US 1404040 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
APPLICATION FILED IAN. 2s. I92o.
Patented Jan. 17, 1922.
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APPLICATION man 1AN.26, 1920.
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Patnted Jan. 17, 1922.
1. MADER. -REPEATING RIFLE. APPLICATION FILED JAN. 26, 1920.
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JOSEPH MADER, OF MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA. ASSIGNOR OF ONE-THIRD TO l HAROLD I-I. LUCE, OF MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA.
. REPEATING RIFLE.
Specification of Letters Patent. Patnted Jan, 17, 1922,
Application ined January 2e, 1920. serial Na'esaesfi.
To all w from t may concern.'
Be itknown that I, JOSEPH Minimi, a citizen of the United States, residing at Minneapolis, in the county of Hennepin and State of Minnesota, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Repeating Rifles; and I do hereby declare the following to be a. full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the artto which it appertains to rfhis invention relates to rifles and shot guns, or more generally stated, to guns that a:e adapted to be fired from the shoulder.
Repeating rifles and shot guns, hitherto devised,have been of three classes, to wit: the' bolt action type, the lever type and the slide action or pump type. The lever and slide action types are recognized as superior to the bolt action typein point of facility and rapidity of action, but the bolt action type is known to be superior to the other two types in point of rigidity of its locking mechanism and ability to withstand high pressure. This matter may be elucidated by the following quotation from the catalogue and rifle manual of a manufacturer .of one of the leadine high Orade bolt action rifles. and which quotation is substantially as follows: Y
life are aware vthe fact that this rifle is not a lever action, will` be a disappointment to some who do not like a bolt action rifle. However, long experience with different models of lever actionl rifles and a consideration of the principles involved, have satisfied us that it is absolutely impossible to produce a lever action rie ha 7ing the necessary rigidity of locking mechanism to successfully handle high power cartridges and vet operate freely. These high power cartridges call most emphatically for the rigid locking system of the bolt action rifle. During' the past three years, our experiments with the best types of lever action and slide action rifles to be had on the market demonstrated the fact tha, while they .Cliot well., there is so much spring in the' locking mechanism that itis impracticable to use reloaded cartridges, as this spring permits the shell to stretch Vunduly and to lit too closely, or not to be capable of rfc-insertion when atteinit is made to use them again. llVe appreciate that the lever action is quicker in operation than the bolt action, and also thaty it is'very diflicult for the left handed shooter to use a bolt action. Therefore, it is with regret that we are forced to the conclusion that lany rifle which handles modern high power ammunition must'be ofthe bolt action type.
Generally stated, my invention has for its object to combine, in a rifle or shotgun, all of the good features of the bolt action type with all of the desirable features of the slide action or lever action type.
For convenience of expressiomin the following description Of my improved gun and in the claims, I shall use the word rifle in a generic sense, intending thereby to include any gun adapted to be fired from'tlie shoulder, or to be manually operated.
My invention is directed, particularly, to the improvement of the breech bolt mecha-` nism and to means whereby, by the movement of `a handle, the breech bolt can be operated. The operating handle is an element distinct from the breech bolt, has a movement that differs from that of a breech bolt, and may be either a sliding handle or lever. The operating handle, however, is lpreferably a sliding' member, because it is better adapted to function for the purpose stated, and certain of the minor but important features of the linvention are directed to comi biiiations between the breech bolt mechanism and the slide action handle device.
The breech bolt is mounted to slide to and from a'breech closing position1 is arranged to be interlocked, when in a breech-closing position, with the barrel receiverkand to be unlocked therefrom, by rotation on its a'Xisl;l
and connections or devices are provided, whereby sliding, or other movements of the handle,'will automatically produce the above noted movements of the breech 'bolt without requiring the breech bolt, or any part thereof, to be engaged manually.
My improved 'rifle` therefore, has all ofthe advantages, or good features of the bolt action rifle, and all of the advantages and good features of a slide action or lever action rifle.
In fact, the slide action employed in the pre-v or pump action rifle, and the .breech-bolt,
which is automatically operated thereby, will be directly and rigidly locked to the barrel receiver when in position yto close the breech, so that the breech bolt in my improved gun is as well adapted to withstand the explosiion of high power shells, as is the breech bolt of the best type of bolt action rifle. Moreover, in the preferred construction of the breech action mechanism, I provide improved features which make the breech bolt better adapted to withstand high pressure explosion, than are the breech bolts of any of the bolt action rifles known to me.
In addition to the novel features above generally described, my invention also involves certain other highly important novel features as will hereinafter be disclosed in the following detailed description and defined in the claims.
In the accompanying drawings, which illustrate the invention, like characters indicate like parts throughoutthe several views.
Referring to the drawings Fig. 1 shows the improved riile in side elevation;
Fig. 2 shows the gun in vertical axial section on a much larger scale than in Fig. 1, some parts being broken away, and some parts being in full, and with the breech bolt in a breech-closing position;
Fig. 3 shows the same parts that are illustrated in Fig. 2, but with the breech bolt retracted and with only the barrel and barrel receiver in vertical axial section, the other parts being in full side elevation;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary view chiefly in vertical section on the line 4--4 of Fig. 5, but with some parts in full and with the breech bolt removed;
Fig. 5 is a horizontal section on the line 5--5 of Fig. 2, some parts being in full;
Fig. 6 is a transverse section on the line y 6-6 of Fig. 5;
Fig. k7 is a transverse section on the line 7-7 of Fig. 5; and
.Fig 8 is a perspective view of the magazine.
Of the chief elements of the rifle, the numeral 9 indicates the barrel, the numeral 10,
the barrel receiver, the numeral 11`the stock, the numeral 12 the stock frame which connects the stock and receiver in a manner hereinafter described, being provided with the customary trigger guard 12a and shanks 12b, which latter, as shown, are detachably secured to the stock by a machine screw 13. The barrel 9, at its rear end, is shown as detachably connected to the front end of the receiver 10 by threaded engagement at 14, and at its rear end, the said barrel is provided with the customary shell chamberl, best shown in Figs. 3 and 4, a shell y being shown in position therein in Figs. 2 and 5.
The frame 12 is made to fit the underside of the receiver 10 and to provide a rigid but detachable connection between the two, said receiver is provided at its rear end with a stud or projection 16 (see Fig. 2)that fits a seat in a rigid cross web 17 of said frame. The numeral 18 indicates a machine screw which is passed through a forwardly projected portion 12c of the frame 12 and Vthrough a filler block 19, and is screwed into the sear notches 22 and 23, respectively, to
hold the hammer at half cook or whole cock. The hammer 2O and trigger 24 are subject, respectively, to the customary main spring 25 and trigger spring 26, both of which are suitably anchored to the shank of the frame 12 and operate in well known manner.
As this rifle is intended to employ a clip magazine, the receiver 10, at its underside, and the frame 12 are cut away to afford a passage adapted to receive the upper portion of a clip magazine 27. .This clip magazine, except for a novel arrangement of throat flanges, may be considered as of the usual or standard construction adapted to be detachably held in its seat in position for delivery of the shell y into the receiver, by means of the customary spring latch 28 (see Fig. 2)
' applied to the frame 12 and engageable with` the notch 2"a (see Figs. 2 and 8), provided in the back of said magazine. The shells in the magazine are yieldingly pressed upward by a manifold spring 29.
As a novel feature, the magazine 27, Vat its top or throat, is provided with stop flanges 30, guide flanges 31 and skid flanges 32, the exact purpose and relative arrangement of which will be noted later on.
The breech bolt 33 is of cylindrical construction and closely fits, and is adapted to rotate and slide in, the axial bore of the receiver 10, and, of course, is axially aligned with the shell chamber 15 of the barrel, so that when forced to its most forward position, it will engage the base of the shell and close the breech of the barrel.
The firing pin 34 is extended axiall through and movable axially in the breec 1 bolt 33, is spring retracted by a coiled spring 35 set into the bolt, and the rear end of said firing pin projects in position to be engaged by the hammer 20. Near its rear end, but within the bolt, the firing pin`34 is turned down or reduced to afford stop shoulders 36 and 37 that are engageable with the inner end of a. stop screw38 (see Fig. shown as screwed through one side of the bolt. The shoulders 36 and 37, respectively, limit the forward and rearward movements of the tiring pin in respect to the bolt.
As already stated,vthe'breech bolt is adapted to be locked to the receiver byrotation when in a breech-closing position. From a broad point of view, this may be accomplished in dierent ways, but an exceedingly rigid and highly eicient locking action is obtained by providing the breech bolt, preferably near its rear end, with interrupted threads 39 that are engageable with correspondingly formed, but internalinterrupted threads 40 on the rear portion of the receiver l0. The arrangement, of course, is such that when the threads 39 are turned out of alignment with the threads 40, said breech bolt may be then freely slid or moved axially to and from breech loading position.
To hold the breech bolt against rotation but free for sliding movements with Vits interrupted threads 39 alignedfwith the channelsbetween the interrupted threads 40, said breech bolt is provided with combined guide and stop lug 41 (see Figs. 2 3 and 6), that works in a longitudinal guide channel 42 formed in the receiver l0 (see Figs. 4, 5, 6 and 7) and to permit rotation of the breech bolt in its most forward or breech closing position, said guide chamiel 42 is formed with a spiral lateral extension 43, (again note particularly Fig. 4).
The slide action handle 44 is mounted to slide on an action slide guide 45, preferably, and as shown, in the form of a metal tube telescoped at its front end onto the stud 46 of a lug 47 on theunderside of the barrel and telescoped at its rear end onto a tubular projection of the filler block 19,`so that it is rigidly held, and the action slide handle 44, free to slide thereon below and parallel to the axis of the barrel, for action, so far as it, itself, is concerned, like that of an ordinary slide action or pump rifle.
For imparting the already noted sliding and rotary movement to the breech bolt, automatically, under sliding movements of the p handle 44, the latter is provided with an action slide bar 48 that extends rearward parallel to the axis of the barrel and is provided with a head 49. The said head 49 and the bar 4S slide freely in the above noted guide channel 42 in the receiver l0, and the said head 49 is provided with a pin or projection 5() (see Figs. 5.andf7) that engages with,` and has a cam action on, a spiral cam groove 5l formed in the breech bolt 33. The cam groove 5l extends spirally far enough to produce ninety degrees of rotation of the breech bolt when the latter is at its breech closing position, and the handle 44 and bar 45 have longitudinal movement in excess of the longitudinal extent of the cam groove 51 suiicient to carry the breech bolt from its breech closing position shown in Fig. 2 into its most retracted position shown in Fig. 3, and vice versa.
On the rear end of the breech bolt, offset from its axis, is a safety `device in the form' of a hammer stop lug 52 which, when the breech bolt is in its breech closing position and rotated so as to produce the inal closing of the breech, as shown in Fig. 2, is turned out of the path of movement of the hammerfso that it does not interfere with the firing action, but which, in all other positions of the breech bolt, stands in the path of movement of the hammer, so that it will prevent the hammer from striking the firing pin. It is further important to note that this lug 52 (see Fig. 3) has a radial projection slightly beyond the cylindrical surface of the breech bolt, so that under rearward movement yof the breech bolt, this lug, alone, engages the hammer and cocks the same without permitting the hammer at any time to come into engagement with the cylindrical surface ofthe breech bolt. This not only prevents unnecessary wear on the breech bolt b-ut leaves the breech bolt free for sliding movement, uninterfered with by friction from the hammer. v v
The shell extractor is in the form o'f a long finger-like leaf spring 53 set into a longitudinal channel cut in the bolt 33 and anchored thereto by a pin 53a. The front end of this extraction spring 53 .is free for inward and outward radial movements, but never moves beyond the peripheral cylindrical surface of the bolt. At its extreme front end, the extractor spring 53 has Va beveled hook-acting lug 54 which, at the extreme forward movement of the bolt, cams itself into engagement with the extractor channel i/l ofthe shell y. The barrel 9, at its rear end, is forme-d with a segmental notch 55 (see Figs. 3, 4 and 5) that extends through slightly more than ninety degrees to afford clearance for the hook end 54 olf the `extractor spring under rotation of the bolt.
To permit the ej ecting of the empty shells, thebarrel receiver l() is provided at one side, as shown, at its right hand side, with a large shell passage 56 (See Figs. 3 andV 5); and here it will be noted that the action slide bar 48 and co-operating parts are at. the left hand side of the rifle. The'numeral 57 indicates a small ejector plunger mounted in the front end df the breech bolt 33, as shown, in line with the stop lug 41 (see Figs. 2 and 3). This ejector plunger is forwardly spring pressed by a coiled spring 58 set into the bolt 33, and the movementsof said ejector plunger are limitedby a stop screw 59 shown as screwed through the lug 41 and working in a groove in said plunger. Y
After a shell has been firedl and when, by
rearward movement of the slide action handle 44, the breech bolt 33 has been roated so as to align its threads 39 with the channels between the threads 40, extractor spring 53 will be at the right hand side of the rifle aligned with the shelljpassage 56, while the ejector plunger 57 will be at the left hand side, but its spring will still be compressed. Then when the lock boltis given its' further rearward movement without rotation from the position just noted, the shell will be first drawn out off the barrel, and when the shell clears the barrel andthe receiver and comes into full alignment with the shell passage, 56, the ejector spring will act yas a base of reaction or fulcrum for the shell at the rightl hand side, while the sprinf presse-d plunger 57, then being released, will kick, or quickly thrust the shell at its left hand side and eject or shoot the same through the shell passage 56. l
After the empty shell has been ejected and the breech bolt has been moved rearward of the uppermost shell in the magazine, the spring 29 raises the column o'f shells and engages the uppermost shell with the stop flanges 30 in the throat of the magazine 27. lVhen the shell is thus stopped it will be in clined slightly upward towardits 'front end and its bullet will be above the skid flanges 32. Of course, the skid flanges 32 are spaced so as to permit the bullets to pass freely between the same, and the guide flanges 31- are spaced far enough to permit the shells to pass upward between the same, sov that Vthe uppermost shell will be stopped in its upward movement and positioned by the stop flanges 30, which latter are not spaced far enough apart to permit the shell to pass vertically upward between the same. lVhen a shell is thus stopped and held by the flanges 30, its bullet will be free from engagement with all parts of the magazine and of the gun, but will be pointed axially toward the shell chamber 15. Then, under forward movement of the breech bolt, the uppermost shell will be engaged thereby and forced forward onto the skid flanges 32, and thereby guideduntil the front end of the shell has well entered into the shell chamber 15, and then, as the rear end of the shell passes forward of the stop flanges 30, pressure from the spring 29 will force the same on further upward into complete alignment with the breech bolt and shell chamber, so that the shell will be entered into the chamber without causing its bullet to be scraped or engaged with any of the metal parts of the gun.Y This, of course, prevents scratching or defacing of the bullet.
In'Fig. 5, the numeral 60 indicates a gas vent in one side of the receiver, vand in Figs. 1, 5 and 6, the numeral 6l indicates a slide in the left hand side o'f the receiver and which, when removed, permits the headed end of the bar 48 to'be removed from guide channel 42, and thus disconnected from the receiver.
Summary of operation.
The actions of the various parts of the rifle have already been described, but the following general summary of the complete action will give a better understanding of the general order, or cycle of operation.
Asa starting point, assume that the gun has been fired and that the parts are in the position shown'in Fig. 2. Assume now that the handle action slide 44 Vis moved from its forward position shown in Fig. 1, back against the filler block 19, which latter acts as a rear stop therefor. The first part of this movement causes the cam pin 50 of bar head 49 to rotate the breech bolt 33 to a position where it is, as already described, free for sliding movement, and then, further rearward movement of said handle moves the breech bolt without rotation, further rearward,''causing the empty shell to be ejected and causing the lug 52 to cock the hammer, and, moreover, permits the uppermost. ,shell in the magazine to move' up slightly in front'of the retracted breech bolt. 1
NeXt,'the handle 44 is moved forward, or back-to its position shown in Fig. 1, and under this movement, the breech bolt is slid forward, without rotation, to its breech closing position, and is then rotated,` so-as to engage its threads'39 with the threads 40. and to carry the stop lug 41 into the spiral channel 43. In fact, said lug 41, by engagement with the front Wall of the channel`43, positivelystops the forward movement of the breech bolt until it is given rotation to engage the threads 39 and 40, and when these threads are engaged, by rotation of the bolt, the front end of the bolt is tightly forced'against the base of the shell and the shell is tightly pressed into its tapered chamber 15, so that it cannotpossibly be expanded bythe force of the explosion. Obviously, the Abreech bolt locked, as described, will be absolutely rigid and willnot yield under the force of any explosion less than that required to blow up the gun. No manually operated or directly operated breech bolt can be more securely or rigidly locked than the bolt of this gun. 'Moreoveig no slide action or lever action rifle can be more easily or more rapidly operated than this gun. The gun, therefore, as indicated, combines all of the good features of bolt action, slide action and lever action rifles or guns.
This improved rifle or gun is not limited to use in connection with a clip magazine, but, in fact, is well adapted for use in connection with tubular magazines, rotary magazines, or, in fact, any suitable shell supplying means.
IVhat I claim is:
l. In a rifle, the combination with a barrel stockand barrel receiver, of a one-:piece breech bolt of uniform diameter slidably and rotatably mounted in said receiver, locking means on the rear of said bolt adapted for slidable and rotatable co-operation with similar loc-king means on said receiver, a guiding channel in said receiver having a spiral slot in its forward end, a guiding lug on said bolt arranged to tra-vel therein, a reciprocable handle, a slide carried thereby, a cam lug on said slide, said bo-lt having a slot co-operating with said lug, and a lug on the rear end of said bolt adapted to operate the hammer of the rifle when said bolt is reciprocated.
2. In a rifle, the combination With a barrel, stock, barrel receiver, hammer and trigger mechanism, of a breech bolt slidable in said receiver and having interlocking engagement therewith by rotation when in a breech closing position, said bolt, at its rear end, having a stop lug which is out of the path of movement of said hammer when said breech bolt is in position for irino', but which is in the path ofy movement of said hammer when said bolt is rotated or lslid from the said position for firing, havend, eccentric to its axis, having a rearwardly and radially ,projecting lug that is enga-geable With the hammer to cock the same under rearward movements of said bolt and having a. safety lug Which is between the hammer and firing pin, except when the bolt is in firing position. Y
In a rifle, a breech bolt of substantially uniform diameter throughout having on its rear end ai locking means comprising buttressed threads interrupted to form rows, a lug carried thereby formingi a guiding means, a spiral groove therein forming a rotating means, a shell extractor, a shell ejector and a firing pin carried by said bolt, said bolt also having on its rear end a combined hammer operating lug and a safety lug.
5. In a. rifle, the combination With the barrel stock and barrel receiver, of a one-piece breech bolt of uniform dia-meter slidably and rotatably mounted in said receiver, locking means on the rear end o-f said bolt adapted for slidable and rotatable co-operation With similar' locking means on said receiver, a guiding channel in said receiver having a spiral groove in its forward end, means on said bolt arranged to travel therein, a reciprocable handle, a slide carried thereby, means on said slide 'co-operating with the said groove in said bolt and means on the rear end of said bolt adapted to operate the hammer of the riie When said bolt is reciprocated.
In testimony whereof I affix my signature in lpresence of tWo Witnesses.
JOSEPH MADER. Witnesses:
I-IARRY D. KILGo-Rn, F. D. MERCHANT.