US 1389979 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
c. E. RAHR AND 0. RUSSELL.
. PREPARED ROOHNG SHINGLE.
APPLICATION FILED JULY 3,1916.
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UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
CHESTER E. RAHB, OF BROOKLINE, MASSACHUSETTS, AND CALVIN RUSSELL, OF
ranrnnnn noorme-snmenn 7 and at Penn Yan in the county of Yates and State of New ork, respectively, have invented new and useful Improvements in Prepared Roofing-Shingles, of which the following is a specification.
This invention has relation to prepared roofing shingles comprising a waterproofed fibrous body coated or'faced with a layer of colored grit or crushed mineral material more or less embedded in and adherent to a layer of bituminous or asphaltic or like materials.
Such shingles have been and are being widely used for dwellings and other structures, and are highly desirable, not only because of their ornamental appearance, but because of their inherent weatherproof and slow combustion characteristics. 'rily crushed slate or like material is used for facing such shingles, and, as it may be obtained in various colors or shades, different effects or patterns may be produced by using shingles of difierent colors.
One of the drawbacks to a more widely. extended use of the shingles has been due to the fact that, when they are laid, they do not all present the same shade or tint to the eye, even when slate from the same batch is employed for facing them. We have found that, when viewed from different angles, the same shingle appears to differ in shade or tint. This is probably due to the fact that the slate is pressed into the adhesive outer. layer of the fibrous foundation by rolls, and quite possibly the thin pieces or particles of slate are tilted to about the same angle, so that the rays of light passing to the retina located at one place produce different color impressions than when the light rays are at a different angle. Whatever the oausemay be, however, it is indisputably the fact that, when shingles of the same batch and having the'same color are laid on a roof, some appear to have a different tint or shade from the others and the roof has an irregular and displeasing mottled appearance.
After considerable study, we have found that, where the shingles are all laid 'in the relative positions in which they ar cut from Specification of Letters Patent.
Ordina- Patented Sept. 6, 1921. 1915. Serial No. 107,241.
the sheet in their manufacture, the roof no longer has the displeasing mottled or variegated appearance. This, however, cannot ord1narily be done because the shingles are oblongand are so easily turned end for end in their packaging and laying. Further with a shingle, when held in the hand, the difference in tint or shade is not as easily noted, as the difference is marked only at the distance from which roofs are usually viewed, and then in comparison with another shade by its side.
We have invented a shingle which can always be laid, so that, when viewed at any angle, it presents the same shade or tint as the adjacent shingles.
In the manufacture of the shin le, one end is marked or notched, as the sheet passes longitudinally through the machine by which it is transversely cut or severed from the sheet, and, by laying the shingles with the marked or notched ends up or down as the case may be, they all present to the eye the same tint or color. The marks or notches may also serve an important additional function, that is of serving as gages for properly spacing the shingles in each row, and locating the spaces of one row accurately with reference to the spaces of an adjacent row.
On the accompanying drawing,-
Figure 1 represents a shingle embodying the invention, which is supposed to be of standard size and to be laid with half-inch spaces between laterally adjacent shingles.
Fig. 2 shows a shingle to be laid with wide spaces, as in Letters Patent to Calvin Russell, No. 1,145,440, dated July 6th, 1915.
Figs. 3. and 4 show, portions of a roof composed of shingles embodying the invention.
As we have already said, the shingles are rectangular and are out from a sheet of felt or other fibrous material saturated with an asphaltic, bituminous or hydrocarbon or e uivalent waterproof compound, coated with asphalt or pitch, and faced with a thick layer of crushed slate or other mineral material of the desired color.
The shingles all have at the same relative ends one or more marks, such for instance as a notch of small dimensions.
In Fig. 1, the shingle has at its upper end three notches a b and 0. Assuming the shingle is in dimensions 8 inches by inches, the V-shaped notches are located with their apexes 23- inches from the side edges of the shingles. The notches are inch at their openings or widest parts. The middle notch I) is rectangular and is located midway between the side edges. It too may be 5 inch wide. (The dimensions of course may be varied.)
In laying the shingles, they are arranged with the marked ends all extending in the same directions, and, when one horizontal row is laid, the next row may be laid, and gaged and spaced by the notches a b or c of the previous row, as will be clearly understood.
For laying widely spaced shingles, say 9 inches by 16 inches, the V-shaped notches d d may be located with their apexes 1-} inches from the side edges of the shingle.
It is important, of course, that in the manufacture of the shingles, and after the sheet has been faced with the crushed mineral, the notches should be formed on the same relative ends of the shingles as, or just before or just after they are severed from the sheet and before they can be dislocated or turned end for end,otherwise, the efficacy of notching or marking them to prevent a mottled roof is destroyed.
' It is evident that other marks may be used, and that the notches may be curved, rectangular, triangular or irregular in shape, or 'ust marks of paint, chalk or any like materm], or the slate or other parts of the coating may be so disturbed as to leave sufficient distinguishing marks. It is not important how the marks are made or what type of mark is made, so long as they serve the purpose described in the specification.
Having thus explained the nature of our said invention and described a wav of making and using the same, although without attempting to set forth all of the forms in so that it can be located in the same relative' position as other like shingles, and thus pre-- sent the like shade or tint.
2. The herein described metheod of producin waterproof fibrous quadrilateral rectangu ar shingles ofuniform thickness each having a colored crushed mineral facing, which consists in severing the same from a prepared sheet, and marking the same relative end of each shingle, so that the shingles may be subsequently laid in the same relative positions end for end and present the same color A)! tint, substantially as described.
3. roofing ngle consisting of a waterproofed fibrous sheet of uniform thickness having an adherent colored crushed mineral facing,
gluadrilateral rectangular prepared. s 1
said shingle having a distinguishing mark at one end whereby a plurality of shingles may be laid with their corresponding ends upward or downward, as the case ma be, so that the mineral facings all present t e same shade or tint.
4. A roof covering comprising a plurality of horizontal rows of overlappin rectangular shingles, each of uniform thickness and having a uniform facin 4 of crushed colored mineral material embed ed therein, and each having a distinguishing characteristic whereby all said shingles are laid to present to the eye at any angle the same shade or' tint.
In testimony whereof We have afiixed our signatures.
CHESTER E. RAHR. CALVIN RUSSELL.