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Publication numberUS13799 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 13, 1855
Publication numberUS 13799 A, US 13799A, US-A-13799, US13799 A, US13799A
InventorsSylyanus Sawyer
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Improved compound projectile
US 13799 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


Patented Nov, 13, I855.




Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. E3599, dated November 12, 1855.

To all w/wm it may concern.-

Be it known that I, SYLVANUS Sawvnn, of

'Fitchburg, in the county of "Worcester and State of Hassachusettahave invented an Improved BombShell; and I do hereby declare .with wings or guides to enter such grooves,

and so far therein that during the discharge of the piece the grooves may impart to the shell a whirling or rotary motion on its axis,which shall be maintained during its flight or course toward the object to which it may be directed.

In applying to the external surface of conical or cylindro-conical shells lead, when such shells have been made of cast-iron, it has been customary to cast the lead on the cylindrical surface of the shell, or that part of it which during its passage through the bore of the gun would be likely to rub against the same, the

vlead or softmetal having been applied as a protection to the gun, or as a means of not only preventing that wear or tear of it which would result were the iron surface of the shell to be allowed to come in contact with the inside surface of the bore, but the bursting of the gun, which is liable to follow from the choking of it by the shell, where such friction or tearing of the bore is produced. Under these circumstances it has been found that, owing to the rapid passage of flame over the surface of the lead during'the movement of the shell through the bore, such lead will be instantaneously ripped or melted off the shell, and consequently rendered useless for the purpose for which it was applied thereto. I have endeavored to make a shell in such manner as to stop the passage of the flame by it, or prevent it from tearing or melting off the antifrietion metal. For this purpose I so construct the shell and apply the anti-friction metalthereto that the force of the explosion,

| acting in conjunction with the hard metal at the butt or rear end of the shell, shall expand a portion of such anti-friction metal, so as to press it firmly against the inner surface of the bore of the piece and cut off the passage of the flame by the shell or its leaden or antifriction coating. Furthermore, in order to fasten the anti-friction metal firmly to the cast-iron shell or body, I first coat the latter with tin, or some metal which will have a stronger affinity for the cast-iron and the lead or anti-friction metal than the latter has for the iron. This done, I cast on and around the metallic coating so appliedthe coating or case of lead or anti-friction metal. I also form the rear part of the iron case or shell frusto-conical or tapering, and apply to such an extra thickness of anti-friction metal, which, when an explosion of the charge of the gun takes place, shall force or crowd the surplus antifriction metal up the conical or tapering surface joining the cylindrical body of the shell, the said surface serving to expand the ring of metal on it, and cause it to fit closely to the bore of the gun, and so as to prevent windage, and the passage of flame by such ring to such extent as to tear or melt the anti-friction metal in advance of the ring. Besides the above, I extend the anti-friction metal beyond and around the screwplug of the shell, and screw into it the explosive cap of the shell, arranging such cap directly over the screwplug, and so that when the shell is thrown against an obstacle point first its momentum shall compress the anti-friction or soft metal, so as to cause it to give way and let the explosive cap with force down, so as to compress the percussion wafer or priming arranged on top of the screw-plug or in the explosive cap, as the case may be.

In the drawings, A shows the cast-iron hollow body of the shell,which,when the projectile is used, is to be charged or loaded with powder or other proper material, such body, generally speaking, being formed eylindroconical, and provided with a screw-plug, B, and a series of helical wings, E E FEB 11 arranged as seen in the several figures.

O exhibits the covering of tin,while D shows the coating of lead or anti-friction metal, it being extended up above and around the screwplug B, and provided with a female screw, as

seen at (Z (Z in Figs. 1, 2, andet, such screw serving to receive a male screw, 6 0, formed on the explosive cap F. The said cap F constitutes a cover to the screw-plug B,which is provided with one or more vent-holes, ff, leading down through it. Above the top of the said plug, and between it and the cap F, or in the latter, the percussion priming or wafer is to be placed.

Under all ordinary circumstances the coinpressible anti friction metal sustaining the screw-cap F will retain it from being forced down upon the priming, the cap being formed withashould'er, hh, to rest on the metal. \Vhen the shell is forced from the gun, the cap first comes in contact with the object fired at, and by such and the force or momentum of its flight will be driven down, so as to compress the percussion-primin g and to cause an explosion of it, the holding metal yielding under the force of the impingement of the shell and suffering the explosive cap to so act. The wings E, as well as the body of the shell, are to be coated with the tin and anti-friction metal, which should also extend over the butt or rear end of the shell and its tapering part a a, as seen at b b in Fig. 3.

Previous to inserting the shell in the piece of ordnance a patch or cloth hood-or bag may be drawn over it, partially or wholly, so as to separate its sides from the inside surface of the bore. A shell constructed on the above plan has been found exceedingly effective in preventing friction and wear of the gun and the consequent choking and bursting of it which might ensue, besides being of great advantage so far as saving of ammunition is concerned.

At 1) b, Fig. 4, I have exhibited the annulus of lead or soft'metal extending around the ta pering. or conical part a a. of the cast-iron body of the shell. Then the explosion of the charge of the gun takes place, this annulus will be driven up the tapering part a a and expanded thereby, and so as to produce effects as stated.

1. Combining with the butt or flat rear end of the cylindro -conical iron shell a layer of lead or softer metal than that of which the body of the shell is composed, and united or not to a layer of such metal extended around the sides of the shell, as described, the same operating in manner as specified while the shell is being projected through the bore of a gun by a discharge of the powder therein.

2.' Making the rear part of the shell tapering or conical, as seen at a a, combining therewith a ring or annulus, b b, of lead orits equivalent, the same being substantially in manner and for the purpose as hereinbefore specified.-

8. Oonfining the explosive screw-cap to the. body of the shell by means of asofter oryielding metal or casing, which, when the cap or shell shall strike an object, shall give way un-v der the force of the blow and let the cap down with force, so as to compress the percussion. wafer or priming in it or on the main screw, stopper, or plug, and so as to create an explosion thereof, as stated.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my.

signature this 9th day of October, A. D. 1855.



R. H. EDDY, F. P. HALE, Jr.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5760331 *Dec 6, 1996Jun 2, 1998Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp.Non-lead, environmentally safe projectiles and method of making same
US5913256 *Nov 10, 1997Jun 15, 1999Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc.Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container
US6149705 *Mar 2, 1998Nov 21, 2000Ut-Battelle, LlcNon-lead, environmentally safe projectiles and method of making same
US6174494Mar 20, 1998Jan 16, 2001Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc.Non-lead, environmentally safe projectiles and explosives containers
Cooperative ClassificationF42B12/204