|Publication number||US1407293 A|
|Publication date||Feb 21, 1922|
|Filing date||Dec 13, 1915|
|Priority date||Dec 13, 1915|
|Publication number||US 1407293 A, US 1407293A, US-A-1407293, US1407293 A, US1407293A|
|Inventors||Samuel D Mott|
|Original Assignee||Arthur B Sullivan|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (4), Classifications (12)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
S. D. MOTT'.
APPLpcATloN mw Dx-:c.13,1915.
Patented Feb. 21, 1922.
2 SHEETS-SHEET l.
um! ,fill/ll WITNESSES s. D. MOU. AEROPL'ANE,
APPLuATION FILED DECA I3. 1915.
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, W/TNEYSES QLa/A nom/Elfi L UNITED' STATES PATENT. omer..
SAMUEL n. Mom, or Passaic, NEW JERSEY, AssIeNon or ONE-HALE :io-ARTHUR E.
SULLIVAN, or ALLENDALE, NEW JERSEY.
Specification of Letters .Patent ratemeavneb. 21, 1922.
Application ledDecember 13, 1915. Serial No. 66,466. i
To all whom t'may concern:
' Be it known thatl I, SAMUEL D. MOTT, a citizen of the United States, resident of and whose post-oliice address is 130 Autumn Street, in the city of Passaic, county of Passaic, and State of New Jersey, -have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Aeroplanes, of which the following is a description, lreference being had to the drawings, forming a part hereof.
My invention relatesto aeroplanes, and more particularly to features of construction which, in some respects, are radical and intended to .meet conditions which the constantly more Aextended use of the same will present.V As, for example, the practical operation of aeroplanes is rapidly reaching a.
' point when flying in extreme altitudes will Ybe undertaken and eventually become usual.
For extreme altitude operations, various factorsx enter into consideration which in the early stage of the commercial art have been immaterial or negligible. High altitudes may involve a rapid rise and rapid fall, which means a rapid change of atmospheric presure. With the change of atmospheric pressure or rarication of the air, the resistanceA to the propeller chan es.
The varying pressure in turn has its e ect upon the motor.
The long heralded and much discussed extreme voyaging in aeroplanes, includes, preferably, the .factor of negotiating high altitudes Where niost advantageous atmospheric lconditions are available, rand as this in turn involves the contemplated advantage-of reduced -air resistance, therebyV greatly increasing speeds of aeroplanes and by the material increase in speed, itis generally conceded that the long journeys, such as inter-continental, will' eventually be ac complished." By the increased speed the time of'long voyages is reduced in inverse ratio, and with the reduction in time for a given trip the risk and hazard are proportionately reduced. v
To preserve normal working capacity of the operator under such trying conditions, is one object of my invention; while various other objects will be apparent from ai thorough appreciation of my invention, there may be mentioned the means of increasing the speed in spite of the reduced propeller blade resistance at increased altitudes, and a general combination of construction as a Whole to meet the conditions which can now be 1n a measure foreseen, and which will be realized as problems to be commerciallysolved as soon as the rapid advance in the art makes possible practicalA attempts.
As a particular embodiment of my invention serving to more fully set forth the same, I will herein specifically describe and show the essential parts in an aeroplane in the accompanying drawings, in' which:
F 1g. I is a plan view of a section of the front portion of the fuselagev of an aeroplane with engine and propeller.y
Fig. IIfis a section atfIL-II, Fig. I.
` Fig. III is a perspective of the propeller pitch control sleeve.
Fig. IV is a vertical section ofthe front' Fig. VIII is an end view of the motor at -section VIII-VIII.
My invention is intended to meet the problems presented by the conditions above indicated.` While men could not live, nor
engines operate under water Without protection and without constructions 'and-arrangements which havemade the present submarines possible, the basis of my invention will lay the foundation for the construction of aeroplanes in which men can v live and operate without inconvenience, and
engines and other apparatus can suitably operate at high altitudesy and under thesevere con'ditions imposed by the rapid development in the use of lyin machines.
I provide an enclosure in t e fuselage, orV
have the fuselage completel enclosed, to be airtight, and bymeans o regulated air supply, provide a substantially nornal densityof air to be maintained at all levels. Internal pressure of the air surrounding the aviators may bel automatically kept at constant pressure from the sea level to the highest` obtainable altitudes, with ventilation andV maintenance of accustomed temperature. This may involve the use of compressed air or oxygen, for emergency or otherwise. 'The engine or such parts as rer' Vable to use separate means for air supply for the occupants and the engine.
While the exhaust would be in the rariied medium, proportioned to the altitude of flight, the difference of pressure at the carburetor and air resistance to the exhaust will involve increased eliciency of the engine and may involve changes in dimensionswith the development of motors, for the particular purpose.
Various other features will coordinate the r main factors changed to meet the extreme conditions in the vproblem involved, which in part will be referred to hereafter. Among these may be mentioned the use of a keel to nullify the gyroscopic effect or tendency Y for the reaction on the. fuselage which may be accentuated by giving the keel an adjustable or variable position.
ln'the drawings, the fuselage 1, shown in part in Fig. l, in horizontal section on the axis of the motor shaft, has anA engine 2 located in frot, partitions 3; abutting. a'
bulkhead 1l, with seats 5 and 6, the rear of the fuselage shown broken away, being en-I closed to leave any desired space for operators or passengers. rllhe hatch 7 may be 1n any suitable place for-convenience for ingress and egress, and secured in a -manner and by means proper to meet the conditions of pressureinvolved. lhe bow 8 of the fuselage, shown in the particular form as containing and housing the engine, is separated from the occupants compartment by the bulk-head 4c, which is cutaway, or has openings at 9, to permit passage of air and exhaust from .the engine compartment rearward. The exhaust is deflected by the partitlons 3-3, vand is passed out of the sides through suitable openings in the skin or shell ofthe fuselage, at 10, as indicated by the arrows. A suitable airtight or semi-alrltight joint 11, would serve to prevent leakage of air through the shaft opening in the bulkhead, so that the loss of air from the closed chamber would be only through the carburetor and into the engine, unless the a ir for the'carburetor is drawn from the outside by carrying the supply pipe to 'a suitable position, or by having a separate air pump for the engine supply, in which casethe occu-l pants compartment would have air regulation to 'suit their requirements, andthe requirements for leakage or otherwise. ll may embodv a lcl l2, which may be formed in Monaca in the projections 14, with a bevel pinion 15,
vwhile the bevel pinions of all the cylinders engage with the stationary bevel gear 16, as shown in Figs. lV and VIH. lin this arrangement the stationary gear 16, affords a reaction for the bevel pinions on the cylinders, thereby turning the cylinders .around the axis ofthe main shaft, to which shaft they are attached by framing'17-18, thereby driving the shaft by the reaction of the pinions on the stationary bevel gear. The form of engine shown, and its internal construe tion, is more particularly described in my application for Letters 63,710, filed Novemberv 27, 1915,-but any suitable engine, may be used to meet the conditions of space that may be involved in any particular aeroplane.. A
rlhe engine, as shown in Fig. l, has the cylinders supported by brackets or framing 19-20, holding the cylinders 13, stationary, and'in this arrangement the reaction bevel gear 21, is mounted on the drive shaft which turns in suitable bearings, thereby driving the propeller shaft by the bevel gear.
'llhe drive shaft in either case is hollow, and. has openings 22 to permit the explosion mixture to pass into the supply manifold v23, or,'as sho-wn in Fig. FV, to pass directly into the respective cylinder inlet ports. rllhe mixture passes from the carburetor, not
tionary, and by suitable airtight' joints afatent, Serial No.`
fords the proper connection to the hollow shaft or the port passage through the shaft. Any suitable means ofengine regulation may be used, as well as various other details.
The exhaust from the cylinders, in the conj struction shown in Fig. l, is at 25,*while in the arrangement shown in Fig. llV, when the cylinders revolve, the exhaust may be located only on the outer'semi-circle of the cylinders, sincethe exhaust is aided by the centrifugal force. The exhaust emitted iiitol the engine chamber will, by the action of the air currents, be carried through the openings 9, in the bulk-head 4, and through openingsv 10 in the skin or shell, will pass away. The relation of parts owing to variation in dimensions, may obviously be such that the exhaust will be carried out in a varying manj ner, the proximity of the bulk-head, or the presence of several bulk-heads being a matter of individual design, when the particular requirements of any proposed construction are met.
A compressed air or oxygen cylinder 26 may be located in the keel, or any other suitable place as shown in Fig. IV, and has a controlling valve comprising the connecting pipe 28 and the valve 27, and the automatic valve 29, attached to the diaphragm 30, which diaphragm is actuated by changev of the relative pressures in the compartment and the outside air, one side of the diaphragm being open to the one pressure, and a p-ipe 3l communicating to the other side of the diaphragm the pressure of the other medium.
When flying at those altitudes at which it is desired that the device should act to maintain the normal pressure in the compartment, the diaphragm will -be subjected, upon the inside, to the normal pressure communicated from the-compartment and,` on the outside, to a lesser pressure owing to vthe rarefication of the atmosphere depending to a greater or less degree upon the altitude of the machine and owing to the superior forcev actingupon the inside the diaphragm .will be held tense or biased and in positlon to allow the valve. to maintainv itself in closed position. As will be obvious, the superior force upon the interior of the diaphragm will be supplemented to some extent by the backing spring Ashown acting upon the valve stem and capable of adjustment as to its force by the adjusting screw workin inthe rear end of the barrel car-- rying t e spring. i.
Upon decrease .of the normal pressure within the compartment due to leakage or otherwise, it is obvious that the lessening of the pressure against the inside of the diaphragm will result in the movement of the same in a direction toshift the valve so asv to open the same and allow airunder pressure to bersupplied to the compartment until the normal pressure is attained. When this has been reached the4 diaphragm will be again moved to cause to flex in a direction opposed to the external pressure upon it and so that the valve may move back to the position shown under the influence of the backy ing spring or otherwise and the supply of air to the compartment'will be cut ol".
It is obvious that the movement of the diaphragm in a direction to open the valve A when the machine is flying at increased or very high altitudes Where the rariication of the atmo-sphere is greater. Hence a greater fall of normal pressure within the compartment might be 'required before the4 Valve will open. The adjusting screw acting upon and compressing the spring affords an ad- Y justment of the acti/on for this change since,
ing of the pressure on the exterior of the,
diaphragm will be compensated.
As Shown in Fig. VI, an air pump 32, driven by suitable connection 33, from the engine shaft, or by an independent engine, pumps air through the valve 34 ,into the pipe 35 leading tothe closed compartment, the passage of air being made possible when the diaphragm 30 moves upward a prede termined amount, due to reduction in pressure on the upperside of the diaphragm which is open through the passage 36 to the closed chamber. yWhen 1n the lposition shown in Fig. the air supply to the closed chamber is cut off and the pump or `an 32 pumps through the passage 37, and
the by-pass valve 38, and pipe 39, back into the atmosphere outside the shell. Valve 40 serves to voluntarily close the by-pass pipe.
The driving meansof the aeroplane is the propeller, the blades 41 of which are rotated by the shaft 42, supported in the bearings 43-'44, and driven by the motor 2.
The propellersho'wn is a variable pitch propeller, and in E ig. I it is illustrated with the blades in a position of maximum pitch,
'with dotted lines to show the minimum pitch position, while inA Fig. IV the blades are shown in a position of intermediate pitch.
While the propeller is of variable pitch, the
variation in pitch may be changedwhile the aeroplane `is in flight, `by means of gradual change entirely 'accessible and capable of' operation by the operator while controlling the aeroplane. This is accomplished in the particular form shown, by having the blades of the propeller supported by one edge, part way outfrom the hub to the' tip, by Wheel structure 45, the rim of which is secured to the edge of the propeller by a hinge or other suitable joint, and the hub of which is ailixed to or 'integral with the shaft f42. The other edge of the ypropeller blades is attached to another wheel structur 46, having a hub 47 which is slidable on the shaft from the po,- sition shownin Fig. I, to the dotted position there shown, and when slid or moved longitudinally on the shaft itis also rotated slightly so that the hinged connection between its'rim and the edge of the propeller blade 41, moves the edge of the blade slightly rotarily and longitudinally, to change the inclination of the blades with respect to the axis of the shaft,- or, .in other words,pto change the pitch of the propeller. 'lhe particular means of effecting such change of pitch is more particularly vdescribed in my separate application Serial No. 63,710 filed November 27, 1915, and therein claimed.
'llhe combination of a variable pitch propeller adjustable during flight, is so linterrelatedl with`other` features of the invention herein described, that the combination of the correlating or cooperating functions effected by the combination of such propeller .with the other elements, will be herein claimed.
The method of operating the change of pitch by movement of the hub 47 involves the sliding of the hub by means of lugs 48, with'helical feathers 49, on a shaft bolt 50,
` moved by the adjusting rod 51, actuated by lthe lever 52, with suitable fixed fulcrum and collar engaging the end of the rod 51, while the handle of the lever is held in any desired j position of adjustment by means of the secswivels or joints connecting the edge of the tor 52a and the pawl 53, symbolically shown, or any other suitable means of lever locking. While the shaftl' passes through the hollow centre of the driving shaft 42, which forms a passage for the explosive mixture, a collar and airtight joint 54, are provided as a stop'for the gases, while still permitting, by a. suitable joint, the -reciprocation of the rod 51. j
rllhe form of variable pitch pro eller and adjusting'means rshown, 1s, genera ly speaking, the saine as that covered by the separate application above cited, except that in the other application two hubs of the blade supporting wheels are shiftable, whereas in this application one of said hubs is rigidly. attaohed to the shaft, and the other hub and blade supporting wheel 46 is shiftable alone, thereby simplifying the construction and adjusting means. 'llhe blades 41 in the present case, are attached at their hub into a hub on the drive shaft substantially. in the same transverse plane as that passing through the propeller blades with the rim of thefixed suporting wheel. j
j y providing the main rotative ,supports for the blades some distance away from the shaft or midway between the hub and blade tips, so that the necessary blade strength to transmit the driving torque is away from the hub, it is possible to cut away the inner end of the propellers, as shown at 55, and likewise minimize the-size or diameter of the shaft and hub parts, so that air will flow past the propeller immediately around the shaft, thereby admittingair to the enginel space through the openings 56, for purposes of cooling the engine andlto form a -current to carry off the exhaust infanadvantageous manner. Such arrangement of blades likewise ermits the elimination of a bulk of material at the hub where its linear rotary velocity is ineffective for propelling purposes, and, on the other hand, atords a vstrong rotary support at a point approaching the centre of resistance of the propeller blade, and in any event at a radius far greater than'can be made eective by any support in the nature of an ordinary hub,
or, in other words, a hub now usual in practice.
While describing a particular embodiment of construction and combination, the nature of my invention is of such a character that a wide variation and numerous changes and modifications may 'be made, and would of necessity be made in designing different sizes of aeroplanes and .aeroplanes intended to be of maximum/efficiency under specic con-` ditions of use.
The completely closed'space while forming a protection for operators or passengers, will, of course,- have suitable windows, and may have trap doors for purposes of manip.- ulation and operations which might be found essential in flight. 1n larger sizes, 4such as--aeroplanes of j great horse-power which arethis day' contemplated, separate space for engines and engine tenders would require the complete enclosing of the engine, or all such parts as require attention by the engineer, asv inspection of bearings, adjust-` ments of parts, while in operation and constant watching. Furthermore, the complete enclosing is desirable where oiling opera-v tions have bearings or other parts that will be -influenced by variation in air pressure.
With the contemplated development of aviation, the rising to heretofore unnegotiated altitudes will involve material reduction in air resistance permitting proportionately increased speed, provided the propelling power can be made effective. .To make the propelling power effective involves the fact that with the rarer medium at high altitudes, the resistance of the air for reaction of the propeller blades wouldbe reduced,
and to offset this the pitch of the propeller blades will, with the same engine speed or propeller shaft speed, proportionately increase the driving eort of the propeller.
flight, and accordingly permit high increasel in speed, and as wellthe increased speed,
with the same engine power by making the power of the engine moreeffective in the rarer medium, where the resistance to the aeroplane is proportionately reduced.
llt is unnecessary in the drawingsshowing `a particular embodiment, to illustrate the planes or wings, as; these may be of great variety, and in design, form and extent will conform to proven practice, and conditions that may lhereafter develop. On the other l elements of gyroscopic effect, as well vas other objections, so that thought along such lines has indicated a lack of possibility for the solution of high altitude Hight. j
The gyroscopic effect, however, may be involved to some`\degree in the extreme devely opment of the aircraft for which, my invention is applicable, and a keel formed on the bottom of the fuselage may be used to offset this action, while other means of compensation can likewise be applied.
vVarious modifications and developments in detail will be made in the future embodiment of my invention, without departing from -the spirit of the 'invention hereinVV claimed. y The shape of the fuselage, as illustrated in this embodiment, is in section of stream line or fish-shape, with an engine and engine mounting permitting the same, which has its advantages compared with the shapes heretofore used in` some casesof. which the advantage of shape is offset by arrangement of motor or a large bow resistance due to bulky construction of propeller centre o1' engine attachment, or in many other ways.
Without limiting myself to the particular embodiment lherein shown and described, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: I
l. An aeroplane adapted for flying in high `altitudes having an air-tight enclosed space for the aviator, a diaphragm exposed on the one side to .the air pressure in said enclosedl space and on the other or external side to the pressure of Athe surroundin atmosphere, means controlled by said diaphragm for maintaining constant pressure-of air within said space and manual means for adjusting the action of the diaphragm to compensate for changes of altitude and pressure on the external face thereof. f
2. An aeroplane adapted for flying at high .altitudes having an air-tight enclosed space for the aviator, a valve controlling the admisslon of air to said space, a diaphragm subjected to the opposing pressures of the air within the space and the surrounding atf maintaining a constant mosphere and a spring acting on said diaphragm and manually adjustable to compensate for variations in the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere with changes of elevation.
3. An aeroplane adapted for flying in high altitudes having an air-tight enclosed space of a size suicient to house and permit freedom of movement of the aviator and containing the controlling mechanism for the aeroplane, a valve controlling the admission of air from the exterior to the enclosed space, a diaphragm'subjected to the opposing actions of the air within the space and the surrounding atmosphere for controlling the action ofthe valve and means for adjusting the action of the diaphragm to compensate for changes of altitude and pressure on the exposed outer face ofthe diaphragm..
4. .An aeroplane adapted for .fflying in highaltitudes having v an air-tight enclosed space for the aviator and for the engine controlling means, an engine forward of said space and separated therefrom by an airtight Wall, a hollow engine shaft communicating with the enclosed space .and means for supplying a combustible mixture to the engine through said hollow shaft.
5. An aeroplane adapted for flying in high altitudes having an air-tight enclosed space for housing the aviator and containing the controlling mechanism for the aeroplane and the carburetor of the engine while the eX- haust and moving parts of the engine are exterior to said enclosed space and exposed to the atmosphere and a valve controlling the passage of air to said enclosed space for plressure therein, a t e action of said diaphragm controlling 'valve exposed on the one side to the internal pressure of said space and on the other to the action of the surrounding atmosphere j and means for regulating the operation of the diaphragm for changes of altitude and pressure upon the outside thereof.
6. In an aeroplane adapted for flying in high altitudes, an air-tight enclosed space for the aviator, an engine forward of said space and mounted upona hollow shaft, a varia-ble pitch propeller having an axis of rotation coincident with that of the engine and means passing through saidhollow shaft and controllable inthe v(enclosed space for adjusting the pitch of the propeller.
7. In an aeroplane adapted for flying in hlgh altitudes, an air-tight enclosed space for -the aviator, means in s aid space for maintalnlng a constant air pressure therein independent of the speed of the aeroplane, al
propeller, means for varying the action of sald propeller to make effective the propelling power applied thereto by increasing the reaction of said propeller on the enveloping air, an engine mounted on a hollow shaft forward of the enclosed space and carrying peller. 8. An aeroplane adapted for flying in high altitudes .comprising an air-tight' enclosed space for the aviator and means formain- .taining a constant pressure of air therein,
an engine forward of said space and exposed to the action of the air surrounding the machine as it flies and separated from sald space by a wall, a propeller mounted on the engineY shaft co-axially therewith, la hollow shaft mounted in said Wall and means enclosed in Momes said shaft and connected with the propelleri5 l at one end and with operating means within the enclosure at the opposite end-for regulating the reaction of the propeller upon the enveloping" air.
lin'testimony whereof,` ll have signed my 20 name to this speciicatiom' in thepresence of two subscribing witnesses, this 10thday of December 14915. 1
SAMUEL D. MTT.
HERMANN F. CUNTZ, H. MUCHMOJRE.
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|U.S. Classification||244/59, 123/43.00A, 137/625.4, 454/71, 123/53.5|
|International Classification||B64D13/04, B64D27/00|
|Cooperative Classification||B64D27/00, B64D13/04, B64D2700/62763|
|European Classification||B64D27/00, B64D13/04|