US 1391394 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J. C. LOYER.
APPLICATION FILED JULY 24,1918.
1,391,394, PatentedSept. 20, 1921.
3 SHEETSSHEET 1.
F1 5 1 EM/w 6740 1 3? Iv Minus J. C. LOYER.
APPLICATION FILED JULY 24, I918. 1,391,394. Patented'sept. 20, 1921.
' 3 $HEETS-SHEET 2.
nununuuunuu 5% J. C. LOYER.
APPLICATION mso JULY 24, 1918.
1,391,394, Patentedse u zo, 1921.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 3- GWWM 10 I v UNITED s'1"1 'r1z s PATENT OFFICE.
. JZOSERH..C. LOYER, OF DETROIT, IVII'IGHIGAN.
HEATING To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, JOSEPH CLLOYER, a. citizen of the United States, residin at. Detroit, county of Wayne, State of M1chi-- gan, have inventeda certain new and useful Improvement in Heating Systems, and declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the same, such as will enable others skilled in the art .to which it pertains to make and use the same, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, which form a part of this specification.
This invention relates to heating systems for buildings andits object is to provide a combined fire-place, hot air circulating sys- "tem and a hot water circulating system Whereby all the available heat of a single fire may be utilized and the novel features of the invention reside in the arrangement of a fire- I place with the fire walls thereof formed by water reservoirs, and a flue for the smoke and gases of combustion that is water jacketed providing water reservoirs connecting with the reservoirs about the fire pot so that the major portion of the heatof thefifire may be utilized in the heating of water for awater circulating system. A furtherfeature of the invention is involved in the arrangement of the fire pot with the watercreservoirs forming a fire wall as above stated and air flues about theexterior of the water reservoirs and the smoke flue jforming air circulating means. A particular feature of this'invention is involved in the construction whereby the several heating systems may be embodied in a single unit whereby the maximum amount ofheat of the fire is utilizcd in heating the room of a building. The invention in its preferred form is shown in the accompanying drawings in which Figure 1 is a front elevation of a fire} place and heating system embodying my inventio'n.
Fig. 2 is a vertical section showing the water circulating system, taken substantially on lines 2-2 of Fig. 3. c c a Fig. 3 is a horizontal section taken on. lines 3-3 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4c is a horizontal section taken on lines l-l of Fig. 2.
Fig. 5 is anenlarged section of the upper endsof the surface'flue.
Fig. 6 is a detail in perspective of the upper end of the surface flue showing the. means employedto determine the height of.
water'in the water reservoir about the flue. v
Specification of Letters Patent. )Patentedfiept, V20, 1921. Application filed July 24,1918. seriarno. 246,481.
Fig. 7 is adetail of the connection of the,
return line with the water reservoir. In the embodiment of the invention here shown, a fire-place l'of conventional type type at, or near the floor line and this grate opensinto anash pit 4 therebelow. The fire pot and grate may be of any desired type as Y a dumping and shaking grate of any character adaptable for the purpose. Air for producing a draft may flow from the basement through an opening 4 provided in the wall of the fire place into the ash pitand thus beneath the grate. An air supply 41 may here, be provided to take air from the floor of the room in which the fire. place is located or from any other room as may be desired.
Extending upward from and about the fire pot 3 on three sides thereof and formingthe fire walls therefor, are the metal water reservoirs 5, 5 and 5,which converge at the top forming a dome 6. These water reservoirs are utilized in place of the regular fire brick for the walls of the fire place and absorb the heat from .the fire. The fire place being open at the front as indicated in Fig. 2, the device has all the usual functions of the ordinary fire place exposing the fire to view through the open front and to a certain extent heating the preferably four-sided as shown in Fig. 6.
This flue is water jacketed as indicated in Fig. 4. providing four separate chambers 9, 10, 1 1 and 12 extending the length of the The vertical chamber 9 is consmoke flue. nected with the rear water reservoir 5 and the vertical chamber 11 connects with the top of the reservoir 5 and the vertical'cham; ber 12 connects with the top of the reservoir 5 which surround and are connected together j n as indicated in Fig. 3. Theverticalchamber 10 about the smoke flue receives-its sup.- ply from the reservoirs 5 and 5. Both the fire pot and combustion chamber are waterv jacketed as is also the smoke flue andthese chambers form the water reservoirs for the hot water system.
By constructing ametal smoke flue "as shown water jacketed and connecting with" the water reservoirs of the fire pot a chim ney is provided which is no more expensive than the usual chimneys fora furnace orseparate chambers from the'dome of a fireplace and are connected only at the top at which point thewalls separating the chambers 9, 10, 11 and 12 are apertured as shown at 13 in Figs. 2 and 5. The supply line 14 for the radiator 16 is connected with the upper end of .the vertical chambers as indicated in Figs. 1, 5 and 6 and, by connecting the vertical chambers at thetop, the return line may be connected at any side of the flue. Such line is shown in Fig. 1 as extending between the ceiling of the'lower room and floor of the upper room and downward back of the side wall 15 and connecting with a radiator 16 which may be in any room, but
for convenience of illus tration is here shown in the same room as the fires-place. The pipe leading to the radiator is preferably insulated to conserve the heat. of th water and the radiator is connected at the discharge end with a pipe line 17 leading into the bottom of a water reservoir 5 of the fire The pipe line 17 may be similar in all respects tothe pipe line 17 on the opposite side of the fire place and be connected with a radiator or radiators" and supply line in the same, general manner as the pipe line 17 is provided with a supply line 14 and radiator 16 shown at the right of Fig. 1. The pipe line 17, respective radiators, and supply linewould therefore form a circulating system independent of the line 17 and its radi-' ator, both lines being connected to a commonreservoir, ,Water may be supplied to the system by the usual city pressure line (not here shown) connected with the reservoir as isusual with hot water systems.
If several radiators are utilized the water flows from one radiator to the next succeeding radiator and from the last radiator of'the line to the pipe 17 orl7? on the opposite side of the fire-place as shown in To facilitate the heating of the water in the water reservoirs 5 which are connected asshown on three sides of the fire-place, I have provided the water tubes 20 extending from the lower end of the side water reservoirs to the lower end of the chambers 11 and 12 on opposite sides the smoke flue. These tubes lie at an angle to the vertical and the tubes on two sidesof the fire-place converge toward the center and extend over the fire as shown in Fig. 2. Preferably the water reservoirs 5 and 5 on opposite sides of the fireplace only are provided with these tubes and these reservoirs 5 and 5 are provided at the bottom with a Wall 21 dividing the reservoirs into two parts the lower part 22 of which is open to the lower end ofthe tubes. The tubes are thus supplied from the lower small chamber or reservoir 22 and Water becoming heated in the said chamber and said tubes will flow upward into the chambers 11 and 12 on opposite sides of the flue as will be understood from Fig. 4;
These chambers 22 must necessarily be supplied with water; otherwise the chambers aIlCllOWGI ends of the tubes will burn out by reason of the direct contact with the fire in the fire pot. Particularly for this reason the return pipes 17 and 17 leading from the last radiator of the respective line to the reservoirs opens directly into this chamber 22 by means of a T connection 23 shown in detailvin Fig. 7. This T connects v with'the line 17 at one end and the opposite end connects with the body of a valve 24 which is connected with the reservoir 5 or 5.
The line 17 connects with itschamber 5 and thechamber therebeneath in the same general manner as the line 17 is connected with the chambers 5 and 22 as will be readily understood fro'm examination of Figs; 1 and 7. If
th e valve 24 in either oflines 17 or17 be. closed the water fiowing'through the-said lines will reservoir on the opposite side of the fireplace should have the valve opened to provide circulation for the chamber 22. This chamber 22 and pipes connectedtherewith heat more quickly than the water in the main parts of the reservoir and thus the chambers about the smoke fluehave this warmer water directly supplied thereto at the bottom'and the radiator system therefore heats more rapidly than would be the case without the use of the water tubes and' auxiliary" chambers 22. Y
As heretofore stated, the water chambers about the smoke fiue e'xtendto the ceiling water reservoir on oneside only ,connected with a radiator line, the valve 24 for the or above of the highestro'om of the building lIlWhlChlZllG apparatus is placed and to provide for an escape of steam, the water chambers open into an exhaust discharge Fig. 2. In that figure the water chambers about the smoke flue are shown'as extending above the ceiling of the first floor but 'itis to be understood'that the said water reser voirs ma extend upward through several 11 the case of a house these water reservoirsshould extend at least to the attic and may if desired, extend above the roof through which the-smoke flue projects. The single room illustrated in Fig. 2 is illustrative of the construction used in any case and the exhaust flue 25 o ens above the roof (not here shown). team' or water passing into the exhaust flue through the aperture 26 provided at the top of the water chambers passes to the outside of the building and thus no pressure may be developed in the system otherthan the pressure of the height of the column of liquid in the water reservoirs. These water reservoirs being as high as the building or the rooms therein to be heated, the hot water pipe 14 should be connected to the top thereof so that water may flow through the return line and the radiators therein by gravity.
At the top where the four reservoirs about the smoke flue are connected together, are provided the water gages 26, 27 and 28 as shown in Fig. 6. These are here shown as of simple type in the nature of a faucet having a valve connecting with the operating handles 30, 31, and 32, within easy reach just above the fire-place as shown in Fig. 1. The valves are connected to the operating handles by means of similar rods or wires 33-. ater from these gages is delivered into the trough 34 discharging into the pipe 35 and this pipe opens into the room just above the fire-place as shown at 36. The end of this pipe discharges into a secondpipe 37 which may discharge into thefire pot or discharge exteriorly of the building if desired. By arranging the dis charge end 36 of the p1pe35 slightly above the open end ofthe pipe 37 water flowing through the pipe 35 may be observed by the person operating the levers 30,31, or 32 for the water gages. These gages, as will be readily understood from the'Fig. 6, are located atdiflerent heights and if, on opening the lower gage 28 for instance, no water flows through the pipe end 36, then addi- J tional water must be provided in the system to insure flow through the hot water line 14. A pressure gage 38 should also be provided opening into" one of the reservoirs surrounding the smoke fiue to indicate the pressure'of the system. Should the fire be built when the system is not supplied with an adequate supply o'f water'steam would be produced in such quantity as to be indicated onlthepressure gage, but by reason of the vent aperture 26, however, no pressure of 'dangerous character may be developed in the system.
As heretofore stated, an air space 39, shown in 2, is provided back of the water reservoirs on opposite sides of the fire box. This space is provided by building the walls 40 of the fire-place a suflicient distance from the water reservoirs on opposite sides as shown in Fig. 3. These air chambers at the bottom may be supplied by air through a cold air duct 41 opening through the floor of the room as shown in Fig. 2 at 42. This is here shown as being in the same room as the fire place but it is to be understood that the flue 41 may open into any room in the building heated by the system. The hot air chambers 39 about the fire box openat the top into vertical auxiliary chambers or flues 43 formed around the water reservoirs of the smoke flues and these vertical flues 43 may be provided at any portion of their height with registers 44 opening into the room near the ceiling as shown in Fig. 1 or they may open into an upper room through registers'45 as shown in Fig. 1.
It is to be understood that these air ducts may extend upward through several rooms,
each room being provided with a register which may be opened or closed in a convenient manner to allow or prevent the heated air passing thereinto. By this arrangement of air chambers and flues about the water reservoirs, a hot air system is provided op erating in conjunction with the hot water system.
Fuel may be introduced into the fire box in any desired manner without departing from the spirit of this'invention. A convenient method of introducing fuel into the fire box is by means of a chute 46 extending through one reservoir 5 and open ing into the air chamber 39 as shown in Fig. 2. In the said chamber is a fuel box 47 into which a'quantity of fuel may be. placed through the door opening 38 formed in the external wall 40 of the fire-place. The box 47 has an opening 48 on the inner sidethereof and the box is connected by means of a cord '49 with a Windlass 50 which may be operatedby a crank 51 in the front of the fire-place as shown in Fig. 1. By turning the crank, the cord is wound on the windlas's 50 and the fuel box raised and contents thereof discharged through the chute 46 intothefire box. Any convenient method however, may be employed to deliver fuel to the grate.
The fire place is here shown as being open on one side only and may be provided with sliding grates 52 and 53 to partially screen the said opening. This fire place front may be of any desired type'and the grates 52 and 53' are here shown as panels that may be-moved'to each side to directly expose the fire to view. The construction and design of the fire place front however may be varied in any suitable way to conform to the design of the fire-place.
By the arrangement of the heating system as shown the general appearance and utility of a fire-place is secured showing the open fire, which to a certain extent heats the room in which it is located. By forming the fire walls of metal water reservoirs as described the heat of the fire is utilized to heat the water for use in radiators in the same or other rooms and by the provision of the air chambers and flues heated air may also be supplied to the same or other rooms. The combination of the hot air and hot water systems with the fire place economizes the heat of the fuel whereby the maximum amount of heat ofthe fire is utilized and dispenses with the usual heating plants necessarily located in the basements where the heat is largely wasted by radiation. By the arrangement here shown buildings unprovided with basements may install a system fully as the present hot air and hot Water systems requiring a basement installation and may be installed as cheaply as any of the present known hot water or hot a1r systems and may be arranged to burn any type of fuel.
By positioning the fire place on the first floor of abuilding, the fire is in convenient position to be observed and cared for with a minimum amount of labor. V
WVhat I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is 1. In a heating system for buildings, the combination of a fire box formed of hollow metal walls providing water reservoirs converging at the'top, the top having an opening', a smoke flue connected with the said opening, water reservoirs provided about the smoke flue and opening into the converging ends of the said hollow fire box walls, tubes on each side of the interior of the fire box, the tubes on one side being connected with the bottom of the hollow side walls and extending upward and connecting with the same side directly below theconnection with the flue reservoir on that side, the pipes on opposite sides of the box converging at the top, and a grate at the bottom of the said fire box. a
2. In a heating system for buildings, the
combination of a fire box formed of hollow 1 metal walls converging at the top and providing water reservoirs, the top having an opening, a smoke flue connected therewith, water reservoirs provided about the flue opening into the converging ends of the said hollow fire box walls, the fire box being open on one side, a pair of tubes each connected to a side wall at the bottom and converging toward the top opening into the upperend of thesaid hollow wall directly beneath the opening of the flue reservoir, a. water circulating system connected with the upper end of the-smoke flue reservoirs and the bottom of the fire box reservoir adjacent thesaid tubes, and an inclosing casing-for.
the saidfire boxand .flue reservoirs providing air conduits.
3. In a heating system, a rectangular fire box formed of three hollow metal walls and being open on the fourth Side; a grate.
formed at the bottom of the box, the twolopposite side Walls of the fire" box'being formed with an auxiliary chamber at the bottom and the said walls converging at the top, water tubes on each side connecting the companion auxiliary chamber with the upper converging end of the hollow wall on that side, there being an opening provided at the upper end of the chambers, a smoke flue connected with the sand opening, water reservoirs about the said flue openingrespee tively into the said converging ends of the side walls, a valved conduit leading from,
each auxiliary chamber into the bottom of:
the companion hollow side wall,'and are turn line for each valved conduit connected.
smoke flue having water reservoirs there about opening into the fire box reservoirs, water tubes connecting with thebottomsof the fire box reservoirs and opening'into the flue reservoirs at the bottom, a return line connecting with the top of the flue reservoirs-and the bottom of the fire box reservoirs, and radlators 1n SitldlGtIlIIl llne forming a part thereof.
.,5. In a'heating system for buildings, a
fire box formed of hollow metal providing water reservoirs, thesaid reservoirs having division walls near 1 the. bottom providing separate auxiliary chambers, the reservoirs on opposite sides converging toward the center at the top, water tubes connecting with the auxiliary chamber at the bottom of the water reservoir and extending upward at an angle toward the center and openingv into the reservoirs at the top, a smoke'flue openinginto the fire box, water chambers surrounding the smoke flue in communication with thefire box reservoirs, the sald water tubes opening into water reservoirs at the lower end of the flue'reservoirswhereby the heated water flows directly into the flue reservoirs, a return line connected with the top of the flue reservoirs and the bottom of the fire box reservoirs,'the said return,
line at the bottom opening into both chambers of the fire box reservoirs, a valve in the said returnline between thetwo points of communication with the chambers of the fire box reservoirs, said valve when opened, allowing water to flow from the main reservoir into the said auxiliary chamber.
6. In a heating system, a fire box formed of hollow metal walls providing water chambers, the chambers having a division wall near the bottom to provide a lower auxiliary water chamber and an upper main chamber, a return line in communication with the upper ends of the reservoirs and with the bottom main chamber and auxiliary chamber, a valve in the line between the two parts of the reservoirs whereby when the return line is closed the valve may be opened to allow circulation between the main chamber and the auxiliary chamber, water tubes connecting the said auxiliary chamber with the upper ends of the main reservoir and extending at an angle over the fire box, the water chambers having a vent to atmosphere whereby excess pressure may not be developed in the water system.
7. In a heating system for buildings, a fire box formed of converging hollow walls providing water reservoirs, the reservoirs on each side having a dividing wall near the bottom providing auxiliary reservoirs, valved conduits each providing a passageway from a .main reservoir to the companion auxiliary reservoir, and tubes on each side of the fire place connecting with the respective auxiliary reservoir at the bottom and with the companion main reservoir at the top, the tubes converging at the top.
8. In a heating system for buildings, a fire box formed of converging hollow fire walls'providing waterreservoirs, the reservoirs at each side of the fire place having a dividing wall near the bottom providing an auxiliary reservoir, conduits each providing a passageway from each main reservoir to the companion auxiliary reservoir, a valve in each conduit for closing the main reservoir to the auxiliary reservoir, a plurality of tubes at each side of the fire place connecting with the respective auxiliary reservoir at the bottom and the companion main reser-. voir at the top, the tubes converging at the top, a smoke flue opening into the fire pla ce,- chambers thereabout providing water reservoirs opening'into the main reservoirs at the top directly over the upper ends of the tubes, a radiator, a supply line therefor connecting withthe top of the smoke flue reservoir, and
a return line connected with the valved con-' duit and opening directly'into the auxiliary reservoir. 7
In testimony whereof, I sign this specification.
JOSEPH O, LOYER.