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Publication numberUS1403069 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 10, 1922
Filing dateAug 12, 1921
Priority dateAug 12, 1921
Publication numberUS 1403069 A, US 1403069A, US-A-1403069, US1403069 A, US1403069A
InventorsBurne Edward Lancaster
Original AssigneeBurne Edward Lancaster
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Means for regulating the speed of wind motors
US 1403069 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)




4 O' I 1 Patented Jan. 10,1922.





A Yw

MEANSFOR nneu nrrNe rnnsPnnn or wrNn MOTORS.

This invention relates to automatic means for controlling the speed of windmotors.

The object of this invention is to provide means for automatically controlling the speed of windmotors in such'amanner that the speed will not be affected by varying wind conditionsv v The drawlngs filed herewith show one form of apparatus made in accordance with this invention in which':-'

Fig. l is a front elevation of one of the windniotor vanes.

Fig. 2 is an end view of the inner end of one of the vanes showing the components of the vanes 1n the normal positlon.

Fig. 3 is a similar view showing a typical position of the components during the governing action.

Fig. 4- is a similar view showing the com ponents of the vanes furled. i i

Fig. 5 is a side elevation of the apparatus showing one form of governing mechanismJ YFig. 6 is a view of an alternative govern- 111g mechanlsm.

Fig. 7 shows T11 alternative method of transmitting the motion of the vane comand e are secured to the components a and 5 or to an'extenslon carrled thereby, the

ponents to the'governing mechanism.

Fig. 18 shows yet another alternative method of. transmitting the motionof the vane components to the governing niecha- .nism. I

The windmotor may be provided with any suitable number of 'vanes,one ofwhich is shown in Fig. 1. The vane i'sdividedin the direction of its radial length into two com-' ponents, one of which I term the leading component a and the other the trailing component Z), these two components being pivoted in any suitable manner to a supporting radial arm cdisposed between them,

The leading component a is pivoted at or near the line of its back edge-and the trailing component Z) is pivoted-at or near the line of its front edge by any suitable method (such as hinges d (Z attached to the com- Specification of Letters Patent.

in the said rings.

latented Jan. 10, 1922.

Application filed August 12,1921; Serial No. 1431,8333.

ponents (Land 6 and to the supporting arm 0) in such a manner that the component parts of the vane can move in the same relationto each other as the flaps of a hinge.

Obviously the vane components might be hlnged in front of or behind the said arm instead of on either side. Instead of being supported by a radial arm as shown the components might be mounted between concentric rings bounding their inner and outer extremities and forming part of the framework of a windmotor wheel, and the vane components provided with pivots at their extremities, the pivots working in sockets Further the relative widths and the shape of the vane components may be varied; for example, the leading component might be as wide or wider than thefollowing, component and one or both components might be wider at the outer than at the inner extremity, or they might be parallel throughouttheir length.

When the vane is in a working position the twocomponents are set at suitable angles for receiving the impulse of the wind.

This position is shown in Fig. 2. i r

I I' "mpart a twist to the surface of the following component of the vaneso that the angle, with the plane of rotation, increases as the axis of the windmotor isapproached, but I prefer to make the leading component a plane surface with a uniforminclination equal to the greatest angle of the following component, i. e.;when the latter is in normal to millwrights.

Referring to Figs. 2 and 5, two links (Z other endsofsaid links'being attached to an eye bolt f, the connections being made by pin joints. The eye bolt 7 passes through the end ofan' arm 9 11116 said arm being secured toa rod h at right angles to it. This rod '72. passes axially through the hollow main shaft 7' of the windmotor.

In'applying my invention to govern the speed of windmotors, I cause the two components of the vane to fold back from the 9O -working position, upon the principles known wind to the extent required so that the angle of the leading componentofthe VLDG,W1th the plane of rotation, tends to diminish and even become a negative angle, whilst the angle, or angles if the surface is helical, of

the following component increase and tend toapproximate to a right angle to the plane components may also be furnished by an increase in load on the windmotor broughtof rotation and to take up a position more or 'less parallel tothe direction of the wind, as

is indicated in Figure 3. I arrange that the leading component may not too quickly at tain a negative angle.

In order that the angular movement of the component parts of the vane conse quently the speed regulationof the windmo tor shall be automatic I oppose the tendency of the wind pressure to fold backtlie components of the vanes by-the resistance of an adjustable spring or weight. One method of carrying out this invention is shownin Itig. 5. The rod h is provided with a rack it Which engages a pinion m mounted on' a shaft 11.. Mounted on'the shaft n is a drum 0 about which is wound a chain 79 provided with a weight g. .Insteadof the weight g a tension spring may be employed. The chain and weighttend to rotate the drum thereby causing movement of the rod h which transmits the motion to thevane components. Instead of the spring or weight operating on a chain a bell crank lever may be employed one arm of which-is adapted to coact with the spring or weight and the other arm being provided with a forked end engaging a grooved collarmounted on the rod h. I

If desired the resistance to the folding back of the vane components may be furnished by a centrifugal or other governor. One way by which this may be accomplished isshown in Fig. 6 in which the main shaft j carries a spur wheel 9" which drives a spur wheel 8 mounted on the shaft of a centrifugal governor t. A sliding collar u is mounted onfthe governor shaft provided ;with a circumferential groove. The rod it also carries a similar collar 4). An arm w forked at its; extremities coacts wlth the collars u and 'o and is pivoted at a suitable intermediate point x. Thus an increase of speed of the windmotor will cause movement of'the collar 'u/on the governor shaft which inturn will move the rod h and tend to fold back the vane components. The centrifugal govs 'ernor may be used either with or without the rack and pinion mechanism described with reference-to Itig-d The resistance toithe folding backof the about. by an increase in speed.

One way in which thlsmay be done,- assuming the windmotor tobe driving a dyname, is to mount a driving wheel on the some elastic medium such as a spring detake'place-between the driving shaft and the wheel (in fact a kind of:lag). which move- I the vanes; In this case the'eye bolts angles of the components of the vanes. Thus it will be seen that the anglesof" the vane couldbe adjusted by the load instead of by "the force of'the wind, or again by a combinationof both agencies.

' Instead of the method of transmitting the resistance ofthe spring or weight or governor to the'vane components described with reference to Figs. 5 and. 6, I may employ the alternative method shown in Fig. 7 which shows pinions 2,. 2mounted on the axial line upon which each component turns, the said pinions operating racks'3, 3 which are con nected to the rod h coacting witha spring weight or governor as above described.

In. operation if. the wind pressure exceeds in. effect that of the spring or weight it will force back the components a and I) of the vanes causing them to turn on their hinges thereby drawingback the links 62 and e and with them the eye bolt f, the arm 9 and the red It overcoming the outward thrust due to the spring orweightvWhen the wind pressurediminishes to an eifect'belowthat due to that of the-spr'ing orweight acting on the rod h, a reverse action takes place and the vane components resume their normar angles.

, Each vane in the windmotor has an arm corresponding to g, or, if preferred, a' ring may takethe place of the several arms, the

said ring being connected to the rod h by two or more spokes. g

In order that each vane may. to some extent regulate independently. Iinsert a spiral or other suitable spring 4: between the end of the eye bolt 7 and the arm (1 which allows the parts of the vane to a limited extent without movement of the vanes collectively.

. -Obviously the links 01 and 6 may, if desired, be arranged so as to be in'compression instead of in tensionand the rod, It so as to be .in tension instead of compression with the wards 1 1 I Obviously the links d anclqte might be behind the components instead of in front. This alternative. form 1 of construction is shown in Fig. 8. Instead of a rod passing through a hollow main shaft" a .collar 5, .provided with a circumferential groove 6, is slidably mounted on the main shaft of the 'main shaft of the windmotorsoas to be free to rotate thereon; the motion of the shaft is .transmitted to the driving wheel through f are .wind- .pressure to fold back the component I V V forcing back the rod 71. and affecting the connected to the collar 5 by rodsS. A bell 1 crank lever 9, pivoted at 10, is provided with a forked arm 11 engaging with the groove 6 in the 'collaro. The other arm 12 of the bell ,crank lever :is the medium by which theresistance of a weight spring or governor iS pblied. r I

lVhen it is desired to stop the windmotor the vanes may be furled by releasing the spring or weight acting on the red It and allowing them to fall back, so that their surfaces assume a position more or less parallel with the direction of the wind with their edges presented to it. I

If desired, automatic regulation may be suspended and the angles of thecvanes adjusted and fixed to suit the prevailing conditions. In vanes of large size I may divide the component portions into two or more components in the direction of their; length; each longitudinal component being independently supported by hinging to a radial arm common to all the components or by pivoting each component between concentric rings bounding their inner and outer extremities; the whole forminga complete vane; the angles of the several components of the vane being regulated, either independently or collectively substantially in the'same manner as that described for vanes of two components only.

V \Vhat I claim and desire to ters Patent is 1*- 1. In windmotors, a vane composed of two secure by Letlongitudinal components, namely a leading and a following portion, the leading portion under normal working conditlons being inclined at a salient angleto the following portion of the vane the angle varying from the tip towards the inner extremity, and means for automatically moving a portion of the vanes to a less effective position and later the leading portion into a position tending to produce backward rotation of the vanes. 7

2. In windmotors of the character claimed in claim 1, radial axes having the vanes mounted thereon both portions of which are adapted to be folded back by the action of the wind against a predetermined pressure andto be returned to their normal position.

A windmotor of the character claimed in claim 1 means for moving a portion of the vanes comprising a rod running through the'hollow, main shaft on which the vanes are mounted, members carried by said'rod, connecting links adapted to connect said members to said portion of the vanes and adjustable means acting on said rod;

at. In windmotors of the character claimed in claim 1, means for adjusting the angle of the portions of the vanes, and means for maintaining a constant speed under varying loads of the driven member.

In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4116585 *Nov 3, 1976Sep 26, 1978Mirko MaracicSelf-adjusting wind machine
US5183383 *Jan 8, 1991Feb 2, 1993Baas Hendrik AWind turbine
US7204674 *Dec 20, 2001Apr 17, 2007Aloys WobbenRotor blade for a wind power installation
US7708530Aug 28, 2007May 4, 2010Aloys WobbenRotor blade for a wind power plant
US7841831Nov 3, 2006Nov 30, 2010Franklin Y. K. ChenAsymmetrically changing rotating blade shape (ACRBS) propeller and its airplane and wind turbine applications
US7914261Aug 28, 2007Mar 29, 2011Aloys WobbenRotor blade for a wind power plant
US7946803Mar 29, 2004May 24, 2011Aloys WobbenRotor blade for a wind power system
US8100663Mar 19, 2010Jan 24, 2012Aloys WobbenRotor blade for a wind power plant
US8109733 *Dec 28, 2006Feb 7, 2012Lm Glasfiber A/SVariable speed hub
US8419362 *Aug 31, 2004Apr 16, 2013Hamilton Sundstrand CorporationFoldable blades for wind turbines
EP0438189A1 *Jan 7, 1991Jul 24, 1991Hendrik Albert BaasWind turbine
EP0450217A1 *Apr 6, 1990Oct 9, 1991Howden Wind Turbines LtdImprovements relating to control of a wind turbine
U.S. Classification416/132.00R, 416/23, 416/136
International ClassificationF03D7/02
Cooperative ClassificationF03D7/0224, F05B2260/77, Y02E10/723, F05B2260/75, F05B2260/74
European ClassificationF03D7/02D2