Device for effecting the combustion of fuel
US 1430327 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
i A. SAUER.
. DEVICE FOR EFFECTING THE COMBUSTION 0F FUEL.
APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 5. I919.
Patented Sept. 26, 1922.
2 SHEETS-SHEET- Winess: li zvehr A. SAUER.
DEVICE FOR EFFECTING THE COMBUSTION 0F FUEL. APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 5-. 1919.
1 30 327 Patented Sept. 26, 1922.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
Patented Sept. 26, 1922.
UNITED STATES ADELBERT SAUER, OF .PITTSBURG-H, PENNSYLVANIA.
DEVICE FOR EFFECTING THE COMBUSTION OF FUEL.
Application filed September 5, 1919. Serial No. 321,970.
To all whom it may concern: I
Be it known that I, Annnnnn'r SAUER, a
citizen of the United States, residing at .Pittsburgh, in the county of Allegheny and State of Pennsylvania, have invented certain new and useful Improvement in Devices for Effecting the Combustion of Fuel, of which the following is a specification.
My invention is an improvement in the art of fuel combustion for the generation of heat. It has for its object to utilize the fuel in liquid or gaseous form, and the pressure thereof as caused or supplemented by the heat of the burner to effect a suitable inflow and admixture of atmosphericair, utilizing suitable mechanism therefor, as hereinafter described.
In the drawings I have illustrated the invention in connection with forms of apparatus adapted to carry out my improved method, in which:
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of an apparatus for heating, mixing and supplying the fuel to a'furnace chamber;
Fig. 2 is a cross section on the line II, II of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a similar view on the line III, III of Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is a sectional detail view showing a modification, utilizing a separate inspirator connection;
Fig. 5 is a longitudinal sectional view similar to Fig. 1 showing a modified form of apparatus;
Fig. 6 is a cross section on the line VI, VI of Fig. 5;
Fig. 7 is a view inelevation of the rear end of the mixing shell, showing the air inlet damper.
In the drawings, the mixture supply terminal of the apparatus is provided with a burner end 2, preferably cylindrical in form,
'mounted in the front wall 3 of a furnace chamber 4. Burner 2 is provided with a central delivery opening 5 and a surrounding annular preliminary heating chamber 6 between the middle delivery opening and confined by the inner 'wall portions of burner 2.
The rear'portion of said member is outwardly tapered in cone form to receive the coniform shell 8 with a comparatively narrow intervening annular cavity 9 preferably narrowing in width towards the front and providing a relatively narrow annular emission slot between the outer end of the shell 8 and the inner face of the cavity 5. The front portion of shell 8 is divided by an annularly arranged series of closely adjacent angularly arranged slots 10 extending backwardly partway of the length of the shell, as in Fig. 1, and these slots are also preferably cut through the shell tangentially as shown in Fig. 3. The object of this construction is to effect a rotary or swirling movement to the fuel gas as it passes to the burner. Shell 8 is fitted against and secured to the rear end of the burner body by co-acting flanges 11, 12, and also by flange 13 of the rear air supply chamber 14 having the inner cavity 15, as clearly shown.
Heating chamber or retort 6 is provided with a supply port 16 leading to a liquid fuel or other fluid supply pipe 17 at one side and at the other side with a port 18 leading backwardly intothe rear coniform opening and to therear portion of the annular cavity 9. A by-pass pipe 19 is connected with port 18 and also with an inspirator jet device 20, preferably with an intervening valve 21, whereby to supply a portion'of fuel gas to the front central portion of chamber 15 under pressure, so as to deliver it forwardly centrally of the shell 8 and opening 5. The inspirator jet 20 is screwed into the end of chamber 14, as shown, and is provided with a series of laterally extending grooves 22 which are slightly deflected spirally, in the same general direction as the slots 10 of shell 8.
An atmospheric air inlet opening 23 leads through a supporting base 24: of the shell 14 and is provided with a regulating damper 25 whereby the proper amount of air is supplied, depending on the conditions.-
The burner 2 is preferably provided with a covering 26 of suitable refractory material, as fire clay or the like, extending over its front and side walls as shown in Fig.1, whereby to'protect the burner from erosion, due to excessive heat, while permitting the passage of a sufliciently highllO through the series of slots 10. By reason of the arrangement of these, the volume of gas is caused to assume a forward rotating or swirling form, in its passage through the burner to the combustion chamber of the furnace. This effect is amplified when the inspirator jet 20 is utilized so that the induced gaseous current thereby creates a strong suction and effects the introduction of the atmospheric air to chamber 15. Thereafter, the air passing forwardly with. the gas, combines with it in a very thorough commingling and assumes the same forward rotating swirling movement, so that the mixture passes into the combustion chamher in a very thoroughly mixed and highly combustible condition, best adapted for very complete combustion without any waste matter. 1
In the form of the apparatus illustrated on sheet 2 of the drawings, the construction of the mixing members is somewhat simplified, merely utilizing the means for causing a forward swirling suction producing movement of a gas under pressure, as super-- heated steam, whereby to carry inwardly with it the necessary amount of air, with which it is thereby thoroughly mixed and is then introduced into the combustion chamher, as a furnace, utilizing any available fuel as coa'h coke, or the like.
In such construction illustrated in Figs. 5 and 6, the mixer is composed of the outer cylindrical shell 7 and the inner shell 8 introduced into the enlarged portion thereof with the intervening annular space 9*; The rear portion of shell 7 is provided with a suitable connecting luginto which is screwed the pipe 17 a for supplying a fluid under pres sure as superheated steam or the like. The forward portion of inner shell 8 is angularly slotted as indicated at 10, forwardly be 0nd the rear portion of annular space 9*.
he forward terminal edge of inner shell 8 is tapered so as to conform to the interior taper of shell 7, as indicated, with a slight intervening annular emission slot opening. If desired, such slot may be com pletely closed by adjustment of the inner shell in connection with suitable lining spacers 27 as indicated.
The: rear portion of inner shell 8 is flared outwardly, providing an ample air inlet funnel shaped cavity 28,- as shown in Fig. 5, and the outer portion of such air inlet shell is provided with a suitable dam per 29, whereby the amount of air may be readily regulated, as will be easily understood. In this form of apparatus, the superheated steam and air are preferably mixed in the same manner asbefore described in connection with the use of a fluid hydrocarbon, as oil. The superheated steam passing inwardly to cavity 9 then travels inwardly through the angular slots In each construction and operation,- the general desirable effect or resultis the same, i. e., a thorough comminglingof the air and the superheated gasified fuel or steam, proportioned to perfect combustion,and in connection with the induced inward travel and the rotary swirling mixing movement. The complete admixture of the elementsv in this manner occurs irrespective of the inherent qualities of the several elements themin itself a completely combustible mixture embodying a necessary carbon, or whether it is a thoroughly mixed mass,such as superheated steam and air, adapted to then combine with other fuel. j j i In both embodiments of the invention, i
is to be observed that the slots 10 and 10*, as shown particularly in Figs. .3 and 6,are directed tangentially to the longitudinal axis of the chamber 5, 5, and because of this and of their angular arrangement as shown in Figs. 1 and 5, a rotary swirling movement in the form of a vortex is produced in the ejected gas, the vortex lyingin the longitudinal axis of the chamber and constituting a a It is furtherto be observed that the airy passage 23is so disposed adjacent to the inspirator jet or injector 20 that the air comes initially into surrounding proximity to the gaseous stream ejected fromthe jector 20. It is also to be observed that because of the central disposition of the injector 20, the swirling movement imparted to the ejected gas by the grooves 22tend-s to spread the gas outwardly from the axis of the chamber into the surrounding air.-
' It is further to be observed that the air and gas thus mixed pass through the coniform shell 8 of the foremost injector and that the shape of that injector is such that selves, whether the mixture be one which is j V theswirling, rotary movingstreams of gas 'or gaseous form may be utilized, and wherever the terms gas or gaseous fuel are used in the claims, these terms are understood to cover either a true gas or liquid fuel which has been vaporized and injected in the mixing chamber of the device under its own pressure as herembefore referred to.
The advantages" of the invention, its applicatlon to various industrial uses, its
economy as to results, efliciency in effecting a substantially complete combustionof all of the fuel, avoidance of smoke or any resulting waste fuel product, and various other features of advantage andsavlng adapt it to a wide variety of applications and utilizations. The proportions, design or various other elements of the particular apparatus may be Widely changed by the skilledmechanic without departing from the invention itself as expressed in the following claims.
What I claim is 1. A device for effecting the combustion of fuel comprising a shell having a coniform portion at one end thereof, said coniform portion being provided with spirally formed slots therein, an air inlet into said shell, a casing having a flared portion which surrounds said coniform portion, a passageway for fluid between the coniform portion and the casing, and an annular chamber in the said casing with which the passageway communicates.
2. A device for effecting the combustion of fuel comprising a shell having a coniform portion at one end of which is an annular series of tangential spirally formed slots, an air inlet into said shell, a casing having a flared portion which encloses the coniform portion of said shell, a passageway for fluid between the coniform portion of the shell and the casing, and an annular chamber in said casing with which the passageway communicates.
3. A device for efi'eoting the combustion of fuel comprising a shell having an air inlet passage of relatively large diameter at one end of the shell, and a discharge portion of less diameter, said discharge portion being provided with an annular series of tangentially arranged spiral slots passing therethrough, a casing having a portion thereof surrounding said discharge portion at'the place where the annular series of slots is located but spaced therefrom, and means for introducing fluid under pressure between the casing and said discharge portion, said casing having a central delivery opening of less diameter than the air inlet passage of the shell.
4. A device for eflecting the combustion of fuel comprising a shell having an air inlet and a coniform discharge end, said discharge end being provided with an annular series of tangentially arranged spiral slots therein, a
casing connected with said shell, a flared portion on said casing which surrounds said coniform discharge end but which is spaced therefrom to form a passageway, an annular heating chamber-in said casing, means for supplying fluid to said chamber, and means permitting the passage of fluid from said chamber to said passageway.
5: A device for effecting thecombustion of fuel comprising a shell having an air inlet and a coniform discharge end, said discharge end being provided with an annular series of tangentially arranged spiral slots therein, a casing connected with said shell, a flared portion on said casing which surrounds said coniform discharge end but which is spaced therefrom to form a passageway, said spacing tapering toward the discharge end of said coniform portion, an annular heating chamber in said casing, means for supplying fluid to said chamber, and means permitting the passage of fluid from said chamber to said tapering passageway.
6. A device for effecting the combustion of fuel comprising a shell having an air inlet and a coniform discharge end, said discharge end being provided with an annular series of tangentially arranged spiral slots therein, a casing connected with said shell, a flared portion on said casing which surrounds said coniform discharge end but which is spaced therefrom to form a passageway, an annular heating chamber in said casing, means for supplying fluid to said annular heating chamber, means for permitting the passage of fluid from said cham ber to said passageway, a nozzle at the rear of said shell, and a by-pass connecting said nozzle with said heating chamber.
7. A device for effecting the combustion of fuel comprising a shell having an air passage therethrough, a discharge means at the end of the shell having a tapered exterior portion and spirally arranged slots which terminate in said tapered portion, a casing having a portion thereof surrounding the shell but spaced therefrom, and means for introducing fluid between the casing and the discharge means.
8. A device for effecting the combustion of fuel comprising a shell having an air inlet passage of relatively large diameter at one end of the shell and a discharge portion of less diameter, said discharge portion being provided with an annular series of tangentially-arranged, spiral slots passing therethrough, a casing having a portion thereof surrounding said discharge portion at the place where the annular series of slots is located but spaced therefrom, and means for introducing fluid under pressure between the casing and said discharge portion.
9. In a device for mixing and supplying a fuel mixture to a combustion chamber, a mixing chamber having an exit to said combustion chamber, means for projecting a stream of gas centrally of said mixing chamber in a rotary swirling and forward movement toward said exit, an air supply pass age to said mixing chamber adapted to deliver air initially to surrounding proximity to said stream of gas, and means for porjecting a second stream of gas from the walls of said mixing chamber with an inwardly swirling rotary movement.
l0.In a device for mixing and supply ing a fuel mixture to a combustion chamber, a mixing chamber having an exit to said combustion chamber, two injectors for gaseous fuel under pressure spaced apart proximity to the rearmost of said injectors, said rearmost injector being adapted to de-.
liver a column of gaseous fuel forwardly and axially of saidmixing chamber in a swirling movement tending to impart movement to said gaseous fueloutwardliy from; said axis,
and the foremost I of sai v I adapted to deliver gaseous fuel in a swirling movement inwardly towards the axis of sai mixing chamber.
In testimony whereofI hereunto. aiiixed my signature.