US 1392532 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J. T. SIMPSON.
REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDING.
APPLICATION FILED APR. 2a. 1919.
Patented Oct. 4, 1921:
2 SHEETS-SHEET l.
l J. T. SIMPSON. REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDING.
lAPPLICATION FILED APR. 23, 1919.
Patented oct. 4, 1921.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
W Em@ Horneys JOHN THOMAS SIMPSON, 0F NEWARK, NEW
Specification of Letters Patent.
`, Patented oet. 4, 1921.
Application led April 23, 1919. Serial N0. 292,211.
,To all whom "it 'may comem:
Be it known that I, JOHN T. SIMPSON, a`
`field work is generally carried out under` the worst possible conditions. The work must be done in the open and is often delayed, and much material lost by adverse weather conditions. The molds employed in casting the field made 'elements must necessarily be of the most flimsy and temporary character.
The object of my inventlon is to provide a building in which all of the framework, such as studs, floor beams, iioorl slabs, ceiling slabs, outside and inside wall slabs, roof slabs, and cornices are pre-cast of standardized sections which may be carefully made by means of proper machine ,fand suitably finished and cured in a actory where` working'- conditions are at the best, and whichmay be kept in stock and delivered to the building site when desired.
A further object is the production of a building formed principally of pre-cast elements and which is adaptable to any type of construction from a small shed rage to a skyscraper, in whichthe exterior surface may be of any material ,fromwood to granite or steel, and the interior walls, ceilin and iloors may be of any desired material or nish.
A further object is the production of a moistureroof block or slab of reinforced concrete or interior or exterior wall members. 1 v
A still further vobject is the production of an improved method of securing wooden sleepers to pre-cast reinforced concrete ele? ments such as oor slabs.
These and further objects will more fully appear' in the following specilication .and accompanying drawings considered together or separately.
One embodiment of the invention is illustrated in the accom anying drawings in which like parts in a of the Several figures are designated by ceriesponding reference characters and in wh1ch:
Figure 1 is a fragmentary sectional v1ew of a building embodying the invention.
Fig. 2 is a'detail sect1onal`view of a. wall at a ioor line.
Fig. v3 is a similar view at another floor line. Y y
Fig. 4 is a horizontal section taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 1. Fig. 5 is a detail sectional view of the junction of a floor beam and a partition stud.
Fig. 6 is a horizontal section of a partltion stud. Fig. 7 is a detail section on the line 7-7 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 8 is a section on -the line 8 8 of Fig.`9 is a lsection on the line 9-9 of Fig. 14 -is a :section on the line 14--11 of Fig. 12.-
Fig. 15 is a detail sectional view, on a Amuch enlarged scale, of the preferred form of wall and roof slab.
Fig. 16 is a detail sectional view illustrating the rocess of making the -said slab.
Fig. 1 is a detail section of the ridge pole.
Fig. 18 is a detail sectional view illustrating a method of securing floor or roof sleepers in position, and Fig. 19 isa detail sectlon of a joint.
In carrying out reinforced concrete the invention a field cast footing 1 is laid defining the outside walls of the structure.` be. erected, and field' cast footings are positioned at points where partition studs are to be erected. At each point where a stud is to be erected a pin- 2 projects from the footmg. The footing may form A pre-east stud 3 vhaving a cavity 4 filled with soft concrete is .posltioned over each pin and the projecting portion of the-latter is embedded-in the recess 4.- The opposlte end of the stud is provided with a recess 4 which is filled with concrete inwhich a. por-l tion ofa pin 5 is embedded.
A pre-cast floor be'am 6 is posltloned wlth the lioor of the cellar.
its end resting on the top of the stud 3. The opposite end of the floor beam may rest on a stud at the opposite side of the building or.
it may and preferably does rest on the top of a partition stud 7. The reinforcements of the studs project from the ends thereof. The reinforcements of the floor beams project over the tops of the studs.
A mold is erected around the periphery of the building and incloses the tolps of the studs and the ends of the beams. einforcements are positioned in the mold. Concrete is run into the mold yembedding the reinforcing members. This forms a field cast girt 8 which extends around the entire building and embeds the ends of all of the studs and beams at that level. Before the concrete sets a. pin 9 is forced into it and a portion of the pin projects above .the concrete.
The top of the partition studs 7 may be joined to each other and to the wall studs in line therewith by field cast beams 8*.
A stud similar in all respects to the stud 3 is now positioned in the same manner over each stud 3 and the above described operation is repeated until the ultimate height of lthe structure is reached.
The floor beam has a foot 13 at its lower edge and head 14 at its upper edge. A groove 15 is cast in the upper edge and the reinforcements 16 are treated in the same manner as those ofthe studs.
At the top of the top row of studs, a girt 17 is formed. The upper edge of the girt 17 is given an incline corresponding to that of the roof and a portion 18 of one side of the girt is inclined at a right angle to the top.
pin 19 projects from the top of the girt and enters a recess in a roof rafter 20. The rafter has a shoulder 21 which abuts against the part 18. The rafter projects beyond the stud to form the eaves.
In a hip roof construction a mold is built along the center line of the building. Reinforcements 20a are laid in. the mold. The projecting reinforcements of the'rafters are hooked over the rods 20L and a field cast ridge pole 20b is cast in the mold and embeddingA the reinforcements.
The top of the rafter is formed like the top of the floor beams. Roofing slabs 22 of reinforced concrete are placed over the rafters. The edges of the slabs reachto the edges of the recess 23. The projecting ends of the slabreinforcements project into the recesses which are grouted to the level of the tops of the slabs.
During the manufacture of the roof slabs U-shaped wires 24 are embedded ,in them with the ends ofthe wire projecting from the face of the "slab, Sleepers 25 are laid upon the slabs and the en ds of the wires are bent over them and twisted. Roofing 26 such as tiling or shingles is secured to the sleepers in any desired manner.
Starting at the footing 1 outside slabs 26a are placed against the studs in belts around the entire building. The top and one side of each slab is provided with a ridge 27 and the bottom and opposite side has a correspondingly shaped groove 28. The side ridge of one slab will fit; into the groove oi' the adjoining slab. The reinforcements of the slabs project from the side edges thereof and are bent into the grooves 11 in the studs. Grouting 29 is run into the grooves 11 to embed the projecting reinforcements of the stud and slabs. f
A second belt of slabs is placed upon the first belt with the ridges of one belt resting inthe grooves. This is continued from the footing to the under side of the cornice 30. The outside joints of the wall slabs 2611 are tight and no exterior covering is required, but such joints may be pointed up if desired.
The floor slabs 31 are secured in position in the same manner als are the roof slabs 22, as are the floor sleepers 32 and flooring 33 when employed.
The inside wall slabs 34 and partition l slabs 35 are secured to the studs in the same manner as are the outside `slabs 26. The tongue' and groove joint may be employed or it may be omitted as desired.
The ceiling slabs 36 of reinforced concrete are provided with flanges 37 which engage the feet 13 of the floor beams. The bodies of the slabs 36 are flush with the lower ends yof the beams and a flush ceiling is roduced. One side edge of each ceiling sla is provided with a flange 38 which rests upon the edge of the adjoining slab. The joints between the slabs 36 may bepointed up or not.
lVhen a timbered effect is desired the flanges 37 may be omitted and the ends of the slabs 36 will rest upon the top of the foot 13. The flanges 38 will be placed below instead of on top of the slab.
Where the roof projects beyond a gable wall to form a cornice a projecting rafter 39 is set before the girt 17 is cast. The rafter 39 will support the gable end and will carry soffet closing slabs 40 in the same manner as the eaves ceiling slabs 41 are supported.
The lowermost row of slabs 34 at the floor line may have flanges 42 against which the flooring slabs will abut. This will form an air and moisture check and will close the space between walls against vermin and acts as a fire stop. The said slabs may also be steel column, thus increasing tl strength face of the'buildin provided with an enlargement 43 to form a foot board around the room.
When the wall slabs 26a and 34 are placed in position spaces are left for the doors and windows. The studs 3 are preferably spaced apart a distance sufficient forthis purpose. Where each window is to come the studs on opposite sides of the space are provided with projections 44 on vwhich the window sill slabs 45 of reinforced concrete rest. For convenience in manufacture all of the studs 3 are provided with projections 44. The sills 45 project over the wall slab 26a at the lower edge of the window opening and a flange 46 extends down 'onl the outer face of the slab. Atthe top and sides of the window opening the wall slabs 26a are provided with inturned flanges 47. The window door frame .49 as the case may be, is placed in the opening and is retained imposition by the slabs.
In casting either the side or outside wall slabs, roof slabs, and wiindow and door sills, waterproof building paper 48 is first laid inthe bottom of the mold, the reinforcements are placed in position? and the ymold is filled with concrete." When the cement dries the pa er'will adhere td the surface of the slab. Vghen the slab is placed in position the paper will come next to the stud, beam or rafter to which the slab is secured, thus preventing frost and moisture from penetrating the wall constiiuction. The building will be water and frost'proof without an additional erecting operation.
. Instead of placing the pap`er 48 in the mold first, the mold may be partially filled with concrete, the papers maymow be laid in 1place and the mold filled with concrete.
ue to the cross sectional shape of the studs, with the exception of the projecting reinforcements into the groove 1i from both the stud andslabs, the stud iself is increased in strength in the same manner as when a flat plate is riveted to an H-shaped and bringing into play, as a struc fural member, the slab that forms the wal This is also true ofthe floor beams and ro f rafters. In the two latter cases, however, \he bringing into playT of a portion of the oor or roof, as the case may be, gives 'a il' section thus materially increasing the strength in the upper orcompression portioi beam. This is of great advantage s it permits the use of much lighter sections for( economical transportation and ease in handling. The grouting in the groove vin the top of the beam and between the edges of the slabs raises the strength of the beam to that'desired.
It is to'be understood that the outer surmay be plastered or stuccoed and the wa ls and .ceilings be plastered lif desired.
. structure w ich I now conslder to of the -v employed as in steel frame construction.
Horizontal sleepers may. be set into the studs in the same manner as are the floor or roof sleepers and shingles may be nailed to the sleepers. The sleepers may be placed in vertical position secured to the field cast girts and wide wooden clap boards nailed in place, the' roof may be covered with shingles giving the effect of a frame building. Such a buildin will be a strictly reproof structure wit the exception of the Voutside jacket.
The building may be of any height, the studs being proportioned to the load to be carried. The corner studs and such others as are conslder'ed necessary or desirable may' be provided with knees or brackets whic will be united with the field cast girts for wind bracing.
In accordance w1th the provisions of the patent statutes I have described the principle of m invention, together with the l I rpresent the Ybest embodiment thereof, but desire to have it understood that the structure shown is merely illustrative, and that the invention may be carried out in other ways.
Having now described my inventionwhat I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A building comprisin pre-cast reinforced concrete studs and oor beams there being recesses in the studs, a field cast reinforced concrete girt engaging the extremities of the studs and beams, said girt ex.- tending entirely around the buildin precast, reinforced wall slabs secured to t e surfaces of and' forming part of the studs, reinforcements projecting into and grouted in the recesses whereb such slabs'will act as flanges to increase t e strength of the studs.
2. A building comprisin pre-cast reinforced concrete studs 1n axia alinement and iioor beams, there being longitudinal recesses in the studs, a field cast reinforced concrete girt engaging the extremities of the studs and beams, saidl girt extending entirely around the buildin pre-cast, reinforced wall slabs on each si e of said studs secured to the surfaces of and forming part of the studs, reinforcements projecting at right an-v gles from the slabs into the ww iso projecting reinforcements whereby such slabs will become integral parts of the studs and form flanges to increase the strength of the studs.
3. A building comprising pre-cast studs, beams,'rafters, wall slabs, floor slabs, ceiling slabs and roof slabs of reinforced concrete, said beams having projecting reinforcements, a field cast girt embracing the ends of the studs and beams and the projecting reinforcements of the latter, a field cast girt embracing the ends of studs and carrying rafters, reinforcements projectin from the rafter into the girt, and a latera shoulder on the rafter, said shoulder abutting against the girt.
4. A building comprising pre-cast studs, beams, rafters, wall slabs, floor slabs, ceiling slabs and roof slabs of reinforced concrete, said beams having projectin reinforcements, a field cast girt embracmg the ends of the studs and beams and the projecting reinforcements of the latter, a field cast girt embracing the .ends of the studs and carrying rafters, reinforcements projecting from the rafterinto the girt, a lateral shoulder on the rafter, said shoulder abutting against the girt, roof slabs carried by the rafter, reinforcements carried by the roof slabs and projecting. from the face thereof, sleepers carried on the roof slabs, the projecting reinforcements engaging the sleepers, and a roofing carried by the sleepers.
5. A building comprising pre-cast reinforced concrete studs and floor beams, a field cast reinforced concrete girt engaging the extremities of the studs and beams, said girt extending entirely around the building, precast floor slabs supported on the beams, U shaped elements embedded in the slabs, the legs of such elements projecting from the slabs, there being a groove in the 'slab between the legs, a sleeper resting in the groove, the legs of the element embracing theI sleeper and being secured together to retain the latter in position, and flooring secured to the sleepers.
This specification signed and witnessed this fourth day of April, 1919.
JOHN THOMAS SIMPSON.
A. E. BENTON, JAS. F.' COLEMAN.