US 1419625 A
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UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
FAY H. GUERNSEY, OF BUFFALO, NEW YORK, ASSIGNOB TO THE ELECTRIC SMELTING 6t ALUMINUM 00., OF LOCKPORT, NEW YORK.
DETERGENT COMPOUND AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, FAY H. GUERNSEY. a citizen of the United States, residing at Buffalo, in the county of Erie and State of New York, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Detergent Compounds and Methods of Making the Same, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to detergent compounds of the kind in which silica and alumina are combined with alkali, and to methods of making the same.
The objects of this invention are to produce a combination of these ingredients which will readily solidify and which will contain a smaller amount of insoluble matter and have a higher melting point than similar compounds heretofore made so that the material will not melt when exposed to summer temperatures; also to provide an improved compound which has superior water softening properties; also to provideaprodnot which will operate successfully with a much smaller quantity of soap than has been heretofore required in cleansing processes; also to devise an improved method of making detergents of this kind; and also to improve detergent compounds in other respects as hereinafter specified.
In order to produce a compound of alumina, silica and alkali, which will crystallize and which will remain in solid condition under ordinary temperatures. I combine these materials into chemical union in such a manner as to form a compound having the following eneric formula, to wit: A1 0 (SiOQ (161 m H 0 in which formula as may have any value greater than seven and y is variable. When this compound is made in accordance with this formula it will always solidify when cooled, regardless of the value of w,providing'this value is greater than seven, and the difficulties encountered in the manufacture of compounds containing a different molecular ratio of silica and alkali metal oxide than is hereinbefore described. due to the fact that such different compounds will not solidify, are eliminated. An increase in the value of av results in considerable decrease in the percentage of insoluble material and a marked rise in the melting point of the product. By increasing the value of a: from seven to eight. the percentage of insoluble matter is decreased by more Patented June 13, 1922.
Application filed February 18, 1921. Serial No. 446,133.
than three percent and a rise in melting point of about 5 F. will be obtained. The value of a: may be so selected as to produce a compound which is completely soluble and which has a melting point of about 126 F. These properties are obviously desirable for an efficient and commercially salable detergent. The compound may be made in the manner hereinafter described, care being taken, however, that the proportion of the ingredients is in accordance with the generic formula stated.
I have found that the addition of certain alkali metal salts of weak acids. such for example as sodium or potassiumcarbonate or certain other carbonates, phosphates. borates or the like greatly enhances the water softening properties of the detergentcompound and produces a compound of moderate causticity. which is much desired for most purposes. The addition of such alkali metal salts does not prevent the solidification of the compound at ordinary temperatures, and effects a great saving in the amount of soap required, since the causticity of the compound reduces the hardness of the water. so that a large amount of soap is saved by the use of this compound.
It has also been found that the alumina andsilica in the compound have certain collodial properties which prevent the cansticity of the compound from injuring the material on which the compound is used. In carrying out this process. I preferably quickly chill the mass discharged from the kettle, since by rapid chilling of the mass. a better crystallizing action is produced, so that the resulting material can be more easily ground. Any desired quantity ofthese alkali salts may be added tothe compound. about five percent having been found satisfactory.
By using the compound thus produced with the addition of alkali metal salts of weak acids. I have found that very desirable results for some purposes can be ob tained by adding a small percentage of an emulsifylng agent. such as fixed oils. fats and so forth. in a saponified or sulfonated conditiorn the addition being made and regulated in such manner that the result-' ing product will solidify and remain in a solid condition at ordinary temperatures. I have found that some of the alkali metal oxide (Na,,O) is consumed in saponification durin the process of cleansing so that the a,O) specificed in the formula hereinabove mentioned may if desired, be increased, so lon as the mixture produced will remain soli under ordinary conditions of temperature under which the material is shipped and stored. By using alkali metal salts in the detergent a comparatively small quantity of the emulsifying agent can be used and the compound thus produced will form in water a quantity of soap suds which would under ordinary conditions requirea greater quantity of soap. I have prepared this compound from hydrous raw materials by boiling the calculated quantities of "alumina-silicate, commercial silicate of soda and caustic lye in a steam-jacketed kettle provided with "an agitating device, addin to this mass the desired uantities of al ali metal salts of weak aci s, and if desired a quantity of an emulsifying agent. The homogeneous mass is discharged from the kettle and is chilled from a liquid to a semi-plastic condition, and solidifies thereafter with an elevation in temperature of at least five degrees F., after which the material is reduced to a powdered condition, in which form it is ready for use. i
In the fore oing formula it will be understood that a or apart of the Na O may be replaced by K 0 without departing from this invention.
I claim as my invention: y
1. A detergent in a hydrated condition, and which is formed of alumina, silica, and alkali metal oxide and havin substantially the formula A1 0 (Si(),,) (l ia,,5) (H O) as representing any number greater than seven.
2. A detergent in a hydrated condition formed of one molecular weight of alumina, a: molecular weights of silica and a: minus one molecular weights of alkali metal oxide,
formed of one molecular weight of alumina,
.r molecular weights of silica and .11 minus one molecular weights of alkali metal oxide, :2 representing any number greater than seven into which has been physically incorporated an alkali metalsalt of a weak acid, together with an emulsifying agent and a further quantity of alkali metal oxide sufiicient to replace the alkali metal oxide which is consumed in the saponification dur-' ing the process of cleansin said quantity being small enough to enab e the detergent to maintain itself in a solid condition at summer temperatures.
5. A method of forming a detergent in a hydrated condition consisting of boiling quantities of alumina silicate, silicate of soda and caustic lye to form a compound havin substantially the formula A1 0 (SiO,),(Na,O), ,(H as representing any number greater than seven, quickly chilling the material from a liquid to a semi-plastic condition and then permitting the chilled material to crystallize with an elevation in temperature.
Vitness my hand this 15th day of February, 1921.
FAY H. GrUERNSF Witnesses:
E. HOWARD DAGGE'I'I, FRED O. DAVIS.
Certificate of Correction. I a It is hereby certified that in Letters Patent N 0. 1,419,625, granted June 13, 1922,
: upon the application of Fay H. Guernsey, of Buflalo, New York,- for an improve- I'nent in Detergent Compounds and Methods of Making the Same, errors appear the printed specification requiring correction as follows: Page 1, line 90, commencing with the word In strike out all to and including the word ground, line 95; page 2, line 30, after the word use insert the words In carrying out this .proccu, 1 preferably quickly chill the man discharged from the kettle, since by chilling of the mass, 0 better cryatattizing action is produced, so that the "M ng material can be more easily ground.; and that the said Letters Patent shimld be I'Bad with these corrections therein that the same may conform to the record of the euse the Patent Office.
Sign and sealed this 11th day. of J uly, A. 1)., 1922.
[m] v KARL FENNING,
Acting Conqmiuiomr of Patents.