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Publication numberUS1411677 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 4, 1922
Filing dateSep 29, 1919
Priority dateSep 29, 1919
Publication numberUS 1411677 A, US 1411677A, US-A-1411677, US1411677 A, US1411677A
InventorsAdriaan P H Trivelli
Original AssigneeEastman Kodak Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Motion-picture film
US 1411677 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


' Patented Apr. 4, 1922.







Specification of LettersPatent.

Patented Apr. 4, 1922.

To all w lo-m 't many concem Be it known that I, A RIAAN P. H. TRI- VELLI, a subject of the Queen of the Netherlands, residing at Rochester, in the county of Monroe and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Motion-Picture Films, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact specification.

This invention relates to an improvement in photographic film, and more particularly in films such as are customarily used in taking and projecting motion pictures.

The objects of my invention are to make such films more durable, and less liable to become scratched and marred; to renovate them, when so inj ured; to protect them from the effects of usage; and to render them less infiammable. 4

Other objects will appear in the course of this specification.

I attain these objects by the use of a varnish or coating having certain desirable properties, which is transparent, flexible, and durable; soluble in certain substances which are not solvents for the photographic emulsion or the support which carries it, and uninflammable in the sense that is far less combustible than pyroxylin which is customarily used for the support for such films.

I find all these desirable properties to be present in certain cellulose ethers, more particularly the ethyl ethers of cellulose such as are described in the patent to Lilienfeld, No. 1,188,376, June 20, 1916. If a water impervious layer is desired, those ethyl ethers which are insoluble in water would be used.

It is well known that the picture-containing layer of motion picture film, being customarly of gelatine, is easily scratched and marred and that it deteriorates Very rapidly under the hard usage to which it is put; so that in a very short time it becomes practically valueless. By my invention such deterioration can be prevented, or if found to exist can be cured. If the film has already become scratched, it may be passed through a bath of varnish and thus be coated, and as the material thus filling the scrathes has substantially the same refractve index as the film it will render the imperfectons 1nvisible. Ifthe coating is appled to the developed film before-the film is used, it'protects the emulsion ;from the efieots of 'wear and tear and' as its surface is much tougher than that of the emulsion the life of the film is very greatly prolonged. Should it become scratched a further coating can be gven, or the original protective coating may be removed, by the use of solvents that do not afiect the pyroxylin base, and another coating applied.

Toned images have been found to be partcularly susceptible to the efi'ects of usage and I consider such a protectve coating to be particularly advantageous with motion picture film where the silver image has been transformed or toned into images of silver I salts such as silver sulphide by any known toning method. The varnish may be applied either to positive film which is subjected to hard usage in being repeatedly passed through a projecting machine or to negative film from which very large numbers of positives arprinted, and which undergoes severe usage in being repeatedly passed 'through a printing machine.

In the accompanying drawings are shown fragmentary pieces of my improved film, partially in section, Fig. 1 being coated on one side only and Fig. 2 carrying a coating entirely around it.

In these figures, 1 indicates the base or support, which is customarily of pyroxylin though I do not limit myself in any way to this substance as I contemplate the use of other esters of cellulose or composition containing them or any other desrable material; 2 indicates the picture layer, usually a gelatine emulsion containing a sensitive silver salt before exposure, which is transformed into a silver image by photographic methods and may be further transformed or toned into an image of silver salt or salts of othermetals, a dye image or any other form of substituted image known to the photographic art, any 'of which may be termed photographic images. In Fig. 1, 3 indicates a coating of varnish or protective material applied to the emulsion side only of the film, by any desired coating or brushing method. In Fig. 2, 3' indicates a layer of varnish or p-rotective material entirely surrounding the film and applied in any desired manner as by passing the film through a bath of such material. The usual perforations are designated a.

As examples of varnishes useful for the purposes outlined, the following may be mentioned:

Cellulose-ethy'l-ether 4 parts Butyl alcohol 20`parts Benzol 76 parts Another example is:

Cellulose-ethyl-ether 3 parts Amyl alcohol 15 parts Toluol 82 parts A third example is:

Cellulose-ethyl-ether 5 parts Amyl alcohol 5 parts Butyl alcohol 15 parts Xylol 75 parts orate quickly leaving a firm coatng. The

materials mentioned when used alone and when combined are not solvents for the cellulose esters which. form the supports of motion picture films.

The cellulose ethers are, as compared to Eyroxylin, and its compounds, very slow urning and, in that'sense, uninfiammable,

"and a coating the'reof therefore tends to` render the film to which it is applied less inflammable. There may be added to the varnish any known substance such as triphenylphosphate having the property of decreasng the inflammability.

Should it be desired that the coating, be impervious to moisture those ethyl esters which are insoluble in water could be used.

Such a varnish may be applied at the -time of manufacture of the sensitive film and may be removed after ex. osure but before development by passing t e film through a bath of a solvent that will remove the varnish but will not afl'eot the support or emulsion. In this way the film both before and after exposure will be rotected from the efl'ects of humidity whic as is well known,

graphic or other products may be treated with my protective varnish and that I contemplate as within the sco e of my invention all such uses and applications.

Havin thus described my invention, what I c aim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: 4 i

1. A motion picture film having its surface coated with cellulose ether.

2. A motion picture film having its surface coated with a cellulose ether composition containing as a solvent for the ether a material in which'the base of the film is insoluble.

3. A motion icture film having its surface coated witli a celluose ether composition containing a higher alcohol.

4. A motion picture film comprising a support of cellulose ester, a coating of geletine thereon containing photogra hic images, and a protective coating t ereover comprising a cellulose ethyl ether and a solvent therefor, the support not being soluble in the solvent. v

5. A motion icture film comprsing a support of cellu ose ester, a photographic emulsion thereon, and a protective varnish therefor, the varnish containing cellulose ethyl ether, a high boiling softener and a volatile solvent, the support being insoluble in each of the materials specified' or in them when combined.

6. As an article of manufacture, a film containing a hotographic image having its surface coated with cellulose ether.

7. As an article of manufacture, a support, a layer of photographic material thereon, and aprotective coatng containing cellulose ether.

Signed at Rochester, New York, this 24th` day of September, 1919. y


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2454043 *Mar 24, 1945Nov 16, 1948Ilford LtdGelatino-silver halide photographic elements containing higher fatty alcohols
US2719791 *Aug 5, 1952Oct 4, 1955Polaroid CorpMethod of improving the stabilization of finished photographic prints by applying a liquid composition thereto
US3079837 *Mar 15, 1960Mar 5, 1963Agfa AgProtective coatings for photographic films
US4067737 *Dec 2, 1976Jan 10, 1978Anthony Vincent LewisProcess of applying protective coating
U.S. Classification428/205, 430/961, 428/478.4, 106/194.1
International ClassificationG03D15/00
Cooperative ClassificationY10S430/162, G03D15/00
European ClassificationG03D15/00