US 1402136 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
aster WALLACE APPLETON' BEATTY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.
To all whom it may concern Be it known that I, WALLACE APPLETON BEATTY, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of New York city, borough of Manhattan, in the county and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Processes for the Manufacture of Catsup, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to new and useful improvements in processes for the manufacture of catsup, and T will describe the same, by way of example, as applied to the manufacture of tomato catsup. The manufacture of tomato catsup has become a large commercial industry, but so far as I am aware, the generally employed process of manufacture has been objectionable because of the difiioulty and almost impossibility of controlling the ultimate composition of.
the product, and of preventing waste of the various ingredients employed in producing the product, as well as uncertainty in uniformity of the product, due to the varying densities of different batches of the finished product. 7
So fas as I am aware, there has been one process generally used, which has been first to separate the tomato pulp to be used in the catsup from the skin and seeds of the tomato by means of a centrifugal machine, and then run this pulp into a kettle so many gallons per batch, whereupon, sugar, vinegar, spices, flavoring and catsup producing materials other than said pulp are admixed with the pulp, and the admixture cooked. The number of gallons of pulp used.
is determined by gauges on the sides of the kettle. This method has the following in herent objections: v
First. The volume of different batches of the pulp varies greatly in actual tomato catsup, owing to the fact that a large amount of air is retained in the mass, and varies in amount in diiferent batches, which air greatly increases the volume of the pulp, so that any method of using the pulp depending on volume measurements must necessarily be incorrect.
Second. The tomato solids of the pulp separated by the contrifugal machine vary very much with the tomatoes, and any process depending merely upon the volume of pulp used will introduce varying quantities of tomato solids into the finished catsup product.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Jan. 3, 1922.
Application filed January 18, 1919. Serial No. 271,903.
According to the prior process, after the pulp has been separated by a centrifugal machine, it is run into a steam jacketed kettle, the pulp belng in the same condition as when it leaves said machine the steam is air held in suspension in the mass in order to prevent the material foaming over and causing loss during the initial boiling. Usually 250 gallon kettles are used, and the evaporation or cooking is carried on with ninety pounds of steam approximately in the steam jacket. The kettles are usually filled to half of their capacity.
It is necessary in order to produce a uniform product according to the prior process, to stop the evaporation at a certain definite point, depending upon the density it is desired to obtain which will control the amount of total solids in the final product; but this is impossible because of variations of the tomato solid content of the raw pulp, because of inability to determine density during the cooking process, due to the rapidity of evaporation and consequent rapid change of the density. If, for example, our standard of total solids desired in the finished catsup is 25%, and through lack of proper control there is produced a product containing 30%, there is a loss of approximately 10% in production, which the manufacturer has to stand. It will be understood that the total amount of solids content of the product is readily ascertained method of manufacturing catsup, if the usually used processes as described above are employed.
The object of my invention is to provide a process which can be carried out with definite proportions of the ingredients, and
it is desired tohave present. in the finished pulp, and consequently in the finished catsup. The evaporation may be performed.
by any apparatus which will serve to drive off the water and liquid fromthe pulp and reduce the latter to the desired density Without injuring its quality, and I do not limit myself to any particular apparatus for this purpose.
Preferably, I produce a pulp by this evaporation step of such a gravity that no further evaporation will be necessary in order to make a pulp of the desired density and consistency, and having the desired amount oftomato solids necessary to produce a catsup with a desired amount of tomato solids in a definitevolumewithout further evaporation. A pulp of greater density, than thedesired density may be used in this process,
since by determining the amount of total solids in the pulp, it will bepossibleto make:
a pulp of the desired density byreducing the same by the addition of water; This pulp made asabove described, is then placed in a closed cooking vessel, preferably in a definite amount by weight. The amount of pulp used is dependent upon the amount of total tomato solids that have been determined as being desirable in the finished catsup product. I have found that it is desirable to have a pulp more concentrated, preferably, than the usual standard pulp which is usually of specific gravity 1.035, for' example, I may use a pulp concentrated by this evaporation step to a density of 1.05 specific gravity, if desired. The other amounts of material used by those skilled in the art of making catsup are added to the pulp, the quantities being all so adjusted that the different amounts added to the pulp after cooking in the closed vessel without evaporation, will be present in the finished product in the desired amounts to produce the flavor and consistency decided upon. The catsup producing materials added to the pulp may be vinegar, sugar, spices, vegetable and other flavor ing and seasoning ingredients. The cooking of the mixture is carried outin such a way that the temperature of the material in the closed kettle, as determined by a recording thermometer placed therein, willbe preferably approximately 212. degrees, Fahrenheit, al-
though it has been found that atemperature The density produced.
of 190 to 200 degrees Fahrenheit is advantageous. It donot limitmyself to any particular temperature other than that necessary to" produce a; satisfactory product.
The closed kettle should preferably be pro vided with a stirrer having arms shapedto the side walls so that the material will be continually removed from the sidewalls to prevent contact cooking. The vessel is preferably heated by steam. By cooking the materials in a closed vessel none of themgredients are lostby evaporation or otherwise, and I am therefore able to treat'a. mixture having a definite formula with the assurance that the finished product will have a definite condition as to consistency and as to flavor,which is of great advantage over the old method wherein a large amount of flavoring and other ingredients was lost by evaporation. My process is of such a nature that a definite density will be necessarily produced inthe final product, because owing to the process of manufacture no evaporation takes place during the cooking'step, and the process is not dependent uponthe skill of the operator to stop the evaporation at a desired point, as in the processes previously used. I am thus able to have anabsolute control over the productionfrom the time the materials enter the kettle until they leave. The time necessary to completethe process is dependent upon'the temperature used, and also upon the operator obtaining the desired'flavor, which is easily determined by anyone skilled in the art.
' What I'claim. and desire to secure by Let ers Patent of the United States is 5,-
1. A process of producing tomato catsup which consistsin firstreducing tomato 'pulp' to a definte density and of a total solids content desired in the finished catsup, and
then cooking the same with added catsup producing material while maintaining the density to which the tomato pulp is first re-' duced.
,2. A process of producing tomato catsup v tomato pulp of a total tomato solid'content desirable in the finishedcatsup, and then cookingthe same with a definite amount of added catsup producing'material under con ditions precluding loss of the ingredients by evaporation, and without substantial re duction'of the density of said pulp in order to produce a tomato catsup having a definite solid content.
4. A process for the manufacture of catsup which consists in concentrating tomato pulp free from skin and seeds by evaporation until said pulp has the density desired in the finished catsup, and contains a definite amount of tomato solids, mixing flavoring and seasoning with the concentrated pulp, and cooking the mixture under conditions preventing loss by evaporation whereby a catsup is produced of approximately the same density and solids content as the previously prepared tomato pulp.
5. A process of producing tomato catsup which consists in evaporating tomato pulp freed from skin and seeds to produce a pulp having a total tomato solids content desirable in the finished catsup, and then cooking said pulp with a definite amount of added catsup-producing material under conditions precluding loss of the ingredients by evaporation and without substantial reduction of the density of said pulp, thereby producing a catsup having a definite tomato solids content corresponding to the tomato solids con tent of said pulp.
6. A. process of producing tomato catsup which consists in freeing tomato pulp from skin and seeds, concentrating the pulp by evaporation to a predetermined density regulated by the quantity of solids desired in the finished catsup, placing a definite amount of such pulp in a closed vessel, mixing catsupproducing materials with said pulp, and cooking the mixture under conditions precluding further substantial reduction of the density of the pulp.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto signed my name in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
WALLACE APPLETON BEATTY.
ADELE S. EBERHARDT, C. G. HEYLMUN.
It is hereby certified that in Letters Patent No. 1,402,136, granted January 3, 1922, upon the application of Wallace Appleton Beatty, of New York, N. Y.,
for an improvement in Processes for the Manufacture of Catsup, errors appear in the printed specification requiring correction as follows: Page 1, line 43, for the word cat-sup read content; page 2, line 67, for the word It read I; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with these corrections therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Ofiice.
Signed and sealed this 31st day of January, A. D., 1922.
[sEAL.] WM. A. KINNAN,
Acting Commissioner of Patents.