|Publication number||US1397785 A|
|Publication date||Nov 22, 1921|
|Filing date||Mar 2, 1921|
|Priority date||Mar 2, 1921|
|Publication number||US 1397785 A, US 1397785A, US-A-1397785, US1397785 A, US1397785A|
|Inventors||Jr George U Rose|
|Original Assignee||Jr George U Rose|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (6), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
G. U. ROSE, JR-
ELECTROTYPE MATERIAL AND METHOD OF FORMING SAME.
APPLICATION FILED MAR.2, 1921.
1,397,785. Patented Nov. 22, 1921.
. j g; ,1 1 F n 1,2 111mm [m gwuenfo'a 41 0; Z6 Ewe c7?! material which may and which will compare favorably in PATENT OFFICE.
GEORGE U. BOSE, JR., OF WASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
ELECTROTYPE MATERIAL AND METHOD \OF FORMING SAiME.
' To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, GEORGE U.Rosn, Jr., a citizen of the United States of America, residing at Washington, in the District of Columbia, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Electrot pe Material and Methods of Forming ame, of which the following is a specification.
w'ldy present invention relates. generally to electrotype materials and more particularly to materials from which printing plates are made, my object bein the provision of a be electro deposited strength and durability with the hardened .steel plates now used, a well as a method by which the electrotype material may be strengthened for this purpose during the electro-deposition thereof.
llt is a well known fact that printing plates are at the present time formed by what is known as the transfer process, each plate being made from a roller which has previously received its impression from a master plate or die. Each printing plate must be so fashioned from a roller and then I hardened before use and the process, in-
volving as it does, considerable hand work and skill, is both expensive and time consuming to such an extent that plates cannot now be finished in the required number.
The electro-depositing process of forming printing plates is known and used to a certain extentand according to this process a previously transferred plate is used-for the electro-deposition of a positive plate known v as an alto, by the subsequent use of which any desired number of negative printing plates may be formed by electro-deposition. These printing plates are known as bassos and it is evident that this process, in which copper is universally employed, ipvolves but a single transfer operation and can, be
tively few impressions are to be made, for
a plate formed by the electro-deposfition of copper is not of sufiicientstrength to permit of its use for the printing of bank notes and the like where impressions are to be Specification of Letters Patent. Patented NOV. 22, 1921.
Continuation of application Serial No. 366,463, filed March 17, 1920.
Serial No. 449,273.
This application filed March 2,
made in great numbers. In other words .an electro-deposited copper plate does not compare favorably from an economical standpoint with a hardened steel plate which can only be made by the transfer process.
My invention aims to permit the formation by electro-deposition of a plate which Wlll compare favorably in strength with hardened steel and will thus beof great advantage, and arises from a discovery that the weakness of electro-deposited copper is due to the greatly increasing crystals formed in the metal as the depos1t thickens. I have found that the operation starts with the deposit of dense fine grains which if. continuedwould produce a strong material. As the deposited metal increases in thickness however, the crystals grow to great proportions and form what are known as trees thus weakening the structure and causing a rough deposit which necessitates considerable and expensive machinery in smoothing the edges'and back of the plate.
According to my invention, as shown in the accompanying drawing wherein the figure is a cross-section through the material thereof, the method is varied to the extent that the copper is electro-deposited in separate layers 10 to the full thickness of the material and in such manner that each new layer breaks up the growth of the crystals and thus interrupts treeing to such an extent that it is practically the start of an entire new operation. This maybe accomplished by electro-depositing certain layers in a sulfate solution and alternate layer in a cyanid solution, but I do not limit myself to such an operation as the same result might be accomplished in a single solution by periodically varying the density of the electric current utilized.
Ihave also found that by 'interposi-ng between copper layers, a layer of a diiferent material instead of layers of the same material of different crystalline structure, pro nouncedly better results can he obtained.
For instance layers 11 of nickel can be electro-deposited between layers of copper and not only check the growth of copper crystals thus preventing excessive treeing, but add to the tensile strength of the finished product by virtue of the relatively greater strength of the nickel.
Where, as shown in the drawing, nickel layer 10 are utilized between layers 11 of copper, the deposits of nickel will be greatly reduced in thickness as compared to the layers of copper as it is the frequency ably in strength and durability with hardened steel as I have demonstrated by actual use, and which will, by virtue of the material checking of the growth of the crystals, obviate much of the expensive machining 'now necessary with electro-deposited plates wherein copper of a given crystalline structure is utilized in one continuous operation. v
It is to be understood that in speaking of the electro-deposition of either copper or nickel, I refer to the ordinary well known operations of this nature, employing generally the solutions usually employed, and using generally a current density variable within the limits now prescribed, and while my invention is capable of being readily carried out by any one skilled in the art of electro-deposition, I do not wish to be understood as limiting myself to the ordinary process of electro -.depositing copper and nickel, even though these will serve the purpose. For convenience and better understanding I will give the operation as carried out to produce a plate of alternating layers of co per and nickel, as follows. After thorough y cleaning a master or engraved plate, from which an alto is to be made forsubsequent use in the electrodeposition of any desired number of .bassos, is firstsuspended in a nickel solution of nickel sulfate, nickel chlorid and boric acid, and nickel deposited at a current'density of about 10 amp/sq. ft., for about ten minutes. Then at a current den- 'sity of about 20- amp. /sq. ft., the deposition is continued for the balance of an hour the initial deposit of nickel therefor being about .001 inch for the alto. The plateis then withdrawn, rinsed and immersed in acopper solution of copper sulfate and sulfuric ac d and deposition proceeded with at a -current density between 35 and 45 amp/sq. ft.
for about two hours so as to produce a cop-'- per layer on the nickel layer of about .0045
inch in thickness. The plate is then with-- drawn from the copper solution, rinsed and again immersed in a nickel solution and.
nickel deposited at about 20 amp/sq. ftflfor one hour. This cycle of two hours in copper and one hour in nickel is repeated until the required thickness of the plate is obtained} When this has been reached, with an allowance for waste, the. plate is removed and machine, the alto separated from the master plate and then utilized in a similar manner in the formation of any number of bassos, the formation of each of which is carried out in a similar process except that the initial deposit of nickel will be somewhat thicken for bassos than for altos, being for instance about .002 inch.
It is also to be understood that the current densities mentioned above are given by way of illustration alone and that I reserve to myself the right to vary the same at will.
It is not to be assumed, however that the material and method of forming the same as proposed by my invention, is useful alone in connection with rinting plates, for it is obvious it will find wide, in fact more or less eneral use, in various arts where electroeposition, can be effectively utilized in place of diflicult casting operations. 1
I am aware it is not new to electro-plate articles with alternate layers of copper and nickel where the purpose is to support and hold the nickel, but such a method is foreign to the present one, in fact it is the reverse of my invention which seeks to provlde an independent electro-deposited material for the most part, .at least, of copper, and of a greater tensile strength than a material formed wholly of copper of a given crystalline structure in a continuous operation,
such as to enable it to com are favorably in strenth and durability to ardened steel.
1. The herein described method for the electro-deposition of copper to a thickness usually forming trees and producing little tensile strength, which consists in electrodepositing the copper in a number of layers and in breaking up the growth of upper crystals between the layers whereby to check the formation of trees and correspondingly increase strength of the finished plate.
2. The herein described method for the electro-deposition of a material subject to treeing 'in thick deposits, which consists in electro-depositing the material in relatively thin layers to the desired thickness and in breaking up the growth of crystals between the layers, whereby to check the formation of trees and increase the strength of the finished product.
'3. he herein described method of electro:
depositing a material subject to" treeingZ in thick deposits which consists in depositing a relatively thin layer of such material, then.
depositing on the first 1a er a second layer of a material having-a fi'erent crystalline structure, and then alternating-these deposits to the desired thickness, whereby no check treeing, and increase tensile strength.
4. The herein described method of forma ing an independently usable material, which consists in successively.electro-depositing a plurality of adhering layers of the same material and in inter-depositing between layers of the material, other layers having a different crystalline structure.
5. The herein described method of forming an independently usable material which consists-in successivel electrordepositing a plurality of adhering layers of the same material and in inter-depositing between layers of the material, layers of another material.
6. The herein described step in the method of strengthening electrotypes subject to tre'eing during the electro-deposition thereof, which consists in periodically checking the growth of crystals in order to avoi treemg, as described. a 4
7 The herein described step in the method of strengthening electrotypes subject to treeing during the electro-deposition thereof, which consists in periodically interrupting the normal operation and checking the growth of or stals at each interruption in order to avoi treeing.
8; The herein described method of forming electro-deposited copper plates which consists in depositing copper in separate layers and in interdeposi-ting relatively thin layers of nickel between the layers of the copper as-described'. .w j
9. The herein described method of forming electro-deposited material which consists in depositing copper in separate layers and in interdepositing relatively thin layers of nickel at frequent intervals layers of copper as described.
10. An electro deposited material consisting of alternate thin layers of nickel and thick layers of copper. 7
11'. An electro-deposited material consist: ing of alternate layers of. copper and nickel, the layers of nickel being relatively thin as compared to the layers of copper and lo-' between the cat/ed at frequent intervals throughout the formedcof a pluralityof alternating layers.
of copper and nickel as and for the purpose v set forth.
In testimony whereof I have afiixed my
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|U.S. Classification||428/635, 101/401, 205/69, 428/935, 101/401.1, 428/675|
|Cooperative Classification||C25D1/00, Y10S428/935|