US 1423763 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J. F. GELNAW.
IDENTIHCATION AND CODING SYSTEM.
APPLICATION FILED MAY 5. 1921.
1,423,763., I Patente July25, 1922.
STATES orrn r. unner/v, or Tonnynnenn, OHIO.
IDENTIFICATION AND CODING SYSTEM.
Application filed May 5,
To all whom it. may concern:
Be itknown that I, J OIIN F. GELNAW, a citizen of the United States of America, residing at Cleveland, in the county Cuyahoga and State of Ohio, havoinvented certain new and; useful; Improvements in Identification and Coding Systems, of which the. following is a specification.
My invention relates to improvements in an identification system, the. object of which is the designation or marking of. articles, so that they may be readily and positively identified, regardless of any fraudulent at tempt to defeat the system and its purposes.
My invention will be explained in connec tion with an interrelated scheme of coding and marking automobiles forv the purpose of discouraging theft, and with the possibility of pOSitively identifying any stolen car. However it shouldbe understood at the outset that my invention is not necessarily related to and limited by the exemplificatiou herein set forth and explained.
My improved system has as its ground work a definite coded scheme of marking in obscure places any article or mechanism, so, that the eradication of one or more of the plurality ofsuch marks willalmoslt as readily indicate by its position orv positions, the particular identified article. Thus with an automobile marked in a distinctive but obscure manner in half a dozen out of several times that number of coded positions; those positions being known only to the identifying agency, a very brief inspection of the automobile will disclose either the marks identifying it, which preferably are stamped into the metal, or an obliteration of any mark or marks fraudulently discovered and tampered with, Thus, with the practical certainty of future identification, coupled. with the uncertainty of discovering all of the numerous identifying marks, there remains small incentive to steal an automobile, or indeed any other article lending itself to my system, which has been suitably identi fied.
Briefly explaining my improvement, preliminary to its explicit and selected use. I
may say that the article to be identified is first carefully charted and numerous posi-' tions of marking are selected, which preferably are more or less obscure, and which may correspond in number to the letters of the alphabet. Other positions similarly are charted corresponding to the digits; all bespeciflcati'on of Letters Patent.
ing secretly recorded at, a, central oifice andany branch offices that. may be established.
A code symbol and a number of several figures are then assigned to each identified ar ticle; the code preferably being short and containing both letters and figures, as u #913 a,
corresponding letters of the alphabenand the symbol, X313 is stamped with a steel stamp upon those parts of the article which are indicated in the chart by the correspond- PatentcdJuly 25, was. 1921. Serial no, 466,968.-
The number is then coded into.
as an automobile. it would be a mutterof: i
great uncertainty whether any stranger could find and eradicate such marks. Moreover, the filing or resurfacing of the metal locally where any mark has been stamped, at once serves to place thereon a substitute identification in one or more of the selected positions. i
If desired, I above a different type of marking, such as an obscurely placed and concealed drill hole, or holesv of small but defined size. so that the coded marking is supplemented by a different and distinctive symbol.
Although the nature of my invention does not well lend itself to illustration, 1 may make reference to the accompanying drawings by way of-graphfic showing, wherein:
Fig. 1 IS a plan view in outline of the frame of an automobile whereon the charting for identification is indicated.
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary view in section and perspective of, a metal member marked with the symbol DQA? by means of a steel stamp for the purposes of identifying and coding any mechanical structure, and
Fig. 3 is a sectional view showing the secret drillpoint hole X. employed as an additional identification when properly positioned.
may also couple with the i The primary use to which l propose to 7 which the records are duplicated and by which the automobiles are inarkedfor identification. It is quite essential that the system of marking shall be definite, individual and preferably obscure. In order to accomplish this I have devised a typical coding system which afiords a wide range of complex individual designatlons, The code affords the advantage of protectlng the system from general knowledge, both by the public and "by the minor employees within the central and branch ofiices.
Each make of automobile will be sepa rately charted for identifying markings 1 n a relatively large number of positions. 'TlllS permits the repetition of a simple code symbol for each make of car, or even for each type of car, if desired. For example, we may select the North Pole automobile and chart thereon some twenty-six locations corresponding to the letters of the alphabet, upon the chassis and record them thus:
A-Rear spring front hanger, bottom (left side).
B-Rear spring front hanger, bottom (right side).
C-Third cross member, rear, 3" from left side.
D-Third cross member, rear, 3" from right side.
This chart will be completed throughout the alphabet, preferably selecting the locations in semi-concealed positions and on unmachined parts which may, however, readily be reached for applying a symbol or character with a steel stamp. Preferably a plurality of series should be adopted, in order to increase the practical range of individual marking.
Accordingly, another series of positions may be selected on the motor, numbered from 0 to 9 inclusive, as:
1-Low and reverse speed gear shifter finger.
.2Intermediate and high gear shifter finger.
8Lower crank case 6" forward of drain plug.
4..Cylinder block between first and second plugs.
This chart will be completed for the six remaining digits, as above explained, so that there will be two series of symbols for completing a marking code for the North Pole automobile or for any given model thereof. Obviously another alphabetical series, or a second numerical series might be charted for the body or for the running gear, for example, but the above is sufficiently typical for afi'ording a very wide range of individual marking.
Figure 1 graphically illustrates the specific points for identification upon the automobile as lettered and numbered above, to-' gether with other points for additional coded markings, which are not necessary further to ldentify 1n explaining my invention. i '7 From the above a letter and figure code is now prepared involving all of the differ ent possible combinations. This may be a two-character code, as A1, A2, A3, etc., but for wider range of marking, I preferably add a third character, such asA1X, A2X,or BlY, CQJ, D8M, etc. The three character arrangement will afford some thousands of possible combinations, yet permit of the use of a small and inconspicuous designating symbol. The invention, of course, does not concern itself with any particular coding system, of which many are known, or may readily be devised, but the above will explain how the interrelation of two coding series may be used with advanta 'e to increase the ran e of individual designation for automobiles, as will be further explained concretely.
Assuming that a North Pole model 1s to be marked for identification, the motor number of which is 1684372, and to which the code symbol DQA is assigned, this motor number will be applied to the first series of chassis marking by making the numerical series start with D thus:
DEFGHIJKLM 1234567890 of the twenty-six positions upon which the symbol DQA. will be stamped upon the" chassis of the particular North Pole'automobile, while the 2 directly indicates that the same symbol will be stamped in" the second position or intermediate and high gear shifter finger upon the motor. we have provided for some eight coded posi tions at which the individual symbol for the car is to be obscurely applied.
One 'ofthe stamped symbols DEZA as applied to the chassis of the automobile, or to any other mechanical structure, indeed, is shown in Fig. 2 of the drawings.
If. throughrepetition of too many digits, as 1,222,221, the motor number is not adapted for the coding'designation, it is obvious that an arbitrary number may be assigned tothe car for similar use in desig- Thus nation, or this may be directly interpreted Thus, assuming that the latter number is to be coded for an inapplicable motor number. and J3X is assigned as the code symbol. the arbitrary number J-692e5 may be also applied to indicate the coding, which preferably selects an arrangement of thedigits in their order, but as J is included 4 in the number, this will indicate that the sequential order is broken, with the J for the sixth digit, thus:
This provision forgiving arbitrary numbers possesses the advantage of permitting an inspector positively to reconstruct the number of any stolen automobile upon discovering the marked portions, or their obliteration, merely by reason of the fact that the digits are numerically arranged. It will be noted that fewer positions may be employed. g I
While it is quite possible that with extremely careful searclnall of the marked positions may ultimately be discovered by" the thief of an automobile and defaced or obliterated, in doing so he must make a counter mark in the selected position, of almost equal value in identifying the aut mobile. Moreover, even if he wished to place misleading marks or obliterations, seemingly, in other positions, the thief must know the entire series of positions in order that he may even temporarily deceive an inspector who is fully advised of the system.
It is necessary, of course, to maintain complete records of all the marking posi: tions, coding and individual automobile designations, both at the central. or home oflice and in duplicate, at any branch office atwhicli the data may come under review. For the individual designations, preferably a printed or multigraphed card system is well adapted, and a typical card for the North Pole automobile above considered, would read, in part, as follows:
Owner, Jae/c Frost. Code symbol, D211.
Address, 515 Cold l'later Avenue, Kent, Ohio.
Make of car, North Pole.
Model, H1921 Motor number, 1684372.
The italicized data, it will be understood, is individual to the particular automobile identified and is written or printed on a form card, which normally would contain a great deal more detailed information regarding the machine and its equipment, but which is quite unnecessary for explaining the use of my invention.
As an additional secret mark, the frame may be drilled, say with a 1 g drill at X, three inches from the rear spring support, in common with all North Pole automobiles, and the drill hole filled with dust, oil, or otherwise suitably masked, to afford a definite indication that the car has been tem. Quite obviously, all other makes of metal, very readily automobiles, and, indeed, most manufactured into the unmachined surface of the metal" to an appreciable depth. This, I may term semi-permanent marking, in that although it may be obliterated, ordinary use of the article will not impair the mark in any way.
However any adaptable mode or style of marking may be made to answer.
The precedure above set forth, quite obviously entails a minimum cost for marking the articles of manufacture for identification, and this may be accomplished either in the factory, the garage, or by the roadside, if desired. It is important that the marking may be accurately, quickly and cheaply accomplished, and my instructions, if followed, will achieve these results, and contribute materially to the decrease of theft through the concealed mode of identification thereby secured.
Having now described my invention, together with exemplifications of its use, I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, the following:
1. The herein described method of identifying articles, which consists in charting positions of identification upon said article, assigning a plurality of such positions individual to the article or class of articles, semipermanently applying an identifying mark to the article in each of said positions, and making record thereof, substantially as set forth.
2; The herein described method of identifying articles, which consists in charting a relatively large number of positions of identification upon a class ofarticles, recording the same, assigning a smaller number of such positions individual to the article or sub-class of articles, semi-permanently applying a characteristic mark to the article or articles in each of the latter positions, and making record thereof, substantially as set forth.
3. The herein described method of identi fying articles, which consists in charting two series of positions of identifications upon a given class of articles, recording the same, assigning positions from each of the series individual to the article or sub-class of ar-' ticles, semi-permanently applying a coded mark to the article or articles in each of the latter positions, and making record thereof, substantially as set forth.
4;. The herein described method of identifying mechanical structures, which consists in selecting and charting a relatively large number of positions of identification upon the typical structure, recording the same, separately assigning a small number of such &
positions individual to the particular strucserved locations, recording the same, sepa rately assigning a smaller number of such positions individual to the structure or structures to be identified in accordance with a predetermined code, semi-permanently applying an. identifying coded mark to each structure in the selected positions indicated by the code, and making record thereof, substantially as set forth.
6. The herein described method of charting mechanical structures for individual identification, which consists in selecting and recording a relatively large number of positions for marking such structures, arbitrarily applying a code symbol to each of such positions, selecting keying symbols relating to the code, and making duplicated records of the same, whereby the structures may be marked and identified, substantially as set forth.
7. The herein described method of charting mechanical structures for individual identification, which consists in selecting a relatively large number of positions for marking such structures, recording said positions in two series, arbitrarily applying a code symbol to each of such positions, selecting keying symbols relating to both series of the code, and making duplicated records of the same, whereby structures thus coded may be given individual marking, substantially as set forth.
8. The herein described method of identifying articles, which consists in charting positions of identification upon said article from which obliteration would be observable, assigning a plurality of such positions to a given article or class of articles, semi-permanentlyapplying an identifying mark in each of the latter positions, and preserving record of the foregoing, whereby an attempted obliteration will result in placing a corresponding series of marks, substantially as set forth. I
9 The herein described method of identifying mechanical structures, which consists in selecting and charting a relatively large number of positions of identification upon a typical structure from which obliteration would be noticeable, assigning a smaller num ber of such positions to the particular structure or structures to be identified, semi-pen manently applying an identifying mark to the structure or structures in the last selected positions, and making record thereof, whereby an attempted obliteration will result in further identifying markings, substantially as set forth.
In testimony whereof I do now aflix my signature.
JOHN F. GELNAW. [n s.]