US 1415176 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
- APPLICATION FILED IUNE4, 1921.
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J. T. HUGHES.
1,415,176, l Patented May9, 1922.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 3.`
,afwisa UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
JOHN T. HUGHES, oF CASPER, wvonrmo.
' AEROPLANE CONTROL Specification of citizen of the United States, residing at Cas-` per, in the county of Natrona and State of Letters'Patent.
1921. seriainp. 475,029.
section 'of the tail or guiding wheel emplo ed. ,y ig. LLis a rear elevation of the same.
` Fig. 5 is a side elevation vof the steering- Patented May 9,1922.
Wyomlng, have invented certain new and mast and its associated parts mounted on the useful Improvements in Aroplane Controls, floor or base board of the air craft.
of which the following is a specication. F ig. 6 is a detail side elevation of the The present invention relates to aero'- standard and socket for the steeringmast.
plane controls and has particular reference F ig'. 7 is a top plan view thereof and to an improvement in that type ofoontrol wherein a single mast orsteering oo lumn is having the steering mast mounted therein.
employed for operating by various angular Referring to the drawingsl() designates movements the several steering devices used the body or'fuselage of an aeroplane of the in aeroplane construction. fbiplaiie type] and having the superposed An object of thepresent invention is to main planes 11 and 12 equipped. with the provideasteering of this type with an usual ailerons 13 at the rear edges thereof.
lmproved locking means adapted to secure 'The bodyf10 is provided at its rear end with the mast in any one of its several adjusted a vertical-rudder g 14 and horizontalv elevapositions by pedal means and to provide retors 15, and said rear end ofthe body is supleasing means for the look which may also'be ported upon a trailer .or guide wheel 16 operated by the foot.- Y i mounted in a suitable bracket 17.
Another-object of the invention to pro' Fig. 8 is a'front elevation of the Standard The wheel 16 may be vprovided withI brake vide an improved'mountingfor the mast addrums 18 about which 'are contractible brake mitiing of thev universal movement of the bands 19 anchored upon hinge 20 at one end mast and which1ocks'or'-maintains`the mast and pivotedat 21"at'their other ends to a at its pivotal support against further move fork 22 pivoted upon the bracket 17 concenmentwhen adjusted, the-locking. means 'flntrio'with the wheel-ll The fork 22 is con. bodying an integral part" of the supportand nectd to `oneend of a cable 23 which is carbelng common 5 all of.' the ,various adjustried upwardly through the fork 17' and forL vments ot.whicl'rtlie mast lis capable. j. wardl for operationof the brake when it Another objectrof theinvention isvto pro` is desired to check ``the rate of travel Qf the vid'e an improved typejfof mast andangimf" aeroplanek when jon. land. The lbracket -or proved group ofi-.connections between'f-thd fork 22 extends rearwardly from Fthe fork mast and' rudder, the'elevator, andthe a'ile1 17 and carries an anchor'24; y1eld 1ngly urged ions which control 'the 'various movements. downwardlyby spring125 and adapted -to be andhalancin of the aeroplane during flight lifted by the cable 26 when the brake 1s reand which a just-,ments are-at desired Sleasedg' iThe fork 17 is connected to the fioor tol be fixed as is well understoodby those`f27 of the-,aeroplane in any* suitable manner 3.- (if. the interior 'of the. fue@ i of the'bip .advantagesof his invention will inpai't'be ing illustrated in in s",wher'ein:
skilled in piloting air `crafty, .as b the'fresilient'mounting 28 of any de- `The above Eand various other. object-,sfy andj l`s lre construction.
understood from and in part be' described in vided with theusuallanding gear 29 ofany present preferred embodiment, thes'ainebe-- i" In theJ A"ff'yi-e-part o-thebody 10 and althe accompanyingdrawfjacenttofthefseat :tor the pilot' there is prog.- l is a fragmentary ab y secured tothe floor 27 and having u pon 4'f ifea'r si yof.thestandardyandopening in a Fig. 2 i' is .a side elevation of ,an aeroplaneforward direction. The forward side of the ane-type havin the improvements standard is provided with an apertured lug of this invention installed therein. l32 adapted to engage between a pair of ears Fig. 3 is a detail side elevationpartly' SBproJectingfrom the lower end of a hinged.
trol connections mounted therein.'
1fvided astandard 8O riveted orotherwise suit# goof ali- .aero its upper end a" fs'pheric'al'socket compose of @plane s'howingthe improved mast -and con-1 jan. intgral semi-'spherical section 31 on the 50 e the fixed socket section 31.
socket portion 34 and the latter is of semispherical configuration and complemental to Each of the socket sections 31 and 34 is provided with a laterally extending eye 35 and the eyes are adapted. to align at one side of the standard for receiving a contracting rod 36 therethrough. The rod 36 is headed at 37 at its forward. end for .drawing the hinged socket section 34 toward the fixed socket section to contract the socket upon the rearvward pull of the rod. The rod 36 is hinged in the upper end of an arm 38 which is mounted on a rock shaft 39 supported in a bearing bracket 40 rising from the Hoor 2T and which is adapted to be rocked by a pedal 41 extending rearwardly from the shaft 39. The pedal 41 is provided with a depending rearwardly facing hook 42 adapted to interlock with a locking dog 43 pivoted in a fork bracket 44 rising from the floor 27. 'The dog 43 has a rearwardly projecting pedal 45 normally urged into a raised position by spring 46 for interlocking the hook 42 with the dog 43 upon depression of the pedal 41.
Seated in the split or contractible socket of the standard 30 is a spherical head 47 formed upon the lower end of a mast or steering column 48, thelatter having a steering wheel 49 upon its upper end by means 'of which the column may be turned axially or may y be swung longitudinally and transversely of the air craft. The mast 48 is provided near its lower end with a pair of oppositely and laterallyextending arms 50 upon the free ends .of which are connected cables 51 which project rearwardly a/nd are connected to the rudder 14 so that the latter'may be turned 1n either direction by axial rotation of the steering mast.
Fitted about an. intermediate port ion'\of` the steering mast is guide plate 52. This guide plate is-substantially cruciform in contour and is arcuated on its, major axis on a radius whose center is substantially co-incident with the center of the -ball and socket joint between Athe standard and the mast.
The plate 52 is adapted to slidelengthwise of the mast but is adapted to 'be moved in the direction of its ,arc upon the longitudi- -nal swinging of the mast for alternately drawing and slackening cables 53 ,and `54sattached to opposite forward and rear ends of the plate 52 and extending rearwardly to the elevators 15v whereby toraise and deflect the latter as .is required in the vertical steering of the air craft. v,
The lateral extensions of the plate 52 are rolled over in a downward'direction to form` sleeves 55 arranged-to slidably receive there- 1n hthe oppos1teg'side portions of an arcuate guide yoke orframe 5,6which is elongated and curved Substantially concentric to and o o-incident withV the plate 52.
This yoke .or`
frame 56 has forward and rear axial trunnions 57 and 58 mounted to turn in the upper ends of standards 59 rising from the floor 27I and which are adapted to permit the transverse or lateral lswinging of the mast 48. This yoke 56 is adapted to control the positions of the ailerons 13 and to this effect the forward trunnion 5T is provided with av grooved Asector 60 over. which Vis trained a cable 61, the ends of which are passed downwardly through the floor 27 and connected in the usual manner to the ailerons 13 for alternately depressing or warping same as is required in the lateral balancing of the plane.
For convenience of operation a brake leverl 62 may be rotated at one side of the steering mechanism with its lower end projecting through the floor 27 and pivoted substantially in the plane, thereof, as at 63, and connectedv above and below such pivot point by means of cables 64 with the bra-ke bands 19 of the guiding wheel 16. rThe brake lever 62 mayL be provided with a laterally and i11- wardly extending foot piece 65 by means of which. the operator may readily operate the brake with his foot while manipulating the steering mechanism with his hands.
The laterally extending arms 50 of the steering mast have their outer ends offset downwardly to approach thel horizont-al plane of the hall and socket support so aS to render substantially negligible the ten-- sion on the cables 51 during the various movements and adjustments of the steering mast.
From the above description it is believed that the operation will be readily understood for when it is desired to change the path of the aeroplane in-a horizontal direction it is onlynecessary to turn the steering mast for swinging the arms 50 and operating the cables 51. direct the air craft upwardly or downwardly it is only necessaryto swin the mast 48 either forwardly or rearwarly to slide the plate 52 on the yoke 56 and consequently change the positions of the cables 53 and 54. Such operation changes the p0- sitions ofthe elevators 15 with respect t0 the normal horizontal axis 'of the aeroplane.
Y For balancing the opposite ends of thel malin sustaining planes it is only necessary to swing the st'eerlng mast 'transversely in they desired directlon when 'theyoke 56 is .turned on its trunnions 57 and 58 and the sector 60 is caused 'to turn andchange the relative positionsof the cables 61 for alter- W'hen it is desired to -in the size and proportion of the 'various parts of the above specifically described embodiment without departing from thespirit for rotatablyv holding the frame for swinging in a transverse direction only and adapted to direct said plate and mast in their forward and rearward swinging movements.
2. In an aeroplane. the combination with steering devices, a universally mounted steering mast. a connection between the mast and one of the steering devices for actuating the latter upon the turning of the mast, a plate carried by the mast and connected to a second steering device for operating the latter upon the swinging of the mast in, a predetermined direction, and a y'oke pivotally mounted about the mast and slidably connected to the plate for supporting and guiding the same and adapted to be rocked upon the swinging of the mast in a direction substantially at right angles to said first swinging movements. said yoke having connection with a third steering device for operating the same when the yoke is swung by the mast.
3. In an aeroplane, a split spherical socket, a mast having a ball upon its lower end ittingin the socket whereby to support the socket for` turning and universal movement, a steering device connected to the mast for operation upon the turning of the mast, a yoke surrounding the mast, means for pivotally supporting the forward and rear ends ofthe yoke to permit rocking of the same in a transverse direction, a plate slidable 011 the yoke and connected to the.
mast for swinging movement therewith. said -yoke being adapted to'guide the plate and mast when swung longitudinally and said plate being adapted to swing the yoke when the mast. is swung transversely. and independent connectionsA between the plate and the yoke for selectively operating independent steering devices in said connections.
l. In .an aeroplane the combination of steering devices. a mast. independent connections between the mast 'and steering devices for selectively operating the latter when the mast is swung and turned. a split socket supporting the mast for universal movement. contracting means connected to the socket and-including a foot pedal. and locking means for the contracting means adapted to automatically lock the latter whencontracted for holding the mast in adjusted position. said locking means including a pedal adapted to be operated for releasing the contracting means. y
In an aeroplane. the combination with steering devicesfa steering mast connected to said devices for operating the same. a
'contractible socket supporting said steering mast for universal movement. a rock shaft,-
a contracting rod connected to the rock shaft and to said socket for contracting the latter. a pedal mounted on the rock shaft for 0perating the same and provided with a depending hook. a dog pivoted in line with the hook for interlocking engagement therewith when said pedal is depressed. and a second pedal connected to the dog for releasing the same from the hook whereby said socket may be released `from the mast.
In 'testimony' whereof, I have a'lixed my signature in presence of two witnesses.
JOHN T. HUGHES. `lVitnesses LAMBERT J. Kxnas'r, THos. C. SPEERS.