US 1421613 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
' yarn, thread or fabric with a fermenting. 45.
of the Emperor of Japan, and
county and State of' or 'srars eraser rates.
JOKICHI TAKAMIN E, OE NEW YORK, N. Y JANID JOKICHI'TAKAMINE, 31%., 0F CLIFTON,
I'ROCESS 0F TREATING TEXTILE AND OTHER FABRICS, THREAD, YARN, AND THE LIKE.
T 0 all whom it may concern Be it known that we, J OKICHI TAKAMINE and JoKIoHI TAKAMINE, Jr., both subjects residents, respectively, of the city, New York, and Clifton,county of Passaic, State of New Jersey, have made a certain new and useful Invention in Processes of Treating Textile and Other Fabrics, Thread, Yarn, and the like, of which the following is I, a specification.
This invention relates to a process of treating-textile and other fabrics, yarn, thread I and the like.
The object of the invention is to provide a process which is simple, economical and efficient for the treatment of textile and other 'fabrics,- yarn, thread and the like, for the removal therefrom of starch, gum and other substances contained therein.
The invention consists substantially in the mode of operation hereinafter set forth and finally pointed out in the claims. I It is the common practice in the textile industry to size or starch yarns, threador the like employed in thema-nufacture of textile and other fabrics, in order to render the yarn, thread or the like stiffer and harder and more machinery employed. The result of the sizing of the yarn, thread or the like is that when the fabric is woven therefrom it is saturated or filled with the sizing material.
' The textile and other fabrics are also ordinarily bleached and dyed to produce the fin- Before the bleaching and dyeing operations can be properly accomplished, it is necessary to remove the sizing material in order to permit the substances employed to bleach and dye the fabric to penetrate into the body thereof. Various ways of de-sizlng have heretofore been em-,
ployed. One usual method is to treat the agent, in order that thebacteria of the fermenting agent may act upon the gums and starch content of the materials to be treated, in order to dissolve or decompose the same. For this purpose the yarn, thread, fabric or the like is moistened, with water and placed in a vat, and the fermenting agent is then addedthereto. After the fermenting operation and the resulting decomposition o1;
dissolution of the gums, starch, etc., from- Specification of Letters Patent.
is that position or dissolution or the like,
easily manipulated in the textile,
Patented July 4, 1922.
Application filed October 8, 1920. Serial No. 415,519.
The great diificulty with this method of treating fabrics, yarns, threads and the like it takes too long a period of time, and is not thorough. Frequently a week or longer is required for the fermenting operation, and even then the thorough decomof the gums, starch and other matter contained in the fabric, yarn, thread or the like is not accomplished.
Another method which has been employed is to subject. the fabric, yarn,-thread or the like to the action of steam in the presence of an alkali such, for example, as wealrcaustic soda, soda ash or soaps. This method is objectionable for the reason that, although it is quicker than the method above described, the alkali employed todissolve or'decompose and remove the sizing compound is liable to attack the fibre of present invention to avoid the objections above noted, and others, and to provide a methodof operation'which is economical and expeditious, and wherein the gums, starch and other substances and impurities may be without danger of impairing the strength of the fibres of the yarn, thread or the likeemployed in producing the fabric.
In carrying out our invention we propose to employ a substance possessing dlastatic and proteolytic propertles, and we propose to obtain the substance ppssessing these properties from a vegeta le source, and which substance is economical and expeditious in its action, and thoroughly effective in dissolving and decomposing the starches,
gums and the like of the sizing material emthoroughly removed from the fabrics the yarn, thread thereby weakening it or impairing its strength as well as injuriously afi'ectyarn, thread or ployed or contained in the fibres of the the like, without impairing or weakening such fibres.
In carrying out our invention we employ the seed' spores of themicroscopic fungi, which are sown. on a culture medium, and propagated under suitable conditions of temperature and humidity, fora suflicient period of time for the fungus to attain that stage in which it develops its greatest enzymic power. The enzymic substances contained in the fungus growth are then extracted from the mass or mediumupon which the fungus is grown by suitable solvents and manipulation to obtain the enzymic product. The seed spores of the fungi genera Aspergillus Penicillium or Mucor, and particularly the seed spores of the species Eurotium Oryzee are suitable for the purpose.
The seed spores-of other species or genera may likewise be employed, and especially the seed spores of fungi which are capable of being propagated in a fungus growth from whi h an enzyme is produced which possesses strongly proteolytic power.. A fungus has been isolated, and to which the name Takochi has been given, which will answer .the desired purpose.
A culture medium upon which the fungus seed spores are to be sown-and the fungus propagated is prepared, and for this purpose we have found that comminuted or broken grains of cereals such as wheat, com,
- the form of bran, shorts, midd gated. Other media may oats, barley, etc., and preferably such broken or comminuted grains from cereals from which the greater part of the starchy matt'er has been removed, leaving the mass in ings, etc., and particularly wheat bran, constitute suitable media upon-which the fungus may be propalikewise be emas slops from alloyed such, for example,
- coholic distillation, residue from'beer brew- ,The fungus seed. spores are then sown upon found that' amore abundant the composition mass, preferably while the latter is in a moistened state, containing from '30 to 60 per cent of moisture. It is'not essential that the mass be sterilized, and, this operation may be omitted, although we have and healthy owth of fungus is secured, and a greater development of enzymic power is-attained by v and the like.
brans, slops and residue from and for thissodium phosphate, sodium chloride,
first sterilizing the mass. Moreover, in the sterilizing operation, the bacteria contained: in the culture medium are more or, less destroyed or rendered inert, thereby removing the undesirable fermenting or decomposing action thereof, in the resulting enzymic substance to be produced.
After sowing the fungus spores upon the culture medium prepared as above described, the entire mass may be bedded up to a thickness of from-6 to 24 inches. Where wheat bran, shorts, middlings, etc., are employed, 1
the bedding up of the culture medium inoculated withthe fungus spores is not essential. The mass is then maintained in a moist atmosphere, and at a uniform temperature not to exceed 45 degrees. centigrade. In the course of from 8 to 20 hours, the spores begin to sprout and within 20 to 30 hours the owth of the fungus becomes abundant. arbonic acid gas and heat are evolved during this period. Within 30 to 60 hours enzymic properties are developed in the culture medium bythe growth of the fungus. This is referred to as a still growth method.
Another method of carrying on the propagation and development of the fungus rowth is to maintain the. mass in motion in suitable apparatus or otherwise in such manner as to cause every portion, of the inoculated mass to become exposed to the air, thereby preventing the mass from developing too great a heat. Ordinarily the same period of time is required as in the still growth method.
The enzymes produced by the fungus growth are mostly soluble in water, and possess various characteristics such as diastatic, proteolytic, fat splitting, milk coagulating The relative proportions of these characteristics or properties vary with different species of spores employed, and also' to a more or less extent, according to temperature, humidity, method of handling and other conditions observed during the propagation and growth of the fungus.
The various enzymes being soluble in water are easily extracted from the mass upon which the fungus has been grown by ,lixiviating the mass with water. The solution thus obtained may be employed directly in carrying out our process of treating textlle and other fabrics, yarn, thread or the ,like, or an extract may be concentrated in any convenient manner. For example, a' desirable degree of concentration may be effected .by percolating the semiaqueous extract or solution through successive new batches of masses of the culture medium upon which the fungus has been grown.
Of the enzymes contained in this solution thus obtained di'astatic enzymes usually predominates followed by proteolytic, milk'co- [the like, the diastatic property of the solu-' tion being employed to dissolve the starch content of the sizing material employed, and
the. proteolytic power of the extract or sol u= tion being utilized to dissolve the gums.
To render the extract or solution stable, and to enable it to be maintained without material deterioration, we employ the joint effect of heat and an antiseptic, being careful to avoid the use of a sufficient degree of heat to impair the enzymic power of the solution, and also to employ an antiseptic in insufficient quantity to injure or impair the enzymic power of the extract. We have found that'a temperature of 45 degrees, and an antiseptic, for example sulphurous acid, in the preparation of one part to from 1 to 10,000 parts of the enzymic substance, supply the necessary conjoint effective action to render the solution stable, whereas neither the heat nor the antiseptic alone will answer the purpose.
Other antiseptics may be employed, such as phenol, creosol, or other coal tar derivatives, or formaldehyde.
Where the enzymic solution is to be employed immediately after obtaining it, it becomes unnecessary to subject the same to the action of heat and a preservative.
To effect the de-sizing and de-gumming of the textile or other fabric, yarn, thread or the like, the-material to be treated is immersed in a weak aqueous solution of the 'enyzmic extract, and permitted to stand for several hours. We have found from 6 to 10 hours ordinarily is sufficient. During this period the enzymes act upon the starch and gum contents of the material to render the same soluble and easily washed way, withoutattacking, weakening or otherwise impairing the fibres of the material, leaving the, same clean and free from starch or gum substances. The material to be treated is then washed in water in order.to remove the dis solved gums and starch, and such material is then ready for the bleaching and dyeing operations.
By reason of the fibres of the material being thus rendered clean and freefrom sizing material, gums and the like, they more easily and readily respond to the bleaching mate-' rial and absorb the dyes, which are thus permitted to penetrate more thoroughly into the bodies-of the fibres. I
In the case of yarn, thread or the like,
after the treatment with the extract solution,
It also dispenses in the case of silk fabrics,
forinstance, with the use which is likely to cause injury to the silk fibres. In the case of silk waste, a by-prodnot of silk weaving, the silk fibres become stuck together by the gums content, making of soap alkali, and
it almost a solid and unworkable mass. The
enzymic substance digests or dissolves these gums thereby rendering the fibre contained in such waste clean and usable for weaving into silk fabrics.
I In the case of ramie fibre, China grass and like vegetable materials, the starch and gums contained therein are easily removed without impairment of the fibre by the use of an enzymic substance in accordance with our invention, thus rendering it unnecessary to employ for this purpose soda or soaps.
It is understood, of course, that our invention is equally well adapted for use in the treatment'of fibres, yarn, thread or the like before being woven into fabrics, as well as in connection with fabrics after having been woven. WVe do not desire, therefore, to be limited or restricted in this connection.
Having now set forth the objects and nature of our invention and the method of carrying the same into practical operation, what we claim as new and useful, and of .our own invention, and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: v
1. The process of treating textiles for the removal therefrom of starches, gums and other substances, which comprises subjectting said enzymes to act on said substances to dissolve the same, and then washing the textile in water.
2. The process of de-sizing and de-gumming textile and other fabrics, thread, yarn and the like, which comprises subjecting the same to the action of an antiseptic enzymic; substance of vegetable fungus origin.
3. The process of de-sizing and de-gumming textile and other fabrics, thread, yarn and. the like. which comprises subjecting the same to a stable liquid containing diastatic and proteolytic enzymes of vegetable origin.
4. The process of treating textiles for the removal therefrom of starches, gums and other substances, which comprises subjecting the textile to a bath containing an aqueous solution of proteolytic. and diastatic entherefrom.
zymes of vegetable fungus origin to render soluble said substances, and then washing the textile in water to remove the solubilized substances.
5. The process of de-sizing and de-gumming textile and other fabrics, thread, yarn and the like, which comprises treating the same with an aqueous extract containing diastatic and proteolytic enzymes of vegetable origin and possessing properties wherebywater-insoluble substances of said fabrics are rendered soluble. and capable of being washed out with Water.
6. The process of de-sizing and de-gumming textile and other fabrics, thread, yarn and the'like, which comprises treating the same with an aqueous-extract containing. diastatic and proteolytic' enzymes ofvegeta- 8. The process of treating textile and other fabrics, thread, yarn or the like, for the removal of soluble substances therefrom, which comprises rendering soluble such substances with a material containing diastatic 1 and proteolytic enzymes of vegetable origin, and then washing the fabric, thread, yarn or the like to remove fabrics, thread, yarn or the soluble substances '9. The process which comprises propagating a vegetable fungus upon a culture medium to develop diast'atic and proteolytic properties therein, then renderin soluble or decomposing the starchy an "gummy substances contained in fabrics, thread, yarn or the like, with such diastatic and proteolytic substances, and finally washing such fabric, thread, yarn or the like with water.
10. The process which comprises propagating a vegetable fungus upon a culture medium to develop diastatic and proteolytic properties therein, then-extracting the diastatic and proteolytic properties from the culture medium, and then stabilizing said extract for use in rendering soluble the starchy and gummy substances contained in the like, with such extract.
11. The process which comprises propagating a vegetable fungus upon a culture medium to develop diastatic and proteolytic properties therein, then extracting the diastatic and proteolytic propertiesfrom the culture medium, and then subjecting said extract to a stabilizing temperature and antiseptic and thereafter subjecting the starchy and gummy substances contained in fabrics, thread, yarn or the like, with such extract, and finally washing the fabric, thread,'yarn or the like with water.
In testimony whereof we have hereunto set our handson this th day of her, A. D. 1920.
J OKICHI TAKAMINE. L ,JOKICHI TAKAMINE, JR.