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Publication numberUS1401671 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 27, 1921
Filing dateDec 14, 1918
Priority dateDec 14, 1918
Publication numberUS 1401671 A, US 1401671A, US-A-1401671, US1401671 A, US1401671A
InventorsChubb Lewis Warrington
Original AssigneeWestinghouse Electric & Mfg Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Emergency source of voltage
US 1401671 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)




1,401,671; Patented Qeu. 27, 1921.



7 '0 all whom it new concern:

Be it known t at I, LEWIS WARRINGTON CH BB, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Edgewood Park, in the county of Allegheny and State of Pennsylvania,

voltage-generating means which may be' mantained inactive and stored for an indefinite length of time, and then brought to a state of activity, whereby a predetermined voltage will be generated by the simple exposure of the voltage-generating means to the atmosphere. To this end, I provide a structure analogous to a galvanopile and associate deliquescent substances with the elements thereof in such manner that the galvanopile will be inactive while the deliquescent substances remain unaffected by moisture. I maintain a dry state for the materials in question by inclosing the galvanopile structure in a vacuum.

It is obvious that, if the containing structure is of a frangible nature, the vacuum maybe broken by a slight-blow, and the any and at all times.

voltage-generating means will thereafter become active.

. If the containing structure is of such na'-.' ture that the whole voltage-producing means though of comparatively low power, and,

moreover, it may be further desirable that a source of voltage of the character de scribed shall be always avallable for use at Again, in order that such a source of VOl '1- age may be always available and adapted to function at its original value, It is imperative that no depreciation of the voltagegenerating means shall occur during its period of'inactivity or the time during which EMERGENGY SOURCE OF VOLTAGE.

Specification of Letters Patent. Patented Dec. 27, 1921.

Application-filed December 14, 1918. Serial No. 266,745..

it is stored before it is put into use. For

all of the above reasons, I find thata voltage-producing means constructed in accordance with my invention is of great utility at the present time.

For a better understanding of my invention, reference may be had to the accompa nying drawing in which Figure 1 is an elevational view of a galvanopile constructed in accordance with my invention, in which the containing structure is composed of glass; Fig.2 is a modification of the structure shown in Fig. 1; while Figs. 3 and 4 are, respectively, an elevational sectional view and plan view of a pair'of elements,'fas employed in my galvanopile.

Referring more particularly to Fig. 1, a containing structure 1, composed of frangible material, such, for example, as glass, is

provided with an attaching member 2, that is like, or similar to, that of a common in candescent la-mp bulb. Positioned within the containing structure 1 is a galvanopile 3 composed of apluralityof groups of elements. Two of the elements of eachgroup occupy diflerent positions in the electrochemical series and are designated as 4 and 5 and the other element is amass of any suitable deliquescent materialfwhich' is here shown as positioned between the element 4 and theelement 5. For purposes of 1llustration, I will describe my galvanoplleas comprising copper elements 4 and zinc elements made of materials .which occupy diferent .positions in the electro-chemical series and between WllICh a potentlal dlfi'eronce may be maintained, may be substituted for copper and zinc elements. A wire 6 is shown attached to the copper element 4 at one end and a wire 7 to the zinc element 5 at the other end of the pile. The two wires constitute leading in wires and, by proper attachment to contact members at the base of the-threaded portion 2, are adapted to supply any apparatus-which'is to consume 'ments 5 but it will be obvious that other ele-' the electromotive force generated by the galvanopile.

In the modification shown in Fig 2, the galvanopile is divided ,into two sections, 3" and 3*, the elements being connected in the proper sequence. 'It is obvious that as many groups of elements and bodies of assoc1ated deliquescent material may be provided as are nopile or between the two elements of any group-until it has taken up moisture. In.

desired, and, moreover, that, instead of being connected in series relationship they may be connected in parallel relation, whereby an increased current may be obtained. One form which I have found to be particularly advantageous is that in which four stacks of element groups are employed and are arranged in a spider-like container which forms a very compact square structure. It

might appear, at first, that such structure,

would be impracticable in shape for a containing bulb. As will hereinafter appear, however, the outer bulb is dispensed with when the galvanopile is placed in service and, therefore, the structure of the bulb does not import any limitation into the use of a galvanopile structure of such form and dimensions.

ments of each group occupying difierent positions in, the electro-chemical series. and,

therefore, being adapted for the maintenance of a potential difierence between them. Be tween the elements of each pair is placed a mass of deliquescent material and it is to be understood that this material will not allow the passage of a current through the galvaother words, while the two-plate elements of a battery are present, no electrolytic element exists until the deliquescent substance has become moist. 4 e

The number of groups of elements required is determined by the voltage which it is desired to obtain from the structure in question, since the potential difierence which exists between any twodiversely positioned' elements of the electrochemical series is' known. If the galvanopile is surrounded with a containing envelop and the interior of this structure is air evacuated, the galvanopile may be stored for an indefinite time.,without-deterioration, since no moisture will be absorbed by the deliquescent material, and the elements forming the opposing portions of the cell will be inactive. Extended experiments lead to the conclusion that, within the space of four inches square,

by theemployment ofthestructure described a in connection with Fig. 2, it will be possible to store emergency sources of voltages which .tion. Since ll believe that the above described The galvanopile is built up, as shown Fig. 1, of groups of elements, two of the elewill generate, at will, as much as two thousand volts.

When the time arises for the employment of the voltage-generating means, the frangible containing envelop is fractured. by a blow and if, before this fracture, the entire structure is screwed into the apparatus which is to utilize the electromotive .force, it is obvious that a very simple and quickly-availa'ble source of voltage is at hand, since the deliquescent material, if of sufiicient absorptive power, will immediately begin to function. Of course, under a great many conditions,- it may be feasible to dip the galvanopile into a liquid, either an electrolyte or -water, when the container is fractured, but

in case no liquid is at hand, an emergency source of voltage is provided which is avallindefinite periodof time without deterioraable at will and which may be stored for an structure is wholly novel, both in function" and in arrangement, I desire that the .in-'

vention be construed 'as broadly .as possible in view of the prior art'and that thestructure set forth in the foregoing description be v limited only thereby and by. the scope of the appended claims. I I

claim as myinventionz ingdeliquescent material, that is active only upon exposure to amoisture-co'ntainin fluid.

2. Means adapted to maintain an e ectrical difierence of potential, and normally dry deliquescent means associated therewith whereby said potential-generating means is active only upon exposure to a-moisturecontaining fluid.

3. Means adapted to generate an electrical difi'erence' of potential upon the applica- .95 1. A. voltage-generating means, containtion of'moisture thereto, and sealing means therefor whereby moisture may be excludedtherefrom.

4;. .Meansadapted to generatean electrical difi'erenceof potential when exposed to a normal atmosphere, and frangible sealing" means for confining said potential .-generat- 'ing means inan atmosphere devoid of moisture until re uired for generating service.

5. The com ination with elements occupying diflerent positions in the electrochemical series, of air-ti ht means for maintaining said elements in an inactive condition until exposed to moisture.

6. The combination with two elements occupying different "positions in the electrochemical series, of separating means for said elements, and vacuum' means associated therewith to maintain said elements in'an inactive condition until they are exposed moisture.

7. The combination with 1 electrodes occupying' difierent positions 1111 the electrochemical series, of deliquescent separating means for said elements, and means associated therewith to maintain said elements in an inactive condition until they are exposed to moisture.

8. The combination with electrodes occupying different positions in the electrochemical series, of deliquescent separating means for said elements, and an air-evacuated envelop for said elements and separating means.

9. The combination with elements occupying different positions in the electro-chemical series, of deliquescent separating means for said elements, and an air-evacuated glass container for said elements rating means.

10. The combination with elements occupying different positions in the electrochemical series, of deliquescent separating means for said elements, an air-evacuated frangible containing envelop, and means for attaching said structure to the consumption apparatus for the voltage generated by said elements.

11. The combination with elements occupying diiferent positions in the electroand said sepachemical series, of deliquescent separating means for said elements, ing local discharges over the edges of said elements, and an air-evacuated envelop for said elements and said separating means.

12. The combination with electrodes occupying different chemical series, of deliquescent separatin means for said electrodes, an air-evacuate frangible container therefor, having a screwthreaded means for securing said container to a consumption circuit.

13. Voltage-generating means dependent upon the rupture of a surrounding vacuum for becomlng active.

14. Voltage-generating means containing normally dry deliquescent material.

15. Voltage-generating means comprising a plurality of different chemical elements, normally dry deliquescent material located between said elements, and means for normally maintaining said means in a vacuum.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my name this 2nd day of Dec.,


ositions in the electromeans for preclud-

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2428850 *Dec 26, 1941Oct 14, 1947Burgess Battery CoDeferred action dry cell with magnesium electrode
US2594879 *Oct 9, 1948Apr 29, 1952Sylvania Electric ProdDeferred-action battery
US2640863 *Apr 5, 1950Jun 2, 1953Us ArmyDeferred action type battery
US2666801 *Jul 14, 1950Jan 19, 1954John A VictoreenElectric battery and method of making same
US2701272 *May 27, 1952Feb 1, 1955Reiner IrvingDry cell battery
US2992289 *May 10, 1957Jul 11, 1961Corson G & W HCurrent-producing cell device and method of generating current
US3904436 *Oct 11, 1973Sep 9, 1975Electrochem IncMethod and means for activating a closed battery
US4675259 *Feb 25, 1986Jun 23, 1987Halliburton CompanyEspecially interconnectible battery packages for down-hole tool in wells
U.S. Classification429/116, 429/178, 429/123
International ClassificationH01M6/32, H01M6/26
Cooperative ClassificationY02E60/12, H01M6/32, H01M6/26
European ClassificationH01M6/26, H01M6/32