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Publication numberUS1419407 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 13, 1922
Filing dateMar 1, 1919
Priority dateMar 1, 1919
Publication numberUS 1419407 A, US 1419407A, US-A-1419407, US1419407 A, US1419407A
InventorsFrank Pardee
Original AssigneeFrank Pardee
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Coal breaker
US 1419407 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



Patented June 113, 11922.


R m M W Fran k. 7%zm ee F. PARDEE.


1,4; 1]. 9 4G37 I Patented J 11116 13, 1922.


Franivfardea er %M- ATTORNEY ,F. PARDEE.


Patented June 113, 1922.







Application filed March 1,

To all whom it may concern: I

Be it known that T, FRANK PARDEE, a citizen of the United States, residing in Hazleton, Pennsylvania, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Coal Breakers, of which the following is a specification.

The common style of coal breakers, consisting of rolls with projections of one sort or another which gradually squeeze the lumps of coal between them, produces a certain quantity of dust and small sizes or culm which is so small that it is practically waste and is not worth the cost of transporting to market.

My invention provides an improvement which reduces the quantity of'dust or culm obtained to about one-quarter to one-half of the quantity'obtained with theold fashioned crusher and which increases the yield of the so called prepared sizes, which command the higher prices.

The several features of construction by which these improved results are secured are referred to hereinafter.

' The accompanying drawings illustrate embodiments of the invention. I,

Fig. 1 is a plan of a complete machine;

Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic vertical section through one hammer and anvil;

Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1; j

Fig. 4 is a similar view of a modified con: struction;

Fig. 5 is a plan of part of the machine indicated in Fig. 4;

Fig. 6 is a vertical longitudinal section of another modification;

Fig. 7 is a section of thesame on the line 77 Fig. 8 is a longitudinal section of another type;

Fig. 9-is a partial plan of the same;

Fig. 10 is a vertical transverse section of another type; Fig. 11 is a longitudinal section of still another type;

Fig. 12 is a partial plan of the same;

Fig. 13 is a longitudinal section of still another type; 1

Fig. 14'is a plan, and

Fig. 15 a section on the line 15-15 of Fig. 14 of still another type.

Referring to the embodiments of the invention illustrated, and first to that of Figs. 1, 2 and 3, a rotating shaft 14. carries a num- Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented June 13, 1922.

1919. Serial in. 280,025.

' ber of discs 15 spaced at intervals along its length. They are notched to form anvil members 16 spaced around the center. These anvil members 16 are grouped in pairs 17 (Figs. 1 and 2), each pair constituting a single anvil.

n a parallel shaft 18 is carried a succession of hammers 19, and preferably corresponding counter-weights 20, these hammers and counter-weights being arranged to pass between the members 16 of each anvil.

The hammers rotate at a speed six times as great as that of the anvils, so that as each anvil reaches the position for breaking the coal thereon it is struck by" the hammer moving at a hi h speed so as to give a quick sharp blow. Where a lump of coal 21 is fairly thick the parts into which it is broken by the hammer will spring sidewise and some of the smaller pieces will fall through the spaces outside of the members 16 of the anvil in question. Other small pieces will pass between the two members 16 of the anvil. But the larger ieces and the major quantity will spring sidewise to allow the hammer to pass down and will rest on the anvil members until the latter turn so that their inclination will cause the pieces of coal to slide off their ends. Anthracite coal especially is more or less laminated and by breaking the lumps along the cleavage" planes or laminations the minimum quantity of dust or small particles is obtained. This can best be secured by striking a sharp blow on the coalwhile it is in such a position as to leave the pieces free to separate so that they shall not'be crushed For example,

the lump of coal 21, in ,Fig. 2, will break along the line indicated roughly at 21, and the two major parts will spring aslde. The opening between the two parts 16- of the anvil which is spanned by the lump of coal permits a springing or yielding of the lump which aids in producing a sharp break. It 1s important that there be suflicient space hetween the hammer 19 in question and the hammers adjacent thereto at opposite sides to allow the broken parts to move sidewise without getting under these adjacent ham mers and being further broken.

The opening between one anv il group 17 and the next is not important except as it eliminates unnecessary weight. The opening between the two members 16 of an anvil, is important, first in utilizing the elasticity of the coal by allowing it to bend slightly speed of the parts be such as to strike a sharp.

when struck, and second in permitting the passage of the rapidly moving hammer 19 so that the member can be utilized in a rotary machine working at a fair rate of speed and therefore with a good capacity. I

Instead of providing six members 16 in-a circumference and rotating the hammer six times as fast as the anvil, this number and relative speed may be varied to suit different grades of coal and other circumstances. The hammers may be all in line with each other as shown, or the alternate hammers may be arranged at different angular points around the; shaft so as to balance each other and more uniformly distribute the reaction on the driving mechanism.

It is important for the best results that the blow on the coal. Otherwise the varying relative speeds of the meeting parts of the hammer and anvil would produce a sort of sawing action which would be disadvantageous.

I have shown the hammer 19 with its striking'face flat in cross-section and have found this the best shape in experiments which I have made. But for different classes of coal or other material other shapes may be preferable, such as convex, concave or sharp edged shapes, or the hammer may be more or less pointed in both longitudinal and cross-section like a pick. Although the machine is designed primarily for a coal breaker and is so described, yet it may be used for breaking similar materials, hard chalk or stone, for example, into approximate sizes where it is advantageous to keep down the quantity of dust or finer sizes incidentally produced.

Preferably the bearing faces of hammer and anvil are so shaped and strike in such a direction as to give a direct blow as far as possible so as to get a splitting or breaking fracture instead of a grinding or pulverizing blow. This mode of operation tends to make a clean break with very little dust. In longitudinal section the hammer, as shown in Fig. 3, incloses the lump of coal within a recess formed by an over-hanging end 22 so as to hold it in the best position on the anvil. The direction of the stroke with relation to the bearing faces of the members is most important in those grades of coal which have to. be cut very clearly or sized very: carefully. There are some grades in which it is not so important and for these other designs may be used as referred to hereinafter.

'A large gear 23 on the anvil shaft 14 is driven by a pinion 24 of one-sixth its size on the hammer shaft 18. The shaft 18 is driven through a breaking-pin clutch 25 from a shaft 26 carrying a fly wheel 27 and driven by a rope pulley 28 or any other suitable,

- preferably frictional, driving mechanism.

In the case of a piece of iron or anything particularly hard getting into the machine the breaking-pin clutch 25 will break and will rest properly on the anvils'when they come around to the breaking position. As shown in Fig. 3, the notches 25 have straight flaring sides so that the coal will enter freely on the ascending side, resting on the back of one anvil 16 near the inner end of the notch and will simply tilt over on to the operative face of the next forward anvil as the rotation continues; the face on which the coal rests in the breaking position standing practically normal to the direction of movement to the hammer. The comparatively. slow movement of the anvil roll, as we may call the anvils on the shaft, gives the coal time to adjust itself in its notch 29. The coal comes down a chute 30 which is provided with tongues 31 entering between the two members 16 of each anvil so that flat thin pieces of coal will not be permitted to tilt and fall between the anvil members. Flanges 82 guide the lum s of coal so that they will span the two bla es of each anvil, said flanges being extended forward beyond the chute as indicated at 32 so as to hold the lumps of coal laterally in position. With the aid of these guides the coal will hebrought to rest about equally on both members of an anvil.

. Calling, the direction in which the coal moves down the chute and through the machine the longitudinal direction, it is best to have an oblong lump of coal lie with its greater length in the transverse position when struck by the hammer. Otherwise we are liable to produce comparatively long narrow pieces which will tend to get into the opening of the anvil and be more or less crushed as the hammer, pushes them through.

The arrangement of the anvil roll and the chute and guiding partsthereof are calculated to turn the lumps of coal into the desired position before they are broken. A narrow lump of coal passing from the chute onto the roll is apt to strike only one of the two blades 16 of its anvil roll and to strike this blade, at one side of the center of the lump. At the point of contact it will be frictionally retarded and will tend to turn about this oint so as to assume a transverse position. in a transverse position will generally strike both blades 16 so that it will not have the same tendency to turn.) Such an elongated lump .is indicated, for example, at 21 in Fig. 1, striking the upper blade 16 and tending to turn in the direction of the arrow so as to assume a transverse position.

The same tendency to compel the lumps to assume a transverse position is repeated as they are carried forward in the slow moving A lump of coal which is already is that in which a lum rests with its longer side on its support. s a lump reaches the high point in its notch 29 it will, if in the improper longitudinal position, tend to turn so that its long side will dro to the bottom of the notch. And in tilting rom the underside of an anvil on which it first rests to the" top of the next forward anvil it will in prac tically all cases fall down to the proper transverse position.

Thus the feeding of the coal on the ascending side of the anvil roller is useful in increasing the yield of the prepared sizes.

In the construction shown in Figs, 4 and 5 each of the members 16 serves to cooperate with the members on both sides of it and hammers 19 are located between each two members 16. The alternate hammers however are offset angularly from each other so that when the first one strikes a lump of coal the spaces at the sides will be clear for the broken pieces to through and when the second series of hammers strikes there will also be -clear spaces at the sides of the anvils in question for the passage of the broken coal. The angle between successive hammers 19 may be varied as circumstances require and-these in fact may be arran ed at equal angles around the entire circumf erence. This construction will increase the capacity for a breaker of given sizes. arranged in line,

' space bet-ween each two members 16, giving an'increased capacity but at the expense of an also increased production of undesirable small sizes.

Figs. 6 and 7 show diagrammatically another style ofv construction with a fixed support 33 having an inclined face and anvil members 34 with spaces between them to be spanned by lumps of coal. The hammers of the previously described machines are in this case replaced by a member 35 rocking on a shaft 36 and carrying hammers 37 adapted to strike against a lump of coal 21 which spans two of the anvil members 34 and to break this coal andswing forward into the space between the anvil members. Because of the direction of the pressure with relation to the faces of the anvil and hammer this construction will not give so clean a break or so good a sizingbf the product, but it is useful for some grades of coal where these qualities are not im portant. It has the same advantages as the previously described constructions, how-.

ever, in the opening provided at the back of the anvil and the spaces at the sides for the easy escape of the broken pieces.

The principle of the design shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 may be carried out as shown .Figs. 8

and 9 with the same style of hammers 19 working'on a fixed anvil 38 vwhich 18 at the bottom of a chute 39 provided with location of the coal on' the fall The hammers may also be with one hammer for the for ensuring the proper anvil members 38. {Or instead of being fixed the anvil maybe made to oscillate or to move in any other desired 'way.

In Fig. 10, the anvil members 41 are fixed and the hammers 42 are carried by a crosshead 43 which is raised and droppedby any suitable mechanism and strikes the lumps of coal 21 and breaksthem in the same manner as above described.

The construction of guide flanges .40

Figs. 11 and 12 isquite similar to that of Figs. 1, 2 and3 7 except that the anvil members 44are formed as spurs on a roll 45 andthe hammers 46 are also formed as spurs on a roll 47.

Fig. 13 shows the anvil member 48 mounted on a shaft 49 and rocked by a cam 50 on a supplementary shaft 51. The hammers 52 are mounted on a shaft 53 and have their rear ends forked and engaged by a cam 54 on a rotating shaft 55. "By suitably timing the shafts 51 and 55, the anvils will be raised slowly to position and the hammer will strike a sharp blow to break the coal after which the anvils will be lowered to free themselves of dust and to receive a further supply of coal while the hammer is elevated.

Figs. 14 and 15 show a design having a rotating hammer 56 with anvil members 57 rotating on the same axis. This reduces the horizontal space necessary for the. machine and is especially useful for very large sizes of coal; Two sets of anvil members and a single hammer are shown, but the principle may be extended toinclude a greater number of anvils and hammers alongside of each other as in Fig, 1. There are four anvils in a circumference and the hammer rotates at a four to one ratio, that is the four revolutions of the hammer to one of the anvils. The hammer is keyed directly onthe driving shaft 1-8 which carries on its outer end apinion 58 operating a gear 59 of four times its diameter on a counter-shaft 60 which carries gears 61 engaging gears 62 of the same size' carried on sleeves and guide discs 65 and also hubs 66 of the anvil members mers in the same direction as the anvils and at four times the speed of the latter. 4 For this construction the feed must be into notches of the anvil member which are one step to the rear of the breaking point. I have illustrated a form of feed chute which is especially adapted to this design of breaker. A transverse chute 67 feeds the coal parallel to the axis of the rotating members and into a second chute 68 which feeds it toa point above and to the direction of rotation of such members, so that it falls into the notch required, onto the back of the hammer, and as the latter advances, settles into its notch and is carried 57. This will rotate the ham-- 63 onwhich are keyed hubs64 forward to the breaking point. The transverse chute 67 tends to feed elongated pieces in positions parallel to the roll shaft and they will pass down'the short chute 68 in the same position orapproximately so and will readily adjust themselves in the notches of the anvil roll in the desired transverse position. This style of chute is useful particularly in connection with a machine using a single pair of anvil discs.

Various other modifications in detail and in the arrangement of parts may be made by those skilled in the art without departure from the invention as described in the following claims. 7

What I claim is:

1. A a coal breaker including an anvil mounted for rotation on a horizontal axis for supporting the lumps to be broken, a hammer adapted to turn on a horizontal axis 7 and means for movingthe hammer at a much greater speed than the anvil so that at each revolution it will strike the lump on said anvil a sharp blow to break it.

2. A coal breaker including a rotary lump supporting anvil comprising a pair of adj acent discs spaced apart to form an opening which is spanned by such lumps and means for striking a hammer blow upon a lump of coal which spans said discs to break said lump.

3. A coal breaker including an anvil mounted for rotation on a horizontal axis and comprising a pair of flat discs spaced apart to form an opening which is spanned by the lumps to be broken, said discs having notches formed therein to carry the lumps to breaking position and a single hammer synchronized to strike successive lumps between their points of support and arranged to move tlirough said opening after the lumps are broken.

4. A coal breaker including a rotating anvil roll comprising a number of anvils around a central horizontal axis and a number of single hammers arranged to co-act with said anvil roll and adapted to rotate at a higher rate of speed than said anvil roll and synchronized therewith so that each hammer strikes successive lumps which are carried to breaking position while said anvil roll is rotated.

5. A coal breaker including a rotating anvil roll comprising a number of anvils around a central horizontal axis and a hammer synchronized to strike one lump of coal at a time as it is brought to breaking position by said anvil roll.

6. A coal breaker including a rotating anvil roll notched to form a number of anvils around a central horizontal axis and adapted to successively carry the lumps to breaking position, and a rotary hammer arranged to strike the lumps on the successive anvils as said anvil roll is rotated, said hammer moving at a higher rate of speed than said anvil roll to successively bring itinto engagement with said anvils and the face of said hammer being shaped to embrace a lump of coal on an anvil to oppose displacement thereof. I

7. A coal breaker including a rotating anvil roll comprising a number of anvils around a central axis, means for feeding dumps of coal to said anvil roll on its ascending side and a hammer arranged to extend over the full width of and to strike such lumps of coal a square blow on the descending side of said anvil roll.

8. A coal breaker including a pair of disc-like members provided with flared notches having straight sides into which the lumps of coal are fed one at a time on the ascending side so that as they are carried over the top of said member they are tilted from one to the other side of their notches and tend to fall in a transverse position into the bottoms of such notches.

9. A coal breaker including a chute through which lumps of coal are fed longitudinally one after another in succession a rotary anvil member notched to receive one lump at a time and adapted to orient said lump so that its greatest dimension is substantially parallel with the axis'of said anvil member which axis is substantially at right angles to the longitudinal axis of said chute.

' 10. A coal breaker .comprising a plurality. of anvils each consisting of a pair of notched discsspaced apart from one another and adapted to support the lumps to be broken, and single hammers arranged to pass between the discs and over the tops of said lumps to strike the lumps a sharp blow,'the hammers for said anvils being spaced apart sufliciently to permit the broken pieces to I spring sidewise without being further broken.

11. A coal breaker comprising rotary anvils mounted on a' horizontal axis and consisting of slotted discs arranged alongside of each other and adapted to successively carry the lumps to breaking position and hammers arranged to reach over the top of and strike the lumps on said anvils a sharp blow and spaced apart sufliciently to allow the broken pieces to spring sidewise without being further broken, each anvil having an opening which is spanned by the lumps to bebroken thereon.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto signed

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2462692 *May 4, 1945Feb 22, 1949Standard Oil Dev CoTearing and dividing equipment
US2590056 *Jun 25, 1949Mar 18, 1952Ernest U WhitacreBaled straw shredder
US2885157 *Jul 29, 1953May 5, 1959Monarch Cement CompanyMaterial crushing and sizing means cooperable with reciprocating conveyor
US3190573 *Jan 17, 1962Jun 22, 1965Biehn Harold BCrusher
US3396914 *Mar 15, 1966Aug 13, 1968Centriblast CorpMachine for disintegrating paper and other waste materials
US3463406 *Aug 24, 1967Aug 26, 1969Musgrave Merrill NNut harvester
US3502276 *Jun 1, 1967Mar 24, 1970Curry Bruce RShredding machine
US4082232 *Mar 3, 1977Apr 4, 1978Garbalizer Corporation Of AmericaShredder structure
US4201346 *Sep 5, 1978May 6, 1980Krupp-Koppers GmbhDevice for crushing sinter and the like
U.S. Classification241/187, 241/243, 241/266, 241/190, 241/83, 241/236, 241/264, 241/32
International ClassificationB02C4/00, B02C18/02, B02C1/00
Cooperative ClassificationB02C18/02, B02C4/00, B02C18/142, B02C1/00
European ClassificationB02C18/14B, B02C18/02, B02C1/00, B02C4/00