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Publication numberUS1401461 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 27, 1921
Filing dateJul 21, 1920
Priority dateJul 21, 1920
Publication numberUS 1401461 A, US 1401461A, US-A-1401461, US1401461 A, US1401461A
InventorsChaddock George Albert
Original AssigneeChaddock George Albert
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Weight-controlled airship
US 1401461 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

G. A. CHADDOCK,

WEIGHT CONTROLLED AIBSHIP.

APPLICATION FILED JULY 21,1920

Patented Dec. 27, 1921.

2 SHEETS-SHEET I G. A. CHADDOCK.

WEIGHT CONTROLLED AIRSHIP.

APPLICATION FILED JULY 21,1920.

1,401,4 1, Patented Dec. 27, 1921.

2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.

onomnnnnar To all whom it ma concern:

Be it known that GEORGE ALBERT CHAD- DOCK, a subject of the King of Great Brit am, and a resident of Liverpool, En land, have invented certain new and usefu Improvements in a Weight-Controlled Airship, of which the following is a specification.

This invention has for its object the production of a wei ht 'controlledair ship preferably controlle by a novel method of propulsion in combination with the utilization of waste heat gases and alternate provision for insuring a supply of cool air through protected inlet ports, under suitable control, so as to rovide for the admission of cool air in a orm to insure the displacement of inner warm air through exhaust ports also under suitable control and by such means to bring about expansion of gas by heat or moderate compression by cooling as and when required. Outrigger lanes and other auxiliary aids are also pre erably provided to take up any loss of lift that may arise when moving the propellers gradually from the position of vertical lift tothat of com-- bined lift and drive, or that of direct drive where ordinary screw propulsion methods are adopted either wholly, or partially. These provisions will meet the var ousconclitions that governments of different States will certainly impose in future in vessels carrying a, large number of people on a long ocean voyage. The auxiliary aids to propulsion are provided to insure a better screw thrust action than now obtains when in horizontal flight more particularly as the weight control of this form of ship is mainly based upon the great difference of density as between air and water and of air itself at varying altitudes as affecting screw propulsion. The screw principle, from t e mechanical standpoint, being founded pri marily on an unyielding base or pressure fulcrum, its efiiciency in a 'ielding fluid like water is materially forti ed by skin friction and closing in of the water behind the vessel or wake counter pressure on the propeller which materially helps to fortify the yielding base. Air being 832 times less dense than water affords at once the best medium as a highway for rapid communication but the screw principle is very severely handicapped in such a light fluid prone to move, according to its own laws, on lines of least resistance. It follows when cnnnnocx, or macaroni, mum;

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an aer1al propeller is first started a partial vold s created in the disk area into which the air flows from all directions. Immediately axial advance commences orwhen the air s driven rearward there is a constant lnductlon of air toward the propeller disk by reason of the air flowing toward the area speoflloationofLetterllatent. Patented Dec. '27, 1921." A n juauo'n me my a1, 1900. Serial No. aezaia of depression of an advancing or stationary propeller thus materially undermining the thrust value. A primary vent1 on 1s therefore to so control the inflow of air into the propeller disk area as to overcome the disability attendant upon air movlng 0f 1ts own accord on lines of least resistance and to utilize that principle as far as possible as an aid to propulsion instead of detractingtherefrom as now ob tains; With object the ship isconstructed to. adm1t of'its propellers operating in a shielding space in which they are protected from the effects of outer passing air at the sides. For this purpose a shielding plane or lower bow extension is fitted on each side at the bow, carried out far enough and hi h enough ,to shield the propellers behind it, the rear part of this plane being sloped to an angle of approximately 45 degrees to admlt or alr being drawn down behind it. The effect of this procedure in practice will be that as the vessel moves horizontally through the atmosphere the propellers operate 1n a shielded area and are thus freed from air that has been given propulsion momentum in the direction of the shaft line. Moreover the passing air ceases its shaft line motion over 'the well instantly the attraction ceases and before it comes under the suction control of the propeller next behind it has to pass the intermediate plane set at an angle to induce a following wake as a further corrective against momentum on the shaft line. In this connection there is a further corrective agency operating against such air momentum arising by reason of the friction and elastic properties of the air tending to create the equivalent extraction experienced in buildings when a volume of air passing a door inlet sucks out such a volume of air from inside as to cause violent closure of the door. Something of the equivalent of this suction effect will be induced by air passing over the u per part of the well and thus act as a pul a ainst propellers thereby enhancing their t rust effect, this tendency to create an upcast from the well will also be aided by the upper object of this inplanes the drag action of which should combinedeffect of drawing air away from thepressure area at bow and friction area at sides of hull and tend to fill up the void or area of retarding suction at the stern or lower section thereof. As there are two stream lines in this ship one from passing air and one induced by propulsion action the artificial air movement should have a material effect upon the ordinary stream line displacement. There being an outer screen fixed to revent side inflow of air the full power 0 all the propellers can be concentrated on shaft line suction and rearward drive free from the disabilities now ruling with propellers operating on lines of axial advance where the disk area becomes surcharged with air moving in freely and rapidly on lines of least resistance. The auxiliary aids so fitted as an aid to propulsion will offer slightly more resistance than a vessel with a clean hull but the extra resistance will be out of all proportion to the additional speed gained by the very great increase in thrust value added to which there will be a secondary stream line set up by the large volume of air drawn down through the protected well thus tending to lessen resistance to progress in horizontal motion. These auxiliary aids while eifective in horizontal motion have little or no effect on thrust value in a vertical lift as the downward momentum of air is not out off or retarded in a vertical lift which process of direct lift is however aided by the use of internal heat which can be brought into operation on starting engines prior to ascending. The total engine power being applied to drive a number of propellers operated along each side of the ship the maximum volume of air is utilized for propulsion purposes which cannot be efficiently attained by any other procedure. It follows the ship is borne through the air by power pressure evenly distributed in a form to avoid any undue strains being set up in any part of the hull and also to provide such a number of engine and propeller units as to render compulsory descent for overhaul of engines unnecessary as there will be abundant reserve power to provide for sustentation while any deranged units may be under overhaul; Provision is made in the construction of this ship for the complete isolation of passengers and crew from the gas containing portion of the ship thereby leaving the main hull, exceptin navigation room andpassage ways clear, or the use of internal gas as an aid to weight control and thereby reducing the diameter and consequent area of wetted surface and weight of water therefrom when rising as well as checking rolling effect and added weight of water therefrom. These side carrying stabilizing chambers are divided up to enable the engines to be carried at a height sufficient to insure a free flow of internal gas under such complete control as to avoid the dangers of any direct connection between the engines and internal gas bags. For this purpose intermediate gas containers are fitted on engine decks with as tight valves between these containers an inner gas bags also between the auxiliary containers and engines. By these means enough internal gas may be consumed to balance the weight of lpetrol used or to make the ship heavy or lght by varying the mixture which will add very materiall to the efficiency of a weight controlled siip driven on lift drive principles. This principle of free or pressure flow gives command of the flow when at less than the pressure height and guards against the dangers of back tiring where the vacuum in the lnduction pipe is relied upon to suck down the gas. These provisions for the use of a mixture as and when re uired will tend to keep the engine cleaner an provide for easier starting particularly under extreme cold at high altitudes which is a material factor in aerial weight control. The vessels bottom being of wood will act as a good heat retainer and thereby enable the air beneath the gas bags to be quickly heated whereas with a fabric cover this heat would be dissipated but, by concentrating on the air in the heat containing space expansion of internal gas is quickly facilitated. The provision of air ports and admission thereby of cool air not only facilitates weight control but will prove a necessary factor even when such a ship is not in flight to counteract the effect of exterior heat and by the means described complete temperature control is effected.

According to this invention, the hull of the weight controlled airship is so shaped as to afford the minimum suction resistance in rising from the water and a maximum resistance to air pressure when descendin The passenger and engine decks and si e structures are so disposed as to concentrate the structural weight and the disposable load well below the center of gravity of the ship insuring stability and also that the flat under surfaces shall be well above the deep load line so as'to avoid suction thereunder when rising while offering a large resisting surface during descent. The invention further relates to means whereby the waste heat gases from the engines are led to an inner receiver in the ships hull whereby the explosive noises are silenced and the otherwise waste heat utilized to bringabout in ern l "expansion of air" or for warming the passen combined 11ft and-drive; to means for inclos-' 'ing the ropellers by outer screens to form a well oFsuflicient depth to protect the propellers when working at any anglewhereby the maximum thrust of the propellers may be obtained; to means for sheathing a or- .tionof the hull of the ship so'as to iso ate the main hull from the passenger, crew, and engine accommodation, and to means for protecting the ship from external danger by providing a depending wire or cable acting as a lightning conductor.

tion of the propellers, engines, crew and pas- I senger accommodation. Fig. 5 is a fragmentary detail view showing the operating rods and gearfor controlling the angular movement of the propellers. Fi 6. is a detail showingthe outer screen inc osing the propellers and Fig. 7. is a diagrammatic view showing the outrigger planes and side support'fitted between the propellers. In

Fig. 2 the propellers are shown at an angle of direct lift but the screen is removed on the ort side to conform with Fig. 1 in whic figure the screen in order that the propeller at angle of lift drive may be set out in contrast to position of propellers when operating at angle of direct lift set out in Fig. 2 on the starboard side on which the screen is shown also intermediate outrigger planes between each propeller. v

In carrying out the invention, the hull 1 of the ship is preferably provided with a strong outer sheathing in the water borne section say of wood to insure temperature control of the inner gas also to reduce to a minimum water suction when rising and to provide the maximum air resistance when descending. For this purpose the large part of the bottom 3 extending outward, on each side, from the central portion of the hull is so shaped as to ofi'er sufiicient I 'trol.

The inventlon is illustrated in the accoIn-' 'of'such relative pro resistance to prevent rapid descent also to prevent unduelist, the gross internal weight carried being also so disposed as to preclude any dan erous angle being taken up. 'By means 0 the form ofconstruction shown at 2- the ship is enabled to float on water with a minimumsuction resistance to direct lift on rising, .a strong weathertight outershell being provided, if desired, around the entire ship, in such manner as toinsure as farv as s'sible complete temperature conor this purpose air orts, 4, 5, are fitted and controlled so that t e temperature bfi'the inner air may be regulated to help br ng about gas ex ansion if installed or carried by closing t e air ports and using the waste heat gases to heat the air beneath panslon or the ports, 4, 5, may be opened to ring about moderate gas compression, by permitting the circulating of cold air around exterior of gas bags as, and when desired. With such provision the exhaust heat from the engines can be used internally. for heating the inner air to facilitate gas expansion or the heat-shut OE and cold air allowed to circulatearound the outside of the gas bags inside the ship as required to counteract the effect of exterior or interior heat. In Fig. 4 the piping 30 is shown as led from engines on each side of the ship to receiver 31 for utilizing waste heat gases to heat air beneath the gas bags. The provision made for cool air supply should provide for moderate gas compression without the aid of fans, but such may be fitted if required, and warm air outlets closed to increase the gas compression, this temperature control thereby materiall assisting in insuring weight control. rovision is made as an aid to gravity control for the consumption considered advisab e from time to time either as. a means of counteracting expansion or to assist in preserving completei weight control by consuming any relative ortion of gas as may be proportion of gas that may be considered requisite to neutralize the decrease in weight carried owin to consumption of fuel, oil or stores, durmg the voyage or for any requirement. For these purposes and in'order that internal gas may be under complete control suitable auxiliary gas containers 6 are fitted preferably on the upper deck provided with connections forming gas leads one of which will be connected with the internal gas bag or bags and the other connecting the auxiliary gas bag or gas container to the engine or engines to control the supply, both of these leads being fitted with gas tight valves in a form to isolate the engine from the auxiliary gas bags or containers as and when required, also the latter from the internal gas bags when not requiring a supply therefrom.

mounted, at a suitable spacing, on the prosystem of propulsion to Suitable provision is made for the economiscrew propulsion to that of direct drive.

cal consumption of hydrogen or coal. gas The planes 19 generally will therefore be as well as petrol as and when required in all or any desired engine or engines. The provision thus made will insure weight control in a ship driven by existing system of propulsion in which propellers 7 maybe peller supports 14, 15, shown along each side of the ship. g

In the arrangement shown in the drawings the propellers 7 are driven by bevel gearing 8 through side shafts 9 from the eng nes 10 and means are provided for varying the angular direction of the axis of rotation of the pro ellers. A suitable arrangement 15 shown in Fig. 5, where the engines are mounted upon geared-quadrants 11 engaglng a rack 12 which runs fore and aft on the engine deck and is o erated in any suitable manner by a gear w eel or wheels 13.

The arran ement of propeller supports, 14, 15, exten s sufficiently far out from the side of the ship to enable the propellers to be rotated well clear of the vessels side and are attached to the vertical sides 16 of hull in a manner to permit of being stayed against both lift and driving strains and by means'of the angular adjustment'adm1t of the propellers carried being oscillated to any desired angle of drive or to operate as a direct vertical lift, when desired, as an aid to weight control.

In order to increase the weight control the propellers 7 are shielded by a plane or planes or bow extension or extensions 17 Fig. 1, so constructed as, to'enable propulsion to be carried on with a propeller workin at an angle of combined lift and drive in such manner as to enable a greater efliciency to be exercised and a larger load carried when the vessel is in motion through the atmosphere thereby materially increasing weight control and adding to the speed of the ship.

And as a further aid to weight controland speed with such form of propulsion side screens 18 and outrigger planes 19 are provided with suitable stern extensions 19, and ridge rods 19 connect and tie together the fore and aft end planes 17, 19, and the outrigger planes 19 carry the ridge rods,which latter stay .the outrigger planes and support the side screens 18. The horizontal strains on the outrigger planes are opposite in direction to those on the propeller supports, and by connecting the outer ends of these planes 19 and the extensions 19 of the horizontal propeller supports, the strains on the propeller supports are partly neutralized.

These planes are designed as an aid to the artially compensate for any loss in lift which may otherwise take place in movin a propeller from the osition of direct li to that of combined ift'and drive or in the case of ordinary that of angle of drive, or lift drive for horizontal speed through the atmosphere. The

planes thus also act as an aid to gravity control but a further material function is the general provision made for drawin air away from a pressure area vparticular y at the bow. One of the main objects of the screen 18 is to prevent the propellers being exposed to the effect of passing air, articularly in any turnin movement, an to enable the suction e ect of propellers to be regulated to advantage. of the screens 18 is to enhance the thrusting action of the pro ellers 7 when acting as a direct lift from tlie water surface or otherwise.

The dotted lines 20 Fig. 1, indicate approximate spacing of main irders and inner spaces for gas bags. Rud ers 21 are fitted at extreme ends on ship for vertical control. The lower passenger decks, corridors 22 and berthing communication shown in Fig. 3 is preferably divided at 23 into separate sections with communication doors controlled by attendants so as to localize the disposable weight of the passengers.

T e propeller control system which enables the propeller or series of propellers to be turned while in motion r at rest from a drive to a lift action, under ordinary method of propulsion, will act as a weight correction agent, in any emergency particularly in event of leakage in any gas bag. These c011- ditions also apply to the propulsion system, when working in a screened deep well of still air, more particularly as any side list or end tipping can be instantly compen-- sated when in motion without loss of time n moving propellers to a lift position, this 1s a most essential feature-in a passenger ship. A' further important feature of this invention is that the engines are so inclosed as to render their action or working almost noiseless, for this purpose the pipe leads for escape gases, may be connected with a central receiver or receiver on each side, to so deaden the noise of explosion as to enable the vessel to proceed through the atmosphere at a reasonable height without disclosing her presence to those below, for this purpose the decks, sides,.and bottom may be constructed to break up sound waves externally and internally as between the two or more decks.

,The decks, side and bottom may be of Wood trollin and drive. The engine is shown in Fig. 5

at 11 as bound down by its operating rod and thus secured when the propeller is in the position of direct lift as at 28 and likewiseforced against a buttress or chock when the propeller 28 is in the position of drlve lift. The third position where the propeller 28 is shown-at an angle of direct drive 1s merely toindicate that it can, by the conapparatus, be ivena wider range than t at of direct li t and lift drive as shown at 28 as the engine can be so mounted and controlled as to command sternway for docking or hovering if desired.

In order to support the bow end p1ane'17 a stay rope 24 may be carried aroundthe bows to link u these planes on either sides or linked up with outrigger planes in a manner to help neutralize the strains on propeller supports.

And the front end planes 17 may be modified as indicated by the dotted lines 17 to limit any undue lifting tendency at the bow.

Horizontal steering rudders 25 are fitted to the bow.

As shown in Fig. 7, the outrigger planes are rigidly distanced by vertical struts 26 and braced to the sides 16 by ties 27.

I claim z-- 1. A weight controlled air ship comprising a main hull fitted with exterior protected air wells on each side open to the air above and below between end planes and .outrigger plane spaces in which propellers operate, said wells being formed by projecting planes fitted at the bow and stern on each side and extending outward from the hull far enough to shield the propellers from passing air, outrigger planes being interposed between the propellers on each side, side screens attached to outer ends of how and sternplanes, a series of propellers operated one behind the other in the shielded controlled air spaces the lift drive thrust horizontal flight.

2. A weight controlled air ing a main hull fitted with tected air wells on each side open to the air above and below between end planes and outrigger plane spaces in which propellers operate, said wells being formed by projecting planes fitted at the bow and stern on each side and extending outward from the hull far enough to shield the propellers from passing air, outrigger planes being interposed between the propellers on each side, side screens attached to outer ends of bow and stern planes, a series of propellers operated one behind the other in the shielded controlled air spaces provided to improve the lift drive thrust of propellers when in horizontal flight, side carrying chambers exship comprisexterior proterior to and bulkheaded oil from main hull for the accommodation and isolation from main hull of passengers, crew, engines, fuel, stores and all equipment, the carrying chambers being fitted above the water line also act as stabilizers on the water or in the air.

3. A weight controlled air ing a main hull fitted with exterior protected air wells on each side open to the air above and below between end planes and outrigger lane spaces in which propellers operate, said wells being formed by projecting planes fitted at the bow and stern on each side and extending outward from the hull far enough to shield, the propellers from passing air, outrigger planes being interposed between the. propellers on each side, side screens attached to outer ends of how and stern planes, a series of propellers operated one behind the other in the shielded controlled air spaces provided to improve the lift drive thrust of propellers when in horizontal flight, and shielding end planes on each side at the front and rear of the propellers and staying means for said side screens.

4. A weight controlled air ship comprising a main hull fitted with exterior protected air wells on each side open to the air above and below between end planes and outrigger plane spaces in which propellers operate, said wells being formed by projecting lanes fitted at the bow and stem on each si e and extending outward from the hull far enough to shield the propellers from passing air, outrigger planes being interposed between the propellers on each side, side screens at tached to outer ends of bow and stern planes,

.a series of propellers operated one behind the other in the shielded controlled air spaces provided to improve the lift drive thrust of propellers when in horizontal flight, and rods for utilizing the rearward strains on outrigger planes to assist in counteracting the horizontal drive portion of strain on propeller supports.

5. A Weight controlled air ship comprising a main hull fitted with exterior protected air wells on each side open to the. air above and below between end planes and outrigger plane spaces in which propellers operate, said wells being formed by projecting planes fitted at the bow and stern on each side and extending outward from the hull far enough to shield the propellers from passing air, outrigger planes being interposed between the propellers on each side, side screens attached to outer ends of bow and stern planes, a series of propellers operated one behind the other in the shielded controlled air spaces provided to improve the lift drive thrust of propellers when in horizontal flight, and means for oscillating the engines to vary the plane of rotation of the propellers as an aid to weight control.

ship compris- 6. A weight controlled air ship comprising a main hull fitted with exterior protected air wells on each side open to the air above and below between end planes and outrigger plane spaces in which propellers operate, said wells being formed by pro ecting planes fitted at the bow and stern on each side and extending outward irom the hull far enough to shield the propellers from passing air, outrigger planes being interposed between the propellers on each side, side screens attached to outer ends or" bow and stem planes, a series of propellers operated one behind the other in the shielded controlled air spaces provided to improve the lift drive thrust of propellers when in horizontal flight, and auxiliary gas containe'rs adjacent to engines to receive gas from gas bags from main hull and to supply ongines with fuel, said containers being placed sufiiciently high to insure a free flow of gas from the gas bags in main hull and then to engines for increased weight control, the connections between said auxiliary gas containers and main gas bags and between auxiliary containers and engines being fitted with gas tight Valves.

7 A weight controlled air ship comprising a main hull fitted with exterior protected air wells on each side open to the alr above and below between end planes and outrigger plane spaces in which propellers operate, said wells being formed by prQJecting planes fitted at the bow and stern on each side and extending outward from the hull far enough to shield the propellers from passing air, outrigger planes being interposed between the propellers on each side, side screens attached to outer ends of bow and stern planes, a series of'propellers 0 er ated one behind the other in the shie dcd controlled air spaces provided to improve the lift drive thrust o1? propellers when in horizontal flight, and a receiver in the main hull of the ship and piping conveying the waste heat gases to the receiver whereby such waste heat gases may be used for heating internal air under gas bags to facilitate internal gas expansion as an aid to weight control.

8. A weight controlled. air ship compris ing a main hull fitted with exterior protected air wells on each side open to the air above and below between end planes and outrigger plane spaces in which propellers operate, said wells being formed by projecting planes fitted at the bow and stern on each side and extending outward from the hull far enough to shield the propellers from passing air, outrigger planes being interposed between the propellers on each side, side screens. attached to outer ends of bow and stern planes, a series of propellers operated one behind the other in the shielded controlled air spaces provided to improve the lift drive thrust of propellers when in horizontal flight, air inlets below the side carrying chambers and air outlets controlling a supply of cool air to the interior of the hull for temperature and ballast weight control.

In testimony whereof I allix my signature in presence of two witnesses.

GEORGE ALBERT CHADDOCK.

Witnesses:

A. J. DAVIES, E. HEGINBOTHAM.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5178344 *Sep 13, 1991Jan 12, 1993Vaclav DlouhyVTOL aircraft
Classifications
U.S. Classification244/26, 244/97
International ClassificationB64B1/00
Cooperative ClassificationB64B1/00
European ClassificationB64B1/00