place of it another electropositive metal, such as cadmium, or ossibly nickel, iron, copper or manganese. Iimilarly, while I prefer calcium chlorid as being cheap and extremely soluble, ll may employ in place of it the chlorid of some other alkali or alkaline earth metal, such as common salt.

Internal diameter of container a 20cm Height 50 cm Number of cylinders c 300 Internal diameter of 0 8 mm Thickness of sides of c 1 mm Diameter of rods e 5 mm Diameter of cores f 1 mm Gauze ci is formed of wire of 0.2 mm. diameter of close mesh, weighing approximately 8 gramsper square decimeter. l

In place of wire-gauze I may employ perforated strips ofv electrolytic zlnc and the Word gauze taken as including such strips.

The solution should be prepared with distilled Water, and the chlorids of calcium and zinc should be pure and lfree from metals more electronegative than zinc.

The solution may consist of:-

600 grams of water.

500 to 550 grams of dry chlorld of calcium, and

400 grams of chlorid of zmc.

For accumulators in which weight and size are not of essential importance, 1t 1s possible to 0 diameters of the cylinders c and the thlckness of their sides.

An accumulator so constructed has a capacity of about 1,100 ampere hours with an initial voltage of from 2te 2.2 volts, the discharge rate being about five hours and the voltage drops to 1.6 volts.

What I claim is 1. In an electric accumulator, the combination of a closed container, electrodes therein, and an electrolyte in said container containing chlorin ions, the interior of said container being normally under pressure.

2. The method of operating an electrolyt-ic cell comprising a container having an electrolyte therein having a chlorin anion which includes the step of maintaining the interior of said container at a pressure suficient to liquefy chlorin at the temperature of the container.

3. In an electric accumulator, the combination of a closed container, a porous vessel therein, a carbon rod packed with granular carbon within the vessel, metal gauze surrounding the vessel and a solutlon of an alkaline chlorid and of the chlorid of an electropositive metal.

4:. In an electric accumulator, the combination of a closed container, a porous vessel therein, a carbon rod packed with granular carbon within the vessel, metal gauze surrounding the vessel and a solution of calcium chlorid and of zinc chlorid.

In an electric accumulator, the combination of a closed container, a porous vessel therein, a carbon rod packed with granular `calcium chlorid and of zinc lis hereinafter intended to be increase advantageously the` carbon within the vessel, metal gauze surrounding the vessel and a solution of an alkaline chlorid and of the chlorid of an electropositive metal under pressure.

6. In an electric accumulator, the combination of a closed container, a porous vessel therein, a carbon rod packed with granular carbon surrounding the vessel and a solution of chlorid under pressure.

f7. In an electric accumulator, the combination of a closed container, a lurality of porous vessels therein, a carlion rod packed with granular carbon within each vessel, metal gauzesurrounding each vessel and a solution of an alkaline chlorid and of the chlorid of an electropositive metal.

8. In an electric accumulator, the combination of a closed container, a plurality of porous vessels therein, a carbon rod packed with granular carbon within each vessel, metal gauze surroundin each vessel and a solution of calcium 'ch orid and of zinc chlorid.

9. In an electric accumulator, the comblnatlon of a closed container, a lurality `of porous vessels therein, a car on rod packed with granular carbon within each vessel, metal gauze surrounding each vessel, a solution of an alkaline chlorid and of the chlorid of an electropositive metal, and means whereby gas under pressure can be forced into the container.

10. In an electric accumulator, the combination of a closed container, a plurality of porous vessels therein, a carbon rod packed with granular carbon within each vessel, metal gauze surrounding each vessel, a solution of calcium chlorid and of zinc chlorid, and means whereby gas under pressure can be forced into the container.

11. In an electric accumulator, the combination of a closed container, a plurality'of porous vessels therein, a carbon. rod packed with granular carbon within eachvessel, metal gauze surrounding each vessel, a solution of an alkaline chlorid and of the chlorid of an electropositive metal, means whereby gas under pressure can be forced into the container and means for causing a circulation of the solution.

12. In an electric accumulator, the combination of a closed container, a lurality ofr porous vessels therein, a carhon rod packed with granular carbon within each vessel, metal gauze surrounding each vessel, a solution of calcium chlorid and of zinc chlorid, means whereby gas under pressure can be forced into the container, and means for causing a circulation of the solution.

13. In an electric accumulator, the combination of a closed container, a plurality of porous vessels therein, a carbon rod packed with granular carbon within each vessel,

within the vessel, metal gauzemetal gauze surrounding each vessel, a solution of an alkaline chlorid and of the chlorid of an electropositive metal, a circulating tube and means operated by the current from the accumulator for heating the solution within such tube.

14. In an electric accumulator, the combination of a closed container, a plurality of crous vessels therein, a carbon rod packed with granular carbon Within each Vessel, metal gauze surrounding each vessel, a solution of calcium chlorid and of zinc chlorid, a circulating tube and means operated by the current from the accumulator for heating the solution Within such tube.

- 15. ln an electric accumulator, the combination of a closed container, a plurality of porous vessels therein, a carbon rod packed with granular carbon Within each vessel, metal gauze surrounding each Vessel, a solution of an alkaline chlorid and of the 'chlorid of an 'electropositive metal, means whereby gas under pressure can be forced into the container, a circulating tube and means operated by the current from the accumulator for heating the solution Within such tube.

16. In an electric accumulator, the combination of a closed container, a plurality of porous vessels therein, a carbon rod packed with granular carbon Within each vessel, metal gauze surrounding each Vessel, a solution of calcium chlorid and of zinc chlorid, means whereby gas under pressure can be forced into the container, a circulating tube and means operated by the current from the accumulator for heating the solution Within such tube.

In testimony as my invention, l have signed my name this fourteenth dagr of Februa 1918.

UGLELM MCON.

that l claim the foregoing"r

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2588170 *Jul 5, 1949Mar 4, 1952Smith William AlvahSecondary battery
US2612532 *Oct 2, 1948Sep 30, 1952Union Carbide & Carbon CorpPrimary cell or battery
US2684395 *Jul 7, 1950Jul 20, 1954Eagle Picher CoElectric battery
US3428493 *Jan 3, 1966Feb 18, 1969Standard Oil CoElectrical energy storage device comprising aluminum-lithium electrode and mechanical screen surrounding the electrode
US4086393 *Nov 24, 1976Apr 25, 1978Energy Development AssociatesGas phase free liquid chlorine electrochemical systems
US4452868 *Dec 29, 1982Jun 5, 1984Gould Inc.Metal-chlorine cell with storage of chlorine
US4728587 *Jun 18, 1986Mar 1, 1988Furakawa Electric Co., Ltd.Battery using halogen as active material
DE2745033A1 *Oct 6, 1977Jun 1, 1978Energy Dev AssElektrochemische systeme auf der grundlage von fluessigem chlor ohne gasphase
Classifications
U.S. Classification429/409
International ClassificationH01M10/36
Cooperative ClassificationY02E60/12, H01M10/365
European ClassificationH01M10/36B