US 1393456 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
W. G. RUGGLES.
APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 9. I9l8.
Pamntedl Wt. H; 1921.,
- A TTORA/EVS W. G. RUGGLES.
ORIENTATOR. APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 9,1918- .Patentedl Oct, Ml, 19211 LSQHAEBW 2 |1J 1M 5 mi i. 2 w 5+; J H4 b W1 M a NN K g M 6 1 MN f W. G. RUGGLES.
APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 9, IQIB.
Patented 001k. M, 111921..
4 SHEETSSHEET 3.
W. G. RUGGLES..
ORIENTATOR. APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 9, 191B.
1 Patented m n, 1921.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 4.
I ,4 TTOR/l/EYS i i GUY RUGGIJES, 015 NEW YOR, N. Y,
Specification of Letters Patent. Patented Unfit, TIT, 192T,
Application filed September 9, 1918. Serial No. 253,216.
vice for developing universally the invotuntary sensory organs known as the static labyrinth and the coiirdination of-certain muscles therewith and specifically relates to a device for supporting and changing at will the position of a person in space and constitutes an improvement in the type of avi- 'ator training machines forming the subjectmatter of my co-pending application entitled Orientator, Serial No. 162,589, filed Febru'ary'16, 1917.
In the previously filed application there is disclosed as part of the complete machine, a gimbal ring construction, the innermost ring of which is provided with a chair for supporting a person in position for universal articulation about a relatively fixed point of reference. There is also disclosed a set of electric motor drives, one for each of the rings and the several motors are controlled from two control stations, one station being disposed so as to be operated by the person in the machine and the other set positioned at an instructors control station spaced from the machine. Tn this filed application the electric connections were sodisposed that both the instructor and the student in the machine can actuate any of the motors and thus control the rotation of any of the rings at will, but when one of the motors is under the control of one of the control stations the other switch station is automatically out off from the controlled motor. In this way when one of the stations is in control of any one of the motors the other station cannot influence the action of that motor.
This invention contemplates a motor control for each of the rings which control is designed to be operatively responsive to the will of both the student in the machine and the instructor at his station as indicated by the successive or simultaneous actuation of their respective controls'of any of the motors; The primary object of this arrangement of controls is to permit the instructor tocause a movement of the seat in any desired direction so as to impose on the seat the same movement as would be imposed thereon by a gust of wind or other disturbing factor which habitually imposes a change of position on an aeroplane while in flight.
The student is enabled by actuating his control switch to counteract the disturbing infiuence of the action caused by the instructor and by exerting his will through the proper actuation of the control on the machine, the student is enabled to correct the disturbing influence and rectify his position.
This object is attained broadly by flexibly connecting two reversible electric motors toeach ring and so arranging the same that the simultaneous actuation of the two motors will impose upon the ring a resulting action which will be the arithmetical sum of the speed of the two motors. With such a connection the speeds are added when the motors are rotating in that direction which will cause the ring to turn in this direction and 'the resulting speed of the ring is difi'erential between the two speeds of the motors when the motors are running in opposite directions. v,
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved form of ring and pivotal mounting therefor designed so that the major portion of the ring may be madeof light tubing and distortional strains localized in relatively heavy pivotal castings or blocks which while contributing strength to the organization as a whole, utilizes the structurally heavy parts to accommodate the actuating motors and controlling commutators for conveying electric energy to the motors in all positions of the rings.
Various other objects and advantages of ,the invention will be in part obvious from an inspection of the accompanying draw-i,
ings. and in part will be more fully set forth in the following particular description of one form of mechanism embodying my invention, and the inventionalso consists in certain new and novel features of construction and combination of parts hereinafter set forth and claimed,
ltteferring to the accompanying drawin 's Figure 1 is a fragmentary view of a complete machine illustrating'in perspective; a
gimbal ring construction constituting apreferred embodiment of my invention;
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view taken through the machine and showing the gimbal ring construction in front elevation with at the device shown in Fig. 3 from the right hand side thereof;
Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken axially through anyone ofthe motor bearings shown in Fig. 2 and for more detailed description it may be considered that this view is taken on the line 5-5 of Fig. 2 and rotated into the position shown;
Fig. 6 is a detail of a modified form of ring structure at any one of the pivotal mountings and in which two rings are-utilli zed instead of the single ring shown in Fig. 7 is atransverse sectional view taken through the double member ring form and taken on the line 77 of Fig. 6; and
Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic view of the several parts together with their electric connections following the outlines of the parts in the position thereof shown in Fig. 2.
In the following description and in the claims, parts will be identified by specific names for convenience of expression but they are intended to be as generic in their application to similar parts as the art will permit.
- In the drawings there is shown a support ing platform 10 upon which is mounted an inclosing casing indicated diagrammatically by the upstanding walls 11 which casing is adapted to contain air at a pressure reduced from the external air pressure, which reduction is effected by, any suitable pressure, reducing mechanism such as an air pump indicated diagrammatically at 12. Within the casing is the machine proper which includes a pair of upstanding columns 13 and 14 tied together adjacent their upper ends by a girder 15. A rectangular ring supporting carriage 16 is slidably mounted upon and positioned between the columns 13 and 14 and arranged to be cal movement.
guided between said columns in its verti- The carriage is supported and moved vertically by means of any suite able form of hoisting device, herein shown to be a motor 17 attached to a pulley 18 over which pulley is trained a counterweighted cable 19 attached to the top of the carria e.
Mounted within and movable verticafiy with the carriage is a gimbal ring construction which includes an azimuth ring 23 somewhat elliptical in form and journaled alon its major axis at its upper end in bearings 24 and at its lower end in bearings 25 so as to permit a movement of the ring in a horizontalidirection and about a vertical axis. This'azimuth ring 23 has a pair of vertically disposed rings as shown in Fig. 2, one contained within the other and both disposed within its outline. The outer ring 26 of this pair, hereinafter identified as a dipping ring, has opposite sides pivoted to the azimuth ring 23 by means of bearings 27 and 28 which permit a movement of the dipping ring about a horizontal axis intersecting the axis of movement of the azimuth ring. The inner ring 29 of the pair supports a chair 3O fixed thereto by means of clamps 31. The inner ring is mounted above and below the chair in bearings 32 and 33 which permit a movement of the inner ring about an axis intersecting the axis of movement of the dipping." frame. Itis apparent from the organization of gimbal rings illustrated that the ring 23 can swing about a vertical axis, the ring 26 can swing about a horizon tal axis and the ring 29 can swing about its axis in whatever plane it may be positioned by the single or combined movement of the other rings.
Each of the rings is controlled by a pair of reversible electric motors operatively connected to their respective rings so as to turn the same in either direction and over any desired angle of movement to 360 or beyond, as desired. The bearing 24 includes in its organization a motor drive 34 for rotatin the azimuth ring 23 and similarly the bearing 28. includes a motor drive 35 for actuating the dipping ring 26 and the bearing 33 includes a motor drive 36 forrotating the chair ring 29. The motor drives 34, 35 and 36 are similar in construction and will be described in detail with reference to Fig. 5
The coacting bearings positioned at each ring opposite the motor hearing will be identified hereinafter as communicator bearings 25, 27 and 32 and will be described in detail with reference to the disclosure in Fig. 3.
The motor drives are electrically connected so as to be controlled by two stations, one accessible. to the person occupying the seat 30, hereii'iafter identified as the machinestati'on',' and the other accessible to the person occupying the seat 44, hereinafter identified as the instructors seat and which is preferably positioned outside of the easing containing the chair 30 and its operating parts.
Where the device'is particularly designed for the purpose of training aviators it is desirable that the control stations and particularly the machine station be designed to follow, as far as possible, the conventional steering and control mechanism found on the type of machines which the aviator is W nt device illustrated is provided withcontrol.
. switches controlled by a steering rod 45 and foot controls 46 and the several motor drives illustrated are electrically connected to the steering rod and foot pedals, so that the corresponding movement of the aeroplane "will be simulated when this control mechanism is actuated. In this way there will be caused a similar sensation to that produced should the person occupying the seat be actually in a machine of the character controlled by the mechanism adjacent his seat.
The motor drive 34 is wired to the two stations so as to cause a compass movement horizontally which movement is efl'ected either by closing a switch 47 at the instructors station or by closing a switch 48 at the machine station. The action of the motor drive 35, controlling the dipping motion is similarly inaugurated by means of a switch 49 at the instructors station and by means of a switch 50 at the machine station. The motor drive 36 for causing an angular movement of the seat supporting ring is controlled by a switch 51 at the-instructors sta tion and by means of a switch 52 at the machine station.
Electric current to actuate the several motors is supplied from a suitable source of electric energy indicated diagrammatically by the pair of mains 53. I
As each of the motor drives 34, 35 and 36 are similar in construction the detail description of any one will be suflicient for the others. Referring to Fig. 5 the supporting member 60 may be considered as either the upper reach of the frame 16, the right hand side of the azimuthring or the lower portion of the dipping ring 26 when disposed as shown in Fig. 2. Tn its simplest form each of the rings is formed of a single relatively light steel tubing 61 formed in the case of rings 23 and 26 in four quadrant sections and jointed at points 90 apart by means of journal housings 62. In the case of the ring 29 which is substantially quadrilateral with rounded corners, the ring is formed mainly of two such single ring sections. These housings are heavymetal blocks preferably castings having a mass of material and a rigidity suflicient to withstand the strains imposed thereon, These heavy blocks coact to localize the strains on the contacting portions of-tlie adjacent rings or carriage, thus tending to coact with the tubular portions 60, 61 to provide a relatively light and easily movable carriage and rings, capable of withstanding the strains imposed thereon by relatively heavy persons on the chair 30. Each journal housing of boththe moto bearing and armature bearing types comhub of the supported member 65.
will refer to the upper portion of the ring 23, to the right hand side of the ring 26, or the lower side of the ring-29 as shown in Fig.
.2, is pivotally supported by the member 60.
In the case of the motor bearings a main shaft 66 is loosely mounted with reference to both the supported and supporting members and is free to move relativethereto in anti-friction bearings 67, Considering the construction at either end of the shaft 66 it will be notedin either case that a gear box 68 constitutes an extension from the outside of the hub 63 and is rigidly fixed thereto. This box contains a planetary gear set which includes an internal gear 69 fixed to the interior of the box to turn therewith and with the ring attached thereto. A clutch shaft 70 has one end loosely. journaled in the adjacent end of the main shaft 66 and has its opposite end journal ed in the cover 71 of the box.
A spur gear 72 is allixcd to the shaft 70 and meshes with a pair of intermediate gears 73 and 74 which in turn mesh with the teeth of the gear 69 thus completing the planetary gear set. The gears 73 and 74 are each pivotally mounted upon pins carried by a ring 75 screwed onto the portion of the shaft 66 adjacent the gear 72. The shaft 70 is rotated through a clutch connection 7 6 of conventional form, the driving element 77 of which is in the form-of a peripheral driven Worm gear actuated in either direction from a reversible shunt wound motor'35 (or 34 or 36) mounted on a bracket 78 constituting part of the gear box.
Similarly the opposite end of the main shaft is provided with a slip clutch plane- ,tary gear drive similar to the device hereinbefore described and actuated from a simi lar motor 35 (or 34 or 36 It is to be understood that the motor drive 34 is similarly constructed and operated by a pair of motors 34 and 34 that the motor drive 36 issimilarly actuated from a pair of motors 36" and 36 and in which the motors of the a set are controlled from the instructors station and the motors of the I) set are controlled from thema'chine station.
Referring particularly to Fig. 3 for a detailed description of any one of the commutator bearings, it is noted that the supporting member 60 and supported member 65 are pivotally supported one from the other through the agency of a tubular shaft 80 which projects centrally into a commutator box 81 constituting an extension of the Suitable anti-friction bearings 82 are disposed between the supported member 65 and the shaft 80 and acts to permit free relative rotary movement. Externally accessible binding nuts 83 engaging the outer end of the shaft 80 act to hold the supporting and supported member against relative longitudinal movement. The box 81 contains a plurality of ring contacts. 84, each ring of which is engaged by a brush 85 as is usual in such constructions. l
One of the two main conductors 86 leads from one of the mains 53 to one side of the machine switches, three of which are shown in Fig. 8, one-to control each of the motors 34 35 and 36". Another main conductor 87 leads from the other lead 53 to one side of the switches 47, 49 and 51 at the instructors station. 1
Each of the switches are of a special type being reversible and so'wired to the motors controlled thereby that the motors may be reversed through the agency of the reversible switches, but each of these switches also includes a rheostat arrangement symbolically designated in Fig. 8, whereby the speed of the motors in both directions may be controlled. For instance, either the instructor or the student in the machine may move any one of the switch controls,'for instance the handle in one direction to effect a direct movement of the motor or in an opposite direction to effect a reverse movement of the motor and the extent of movement of the control handle by cutting out resistance in the .rheostats will regulate the speed of the motor in the desired direction. It is understood that these conductors leading to the motors on the machine are passed through the several hollow tubes and are led first from the instructors station and source of supply to the carriage, from the carriage to the azimuth ring and from one ring to the other through the hollow bearing shafts 80 provided by the communicator bearings.
By reference to Fig. 8 and comparing the i the same with the structural showing in Fig. 2 it will be noted that certain of these conductors 88 controlled by the switch 47 lead through the right side of frame 16 to the motor 34* and that other conductors 90 lead through the bearings 25, left side of the-ring 23and upper portion of ring 23 to the motor 34:". Other conductors 92 lead through the bearings 32 to. the machine switches so that the motors 34", 35"'a-ndr36 may be controlled .by the student.
By following the wiringindicated in Fig. 8, it will be seen that each motor drive-is controlled by two motors onev of which is'in turn controlled by a switch at the machine station and the other of which is controlled I. by a switch at the instructors station.
i The invention as thus so far described has been disclosed in connection with a simple single tube ring,'but it is appreciated that where extremely light parts are used there is a severe distorting strain on the bearings 32 .and 33 especially when the parts are in the offset position shown in Fig. 1. In order to strengthen structurally weak parts, if necessary, the commercially perfected machine contemplates the use of a reinforced form of dipping ring 26 employing in effect two rings instead of the one ring illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2. For the purpos of this disclosure it will be considered that ring 26 of Fig. 2 is thus reinforced and that Fig. 6 is a transverse sectional view taken on the line 6-6 of Fig. 2 looking in the dire'tion indicated by the arrow.
Referring particularly to Figs. 6 and 7 it will be noted that the di ping ring 26 is formed of two tubular members 93 and 94 let into opposite sides of a spacing block 95. This block is made of two'parts as shown in Fig. 7 fastened together by cans of the through bolts 96. The shaft 6 is provided with a collar 97 fixed thereto and rotatably mounted within a recess 98 formed in one of the parts and held thereto by means of a face plate 99. In other respects the double ring construction corresponds to ,the form of v the singlering construction described in connection with Figs. 3 and 5. While the machine is thus described considering that the rings 23 and 29 are of the single form and the ring 26 is of the double form described it is of course obvious that all of the rings may be of either of the single form shown in Fig. 1 or each of the rings may be of the double reinforced form suggested with reference to the ring 26 in Figs. 6 and 7.
' The machine thus far described is complete and operable for the purposes suggested but in order further to carry out the effect produced on the student while in active flight it is proposed to hide as much as possible of the machine parts and to particularly hide from the students view any stationary objects which he might retain as a guide to indicate his normal upright position. For this purpose the gimbal ring construction is contained in a hollow shell 95 preferably formed of semi-translucent glass so as to admit light to the interior thereof. The shell is of substantially spherical form painted on the interior thereof with a horitake his position in the chair and is strapped in position when it is desired to actuate the device violently or, when it is desired to turn over the dipping ring to simulate the loopthe-loop action of an areoplane. The pressure condition within the casing or shell is regulated to correspond with the conditions under which the instruction is to. take place and by suitable manipulation of the rings, either by the instructor or by the person 00- cupying the chair, the chair and person occupying the same is tilted onrevolved about the respective axes of the gimbal ring construction, so as to take any position or move through anydesired angle and through any desired direction of movement. I
It is possible by means of a device of this character, for the instructor to move the chair and person occuping the same into any desired position and then leave it to the person in the chair'to rectify this position and move himself back into any desired or into the normal position which he would take when in flight. It is apparent that by means of a device of this character certain movements of an aeroplane may be simulated and the occupant moved into any possible position relative to a point of reference.
It is also possible to vary this point of reference vertically, so that a "falling or risin effect may be produced simultaneously witl i a revolvingmovementinto any desired angle or over any desired path within the limits of the machine. Y
Not only is it possible by means of a device ofthis character to have both the student and the instructor independently actuate each of the rings, but it is possible for the instructor to cause the chair to rotate in any desired direction and at any desired speed and at the same time permit the student to counteract this movement. For instance, suppose the instructor should cause the seat to dip forwardly atthe rate of 1 foot per second by closing the switch 49 thus actuating the motor in the desired direc-' tion, the student can then close, the switch 50 and actuate the motor 35 at such a speed as will counteract the effect of the motor 35, or, by throwing the switch on a little farther over, cut out enough resistance in the circuit leading to the motor 35 so as to cause i the motor to speed up slightly and restore the seat to the initial position. This can take place even while the instructors switch is acting on the motor 35 to maintain the forwardly dipping tendency to the seat. Similarly any other combination of motor actuation can be caused, permitting a simultaneous control of theposition of the seat through the actuation of the control switches at either the instructors or the machine station. In this way the student in the machine can always counteract any disturbing tendencies to move his seat into a position other than the position which he desires thus simulating actual conditions as they exist a with reference to a flying machine while in flight. It is obviously within the scope of the invention to so design the gear connection between any of the motors and the ring actuated thereby so that neither the instructor .or the student may have the predominance of control, one over the-other, where such an arrangement is desired. i
Having thus described my invention, I claim I. A gimbal ring construction having one of its rings mounted for rotary movement stub shaft, a planetary gear connection betweensaid stub shaft and said main shaft, said ring loosely mounted on said main shaft and a gear connection between said main shaft and said ring whereby the ring is rotated from said power shaft.
2. A gimbal ring construction having'one of its rings mounted for rotary-movement about an axis in the plane of said ring, and power driving means providing for said mounting, said means including a support, a main shaft disposed concentric with said axis and loosely journaled in said support, a stub shaft constituting an extension of said main shaft and rotatable relative thereto, a power shaft carried by said support, a drivmg slip clutch between said power shaft and a said stub shaft, a planetary gear connection between said stub shaft and said main shaft, said ring loosely mounted on said main shaft, a second stub shaft constituting an extension from the end of the main shaft opposite the end provided with the first named stub shaft, a second power shaft carried by said ring, a slip clutch connection between said second power shaft and said second stub shaft and a second planetary gear connection between said second stub shaft and said main shaft, whereby either or both power shafts may be caused to rotate said ring relative to the support.
3. In a gimbal ring construction, a ring mounted for rotary movement about an axis in the plane thereof, a floating shaft for supporting said ring, two reversible .power mechanisms each operatively connected to said shaft to rotate the ring in either direction, a flexible driving connection between each of said mechanisms and said shaft for causing the speed of one of the mechanlsms U0 be added to or substracted from the speed of the other mechanism wherebythe speed ofthe ring will be the algebraic sum of the speeds of the two mechanisms.
4. Ina device of the class described, the combination of a support, a shaft rotatably mounted in said support, --a power mechani'sm carried b said support and operatively connecte to said shaft to rotate the "isame, a member mounted for rotary movecombination of a support, a shaft rotatably mounted in said support, a power mechanism carried by said support, a driving connection between the power mechanism and said shaft to rotate the same, a member mounted for rotary movement relative to said support, a second power mechanism carried by said rotary member, a second driving connection between said second power mechanism and said shaft, both of said driving connections including slip clutches for permitting movement of the shaft independent of both power mechanisms.
6. In a device of the class described, the
' combination of a. support, a member mount-- ed for rotary movement relative to said support, a plurality of power mechanisms, one of which is carried by the support and'another of which is carried by the rotating member, driving connections between each power mechanism and'said member, said connections each including a spring controlled frictional Slip clutch whereby the member is free to'have a movement which will be the algebraic sum of the movements imposed thereon by the several power mechanisms.
7. In a device of the class described, the combination of a support, a member mounted for rotary movement relative to said support, a reversible rotary power mechanism carried by said member to rotate the same, a gear train constituting a driving connection between said power mechanism and said member, and a second reversible power mechanism having a looking-glass symmetry to the firstnamed mechanism and operatively connected too'ne of the gears of said train to assist orretard the movement of said member.
8. In a gimbal ring construction, the combination of a supporting member, a ring mounted in said supporting member for rotary movement about an axis, bearings for said ring atopposite sides thereof, one of said bearings including a tubular shaft car ried by the supporting member and supporting the ring at one side thereof, a ring communicator carried by the support',. the other bearing including amain drive shaft" carried by the support and supporting the ring at the side opposite the tubular-shaft-supr ported side, a motor operatively connected to said main drive shaft to rotate the ring and a conductor leading from said commun1- cator through said tubular shaft and ring to said motor.
9. In a gimbal ring construction, the combination of two rings, one pivotally supported on the other, a hollow shaft con'centrically disposed relative to the axis of rotation of the supported ring for supporting the same from the supportmg ring, a ring communicator carried byone of the rings, a
conductor leading througltfone of the rings other in all relative positions of said rings and an' electric motor for turning the rings relative to each other supplied with current from said conductor.
11. Ina device of the class described, the combination of a support, a ringmounted for rotary movementrelative to said support, a rotary, power' mechanism including an electric motor carried by said ring to rotate the same, a gear train constituting a driving connection between said power mechanism and said ring and a second reversible power mechanism operatively connected to one of the gears o if said train to assist and retard the movement of said ring and means for conducting current to said motor in all rotary positions of said ring.
12. In a gimbal ring construction, the combination of two rings, an inner and an outer ring, the inner ring being carried by the outer ring and mounted for rotary movcment about an axis in the plane of the outer ring, said outer ring being mounted for rotary movement about an axis extending at an angle to the first mentioned axis, a reversible mechanism for rotating said inner ring in either of its rotary directions, a second reversible mechanism for. rotating the outer ring about its axis in either of its rotary directions, two sets of controls, each set being operatively actuated independently of the other set, one of said sets connected to-each of said mechanisms to control selectively the initial direction of. rotary movement of the two-rings and means operatively controlled by the other set for modifying said initial movements of the rings whereby the movement of the inner ring in two independent controls, and means for? conveying power to the mechanism controlling said inner ring in all positions of the same. y i
13. In a gimbal ring construction, the combination of two-rings, an inner and-outer ring, the inner ring being carried by the outer ring and mounted for rotary m'ovement about an axis in the plane of the outer ring,
said outer ring being mounted for rotary movement about an axis extending at an angle to thefirst mentioned axis, a reversil ,45 Q WWW ble mechanism for rotating said inner ring in either of its rotary directions, a second reversible mechanism for rotating the outer ring about its axis in either of its rotary directions, two sets of controls, each set being operatively actuated independently of the other set, one of said sets connected to each of said mechanism to control selectively the initial direction of rotary movement of the two rings, means operatively controlled by the other set for modifying said initial movements of the rings whereby the movement of the innenring in space will be governed simultaneously by two independent controls, and means regulated by said first named control set for conveying power to the mechanism controlling said inner ring in all positions of the same.
14. In a device of the class described, the combination with a supportin member provided with a motor, a control for said motor, a shaft driven thereby, a supported member mounted on said shaft andprovided with a second motor, a control forsaid second motor, said controls bein operatively independent of each other, both of said motors being operatively connected tosaid shaft to turn said supported member at a speed which is the function of the algebraic sum of the speeds of the two motors whereby each motor can contribute to the resulting speed of said supported member.
15. In a gimbal ring construction, the combination with a ring mounted for rotary movement, reversible mechanism operatively connected tosaid ring to rotate the same in either rotary direction, two sets of controls, each set being operatively actuated independently of the other set, one of sa d sets connected to said mechanisms to control selectively the initial direction of rotary move ment of the ring, and means operatively controlled by the other set for modifying said initial rotary movement of the ring.
16. In a gimbal ring construction, the combination of two rings, an inner and an outer ring, the inner ring being carried by the outer ring and mounted for rotary movement about an axis in the plane of the outer ring, said outer ring being mounted for rotary movement about an axis extending at an angle to the first mentioned axis, a reversible mechanism for rotating said inner ring in either of its rotary directions, a second reversible mechanism for rotating the outer ring about its axis in either of its rotary directions, two sets of controls, each set being operatively actuated independently of the other set, one of said sets connected to each of said mechanisms to control selectively the initial direction of rotary movement of the two rings and means operatively controlled by the other set for modifying said initial'movements of the rings, whereby the movement of the inner ring in space will be combination of a support for a person, an-
organization of pivotal means for mounting said support so as to have universal articulation about a relatively fixed point of reference, two reversible power mechanisms, each operatively connected to said organiza tion to move the support about said point of reference, and each mechanism including means for simultaneously contributing to the final speed of and direction of movement in space of said support. I
18. In a device of the class described, the combination of a support for a person, an organization of pivotal means for mounting said support, so as to have universal articulation about a relatively fixed point of reference, mechanism for moving said supporting means in any direction, into positions about said point of reference, two sets of controls,
of movement "of said support whereby the final positioning of said support will be the position desired by one operator or will be the compromised position of the two positions desired by two operators.
19. In a device of the class described, the combination of a support for a person, an organization of pivotal means for mounting said support so as to have movement about a plurality of intersecting. axes, mechanism including a control therefor operatively connected to said organization for moving said support in one direction about any one of said axes, other mechanism including a con trol thereof for moving said support in the opposite direction about said axes, means for algebraically adding the action of said two mechanisms whereby the final direction of movement of said support will be the resultant of the simultaneous action thereon of said two mechanisms.
20. In a device of the-class described, the combination of a support for a person, an organization of pivotal means for mounting said support so as to have movement over an angle of 360 and about any axis passing through a point of reference, mechanism including a control therefor operatively connected to said organization for moving said support in one direction about'any of said axes, other mechanism including a control thereof for moving said support in the oppo- 'site direction, means for algebraically addof said housing, means for securing the tu bular members to the housing and a journaling means positioned in said housing.
22. In a gimbal ring construction, the combination of two rings one supported from the other, each ring including a relatively heavy strain resisting journal housing, said housings being disposed in juxtaposition and mutually contributing to the strength of the rings at one of the pivotal connections between the rings and a shaft passing through the housings and constituting the supporting means between the rings.
23. In a device of the class described, the combination of means for supporting a person in space for movement about a point of reference, said means including a gimbal ring construction, one of said rings formed of two members with one member disposed in position parallel to and ofiset from the plane of the other member and means fastening the members in position.
24. In a device of the class described, the
a combination of means for supporting a person in space for movement about a point of reference, said means including a gimbal ring construction, a journal block, t'wo ring forming members disposed in parallel planes and connected to said journal block, said block constituting a spacing means for said members and means for pivotally mounting the block in lace. r
25. In a device of the class described, the
combination of means for supporting a person in space for movement about a relatively fixed point of reference and for holding the person at a fixed distance from said point, said means including mechanism for revolving the person when so fixed, and an inclosure for said means, fixed relative to said point of reference, said inclosure being provided with scenery visible to the occupant of said means while being revolved.-
26. In a device of the class described, the combination of means for supporting a person in space and for turning the supported person in any direction and-over angles of 360, said means provided with control mechanism, simul'ating a control station of an aeroplane and scenery surrounding part of said means, said scenery being visible to the person supported by said means and representing a horizon and other general scenery visible to the occupant of an aeroplane while in any of the flight positions.
27 ..In a-device of the class described, the combination of means for supporting a person in space so as to have universal articulation about a relatively fixed point of reference, a shell for inclosing said means and means for-raising and lowering said shell and means.
28. In a device of the class described, the combination of means for simulating the scenic effect produced on an occupant of a flying machine while in flight and upside down, and mechanism within said means for supporting a person upside down in space for moving the person from said inverted position about a relatively fixed point of reference and into an upright position with the scenic means visible during said movement.
Signed at New York city, in the county of New York, and State of New York, this 12th day of August, A. D. 1918.
WILLIAM GUY RUGGLES.