|Publication number||US1383 A|
|Publication date||Oct 26, 1839|
|Publication number||US 1383 A, US 1383A, US-A-1383, US1383 A, US1383A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
THOMAS HARRISON, OF SPRINGFIELD, OHIO.
MODE OE WRITING MUSIC.
Specification of Letters Patent No. 1,388, dated October 26, 1839.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, THOMAS ,Hennrsozv, of Springfield, in the county of Clark and State of Ohio, have invented a new and Improved System of Music; and I do hereby eclare that the following is a full and exact description.
The nature of my invention consists in placing the first seven numerals, between, and over, and under, two parallel lines, therebgxinstitutin three successive octaves, and a in perio s, commas, and hyphens, to the soi numerals in order to determine their relative length.
To enable others others skilled in the science of music to use my invention, I will proceed to describe its nature and peculiarities.
I divide the science into three parts, melody, time, and utterance.
Melody refers to the different altitudes, or heights, of the tones, and also to their socurate succession. As there are but seven primary tones, I place the first seven numerals between two parallel lines with the first numeral repeated and placed over the lines, and call these eight successive tones the primary octave. As all the seven tones can be repeated both upward and downward, I place a higher octave above the lines, and a. lower octave beneath them. When necessary I add two additional lines, and thereby create a second higher and a second lower. octave. To distinguish between the grand and laintive octaves, (or the mayor and minor eys,) I place the letter G, or P at the commencement of a piece of vocal music, immediately over the parallel lines: G, (01' grand octave) means the two semiintervals, which are natural to the musical scale in all nations, must be preserved between the tones 8 and 4, and also 7 and 8: and P, (or laintive octave) that the said two seml-inilervals must be preserved between 2 and 3, and also between 5 and 6- the letter 8, however is aifixed to the tones 6 and 7 in ascending the plaintive octave, to show that they are each raised a, semi-interval. In addition to the seven prime. tones, there are five seconds tones, or semi-tones, (or flats and sharps which occur onl where the five whoe intervals exist; an are, of course, omitted where the two semiintervals exist: these I represent by placing the letter s, before or a or the ad oining primary tone: when s, is placed before a pnmary tone it depresses it a semi-interval; and when placed after it raises it a semi-interval. To the four different parts of ham-- mony, I apply the letters A for air, B, for base; C, for counter, and D, for doublet, or second car. As music is sung on different alt tudes, or pitches, I use seven diflerent altitudes, each of which is a tone higher than the other (the first corres ending with low 0 on the treble clef in he old system of music.) The altitude of a piece of music is known by the fi re refixed to the G, or P, octave charac er: G, meanin the first altitude grand octave: 2G, secon altitude, &c. When the altitude is changed in the middle of a strain, I place the letter S, be fore or after the tones that are depressed or raised. In the additional parts which are sometimes appended to the above-named four, for instrumental music, instead of using diiferent altitudes, I place at the beginning, the depressed or raised tones with the letter 8, before or after them, in order to restore the two semi-intervals to their proper places. Hence, in vocal strains, tone 1 is always the overning or key note, but in inscrumental strains, any tone may be the key note.
The second general division is time, which refers to the relative duration of tones, and the division of a number of tones into equal portions. 1 institute seven difierent lengths of tones, called common, long, longer, longest, short, shorter, and shortest. The common tone has no peculiar mark; the long has a priod before or under it, the longer two periods, and the longest three; the short has a comma after or under it the shorter two commas, and the shortest three. The common tone is equal in length to a second of time, the long tone is twice its length, the longer four times, and the longest eight; t e short is half the length of the common, the shorter one-fourth, and the shortest one-eighth. The duration of a tone is also afiected b lacin a hyphen after it, which makes it a f as ong again, or two hyphens which make it three-fourths as long. When a rest occurs I use the letter R, and a ply to it the marks used to determine the ength of the tones. In the division of a number of tones into equal portions, or measure, I only use a four: the double and triple, and the compound double and triple. A double measure contains two common tones, and a triple three; a compound double four, and a compound triple six. I call a measure even when the tones commence on an upward or downward beat, or on both; and uneven when they commence on an up ward, and are continued on a downward heat. A heat or motion of the right hand or foot, I make in all cases e uivalent to a common tone. To the beat apply seven different. movements-the common which is equal to a second of time; the slow, slower and slowest beats, each of which is one third slower than the other; and the quick,
quicker, and quickest beats, each ofv which is one third quicker. In order to show the measure and movement of a piece of music, I place certain si s at'the beginning, under the two parallel lines, such as 20, two beats, common movement; 3Q, three beats, qniolr movement.
The third general division is utterance, which teaches the various modes of intona tion, and the pro or application of words to tones. To the ifl'erent tones I apply no foreign terms, or phrases, but simply call them soft and loud tones, organ and eolian tones, exclamatory and gliding tones. Over the organ tones is place a horizontal lineover the eolian, diverging and converging lines, over the exclamatory tone, and exclamotion note, and over the gliding tones a curve. When a tone is prolonged beyond its ordinary length, I place over it the letter P. When a strain is repeated I place at the end, Rep. When ornamental or grace notes occur, I use were half the size of the common ones. en three tones are to be sung to the time of two, I lace over them the figure 2. -The sin 1e ars placed between measures, and the ouble bars placed at the end of a strain, do not extend above or below the parallel lines. When a vocal strain is interru ted by an instrumental, I use the terms, net. and Voice.
What I wish to claim as my invention is- The placing of the firstseven numerals between, and over, and under, two parallel lines, thereby instituting three successive octaves, and aifixin periods, commas, and hyphens to the sai numerals, in order to determine their relative length.
THOMAS HARRISON. Witnesses:
Isaac H. Lancer, M. GALLAGHER.
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