US 1433185 A
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A. V. DA COSTA. v' COMBINADIWSTEAM AND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
I lAPPLICATION FILED MAR. 23, |921. n 1,433,185, Patented 06f. 24,1922.
4 SHEETS-SHEET l.
A. V. DA COSTA. COMBINATION STEAM AND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
APPLICATION FILED MAR. 23, 1921. 1,433, 185, Patented Oct. 24, 1922.
4 SHEEIS-SHEE`I 2.
a 544. /A/ J? 6* Ar. V. DA COSTA.
COMBINAT ION STEAM AND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE. APPLICATION FILED mais. 1921.
1,433,185, V l i Patented Oct. 24, 1922.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
l A. V. DA COSTA. 'ACOMBINATION STEAM AND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
I APPLICATION FILED MAILZS, 192|. '1,483,185 Patented Oct. 24, 1922.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 4.
Patented Oct. 24, 1922.
ARTHUR v. nAjcos'rA, or rRovIDENcE, RHODE ISLAND.
COMBIATION vSTFAM AND INTERNAL-COMBUSTION EGINE.
Application filed March 23, 19.21A. Serial No. 454,743.
To @ZZ wlw/m, it may concern:
Be it known that I, ARTHUR V. Dfi COSTA, a citizen of the United States, residing at Providence, in the county of Providencey .and State of Rhode Island, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Combination Steam and Internal-Combustion Engines, of rwhich the following is a specification.
This invention relates toan improved constructionv of engine and an improved method of generating power in said engine; and the cbiect of this invention is to provide an engine of this character having one kor more internal combustion cylinders in which a charge of combustible fluid is comressed fired `and ex anded to drive a iston, with which expanded charge another iiuid of a lower temperature is mixed for, vthe purpose of cooling the surrounding parts and of increasing the volume of the charge to act upon'another driving element. l
A further object of this invention is the provision of 'asteam generator located adjacent thev engine cylinders, which generator is heated by burning an explosive charge in the cylinders and means being provided whereby steam is conducted from this generatior to lmixwith the exploded charge after being expanded. By vwhich construction it will be seen that the explosion the engine cylinder vperforms two'functions; first, it drives `the piston and second, it generates heat to make steam in the generator. The next step in the' loperation is that the steam thus generated is admitted to the exploded and expanded charge, which performs three functions; first, the steam being at a lower temperature than the charge cools thecylin ders and adjacent parts to the proper working temperature; second, the heat in the charge raises the temperature of the steam admitted to expandvthe same; and third, the admitting of steam into the charge in- Vcreases the volume of the charge preparatory to acting upon another driving element.
rThe invention further consists 1n the provision ofa pair of high-pressure, four-cycle vinternal combustion cylinders in which pair a charge is. fired alternately when com* pressed and into which cylinders is admitted steam when the burnt charge has expanded, and a Alow pressure cylinder being located intermediate said high pressure cylinders into which the charges from the high-pressure cylinders are alternately forced to impel each inward stroke ofits piston.
This invention further consists in the pro` vision of a turbine motor connected to the engine driving shaft and means being provided whereby the exhaust comprising the burnt expanded charge combined with the mixture of steam is conducted to this motor to drive the same. f l
lVith these and other objects in view, the invention consists of certain novel features of construction, as will be more fully described, and particularly pointed out in the appended claims.
, ln the accompanying drawings Figure 1 is a sectional side elevation through the two high and intermediate low pressure cylinders, also showing the turbine motor mounted to cooperate with the rest of the engine in generating power.
Figure 2 is a rear view of the engine.
. Figure 3 is a top view of the engine sectioned on line 8 3 of Figure 1 through the steam generator.
Figure 4 is an enlarged View showing a portion of the steamy generator, also showing a detail of one form of automatic water supply control. y
' Figure 5 is an elevation showing the relative position of the thermal unitat the steam ing the general arrangement of the valve' cam for controlling one of the high pressure cylinders whereby the `valve is opened once each revolution of the cam shaft.
Figure' Tf shows .the low pressure cylinder and the arrangement of the'cams on the camshaft whereby the exhaust valve is opened twice each revolution of the cam shaft.
Figure S is a diagrammatic section showing one form of water chamber for supplying the steam generator.
Figure 9 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the oil chamber as connected to the oil well and delivering oil therefrom to the crank splashing system.
Figure 10 is a detail of the cam shaft showing the arrangement of the intake and exhaust control cams.
It is well known in practice that the ordinary internal combustion engine even of the four-cycle type, is very inefficient as it de velops but a small percentage ofthe power in the fuel' consumed, this inefficiency being due primarily `to the great loss of heat both" in radiation and in the escape of thehet prod-y.
ucts of combination. Special means such as a circulation vof Water or air about thev cylinders beingvprovided for carrying away this heat which in the old style internal* coxnhustion engine `is both objectionable and troublesome. By my improvedmethodjlf not only provide a simple and practical Way of removing,thisheretofore Wasted heat but I utilize thev samekto develop more power and by which methodI practically douhle 4 the efficiency ofthe enginefan'd] the' followrving is a detailed description of one means and methodbywvhich this result may be ad,
ders which are mounted upon a vcommoncase 11.` In these cylinders are mounted pistons l2 and 121 connected to theirv respective cranks 13 by the rods 11i, the cranks being connected to the shaft 15 mountedto run in bearings 16 inthe casingll.
Intermediate `this pair of high pressure cylindersI have mounted a single'low pres` sure cylinder 17 in which. is mounted a piston 18 `which is connected bymeans of the rod 19'fto` the crank 20 which latter is also connected to the crank shaft 15.` and vvhich` yhas a throw greater thanthat of the high pressure cylinder cranks. Y l
A single cylinder vhead'21` is shown as hein'g connectedy to i all of thesev cylinders, said head'bein,f.,1r constructedinl the form of a thinv chamber for carryinga comparatively small amount of Water spread vout. in a thin layer to' be generated quickly intostesi-m"v the heat of the explosions inl thehighpressuixi cylinders. l y
y This head member inaddition' to'serving as a Steam generating chamber also serves as a valve headfor carrying all of the intake and: exhaust valves vfor all of said cylinders and these valves areall controlledfrom a common valve cam' shaft22 ywhich is driven from the crank shaft 15 through gears 23 l and 24k to run at one-half the speed of the crank shaft. y
lThey intake valve 25 is opened from cam 26 through the lift 27 and rocker arm 28 to permit an explosive mixture to be drawn into the' cylinder through the carburetor 29 and manifold 30 by thev inwardly moving piston 13; On the next upward movement: of this piston thelvalve 25close's andthecliar-ge therein is compressed" to a very high degree andwhen so compressed is fired through the action of the spark plug in the usual Way to now drive the piston in again to make its power stroke. i V
The exhaust valve to this cylinder is now With reference `to the drawings, il() and" 101`dcsinjnatefa pair o'l"'l'iighpressiii'e cylin-` plete a full cycle of operations.
opened through the action of cam 32, lift 33,
and` rocker arm 34 about thev time4 that the piston 12 has completed itsI power stroke. It
fwil-l beebserved that the valve V31 `controls twopassages,` namely a small passage k36 leading to the interior of the generator 35,
above thelevel of' the Water, and amain eX- haust passage 37 leading to the cylinder 17. As the burning charger or exploded gases are forced outwardly `by the piston 12,'they di-". vide, a,y portion passing through passage 36 into' contact With theywa'ter in the generator 35", thereby `quickly raising` the `temperattire f andv pressure of the steam, and a port-ion passing 'into the cylinder 17. The discharge of the burningl ,eases into the generator continues until the steam pressure limildeA up sulllciently to react and arrest movement oli said gases toward the generator, whereupon', thence-nr will be iercedl outof the generator and will unite with the vases in the )essa re f 37;;y The mixed steam and gasesenter cyl# inder 17 throughsaid passage 37, driving the piston! 1S inward. In due course the-` valve 31 iscloscd and the exhaust valve 38 of" this large cylinder is opened by action of the canr 39 through the lift L10y and rocker armfl to` eejLv v permit the escape of the lexhaust froml this? y les the sparkplugll, they'pistonrunderkimpact l of this charge makes its' power stroke after? which itsfexhaust valve-49 is openedthroughr y action ofthe cam" 50; lift-rod 51 and rocker arrn2fto n ovv adm'itfsteaml` from. the' cham berlf throughl the port 53 into the expanded burnt chargegvvhi'ch mixture is thenvexpelled `bythe rising piston 12 through the* channel'i 54 againstthe large piston vv'hich is-'now' raised again andis in position to'receive itandbej i'orceddownward. B vthis constructionl it' vrillhe noted that `Whileboth of these highpressure pistons are down atthe same' time-yet oneisr` at the end of itsintake Strokey Whilel the other is at the endof its' power stroke and vice' versa. two higlrpressurecyhndersare timed toenhaustfalternatelyinto the large cylinder to drive iitspistonfdovvnwardly at its each andsv In other Words-` the every `inward strokel after which the volume in tlijis loW `pressure cylinder' may be eX- hausted into the open air if' desired to com- In'. other' instances I may conduct this volume of compound exhaust gases 'to act upon another..
driving element to generate more power and sol more full-yutilizethe energy in the Inthe utilizing of this low pressure exhau'stl I preferably mountapturbine vmotor 56 in position to cooperate withtheengine driving shaft to increase the vpower of ther engine, the exhaust being conducted toy thisVv turbine -through Vthe pipe 57. In .practice I preferably provide a jack yshaft'S which is geared to the crank shaftl by the large gear 59 and pinion 60, to' runiat amuch higher speed thanfthe crank shaft and on this jack shaft I preferably mount the turi Ibine motor Wheel 62.' By this construction Athetiirbine wheel serves a double purpose; vfirst, it rrotatesat a very high velocity rela# tive to the Vcrankv shaft and takes the place y sok 'of a fly-wheel;- 'and"second, the .turbine Wheel 62 is permitted to run at its required rate of speed'to effect vits maximum efiiciency so that in addition to increasing the power of the engine, the turbine upon being geared to'run at a'high velocity'serves to steady the action of the engine to' a greater extent than.
could a fly-wheel mounted directly upon the crank shaft.
After ther `compound gas has passed through this turbine'Y itfis exhausted out through. the pipe 6l and by its Vuse `practically all o'f the energy in the exhaust gases produced by the explosive mixture andthe steam,l has beenutilized.' V- y In constructing lmy improved steam generator the same may be made in any desired fornito either':in'close the cylinders if ded sired or place in any other desired position, but forconvenience Ihav'e foundthat the head member for the r`cylinders may be formed in acoinparatively thin. chamberV whereby the heat from `the exploded fuel under pressure is suficient'toact'upon a thin film "of'water in this chamber to flash the same quickly into steam."
In order to keep ythe water in this chamber at a constant predetermined' level y I have provided a pump 63 which comprises essentially a plunger l64 .driven from the cam shaft 22`through the knee lever 65 to draw the-water from the tank 66 through pipe' .and force the same upward throughl the supply pipe 67 into the chamber 35.
As it is found in. practice desirable to pijovide some means for automatically controlling the height of the water in the chamber,
I have mountedv a'thermally-controlled unit' therein, which comprises essentially a tube 68 mounted inthe steam chamber, whose longitudinal axis vis positioned approximately at thejdesiredheight]l offthe water line in thefchamher.r In1this"tube I place a small quantity of speciallyy prepared oil orv otherv material 69 which is expanded 'and contracted by changes in high temperature compression spring 7l so.A that when thev water ,72 dropsin the chamber to more completely expose the tube 68 to the steam, `the added vheat ofthe steam expands the liquid therein forcing out the piston 70 to engage and raise the valve 7,3 fromits seat admit` ting more water.r through thesupply pipek 67 around through the inlet 74 to again raise the level of the water about the tube and so cool and contract the liquid therein permittingrthe piston 70 under action of its spring to recede and seat its control' valve 73, jWhen this control valve is seated the pump pressure generatedin the space/F6 serves tu raise the relief valve '77 permitting the ex cess water pumped to return by way of the pipe 78 to the water reservoir 66, see Figure i8.
I havev shown and described one form oi'y ythermal element for automatically controlling the height of the water level in the gen ei'ator, but any suitable means may be einployed .for thisy purpose.
As is well known the excessive or high degree cf heat generated by exploding the charge under pressure is detriment to the action of the usualiin'ternal combustion en# gine, and therefore, must be removed, which has ordinarily been accomplished either in circulating cool water or air about the cylinders and in the removal of which heatas is well know-n, a large percentage of the energy in the fuel is thrown away. rIo Iobviate this serious difficulty which has heretofoie not been overcome in a practical way,
I utilize this heat to generate'steain and then. Iconduct a charge' of this steam so generated into the expanded.chargeiaftei'A the piston has 4been forced down andthe charge expanded, which steam being at ya temperature lower than that of the charge in the c 7linder serves to at once take u) this excessive heat and so'cool oif the cylinder walls and surrounding parts, the volume of the steam admitted is itself at once expanded and upon mixing with the charge greatly increases the volume ofthe ivliolecliarge whose energy having been greatly increased by the i admission of steam thereto, isexpelled by the rising piston. into.y the low pressure cylk inder to drive down its piston and so do more work, and after the energy of the com-V f pound charge has been thus'further used and removed, itv is againexpelled and conducted to act upon theturbine engine 56 which'is connected to cooperate with the pistons to do still more work and upon exhausting from the turbine both the heat and the press sure of the' compound charge has been prac l L the inif the
steamlserves to keep thecylinders'L entirely lree of carboni thusv 'removing a .great source foftrouble' andimai-ntaining a highfdegree compound charge' may be used to act uponv charge ofsteam and burntgases alternately intoa larger cylinder' to` do 'more worlr, but I donot wish toberestr-icted to,y this particular 'arrangement otmecha'n'ism as the any'driving element to do y'more work;
y blejelement, separating a portion of .the
l heated by neither "do lwish tovbe restricted to the adi? initting of? steam necessarily into the cylin4 dersfo'r the `purpose of coolingthe same as any coolingmedium `which has beenV pre` rounding parts@l lai/ing thus described one illustrative emL of cooling the sur- 'bodiment ofi my invention. and the best mode known to me i'or carrying. out my methoth, y
` other stream into a second I `desire it tobe understoodthatalthough v speeicf termsare' employed, they are used' inf generic Vand descriptive sensei and not. for y the purpose of limitation,- the scopel of.
thehinventionbeing defined and limited only n the termso'the appended claims; ,i
I claims"` y ,i i y '14u-i method of generating power com pri'sing exploding` a1- combustible charge within` a cylinder toapply ptmierv to a movaburningt charge from the whole charge `and utilizing vthe separated `portion to produce" highpressure steam, andicausingr said steam l and the rest' jofsaid biuning :charge to, re act vagainst a 4second movable element. y *2;A `method of ,generating .power comprising' exploding` awcombustible charge -within a cylinder to apply power toa'mova.,
blefeler'nent7 separating' a portion of they burning charge' from the .whole charge'and bringing it'into direct contact with a body of steam to raisel the pressure' thereof, and` causing said 'steam andthe rest of; said burning charge to yreactv against a second movable element.
.l 3. A'method of generating power com-1 `prisingexploding combustible charge 4 within a cyliner to apply power to a movafble clement, separating portion of the burningcharge from the whole charge and f yutilizing the separated portion to generate highp'ressure steam until said pressure gre acts against the' flow Soi.' the separated por tion ofsaid charge, and utilizing said re# `action to cause said steam vand the'balance of `said'burningr charge to actuate a secondl movable element.` *y i, y
4.' vA rr-i'ethody otgeneratingv power comi65"`p`ris`in"g exploding'v a ,combustible charge p an explosive charge butwhich is-y of a temperature lowerthan' that' of the 'charge yin the cyl1ndei',may be admitted` two movable elements.
sure steam until: suiiioienty'pressure `1s gening Asaid-` steamI pressure and the balance' of 1 said burning ble: 'e`lement.A
prising A exploding a j combustible' charge within acylinder lto applypowerto'a movagases to actuatea second I'nova-` 5. A1method ofafbgeneratingi 75";`
bleielement,A discharging the burning prod-Qt y f nets in two streams, utilizing lone stream Y to' generate steampressure,v discha'r 'ing theV other stream into a second. cyrlln er conf taining a; movable element` and simultan'e-y ously discharging? steam pressure into the*` second cylinder;
`6. A, method of prisinzg-r explodingV a; combustible 'chargey withinacylinder to applypower to a movablef elemente. discharging the' .burning prod uctslintwo streams, utilizing, one stream; to
disch arging the generate steam pressure, y p
luider contain- :ing a movable element, causing said-steam to` combine with the second steam of ing` dischargej andhcansingfsthe combined i D another movable element.
steam and bfurninu'f` discharge to react againstly 17."A, method of generating` power lcome i prisingp exploding acombustile charge within a cylinder to applyppower'to afinolx'ra-M` p 100 burning chargey from the` whole charge and ble elementyseparating"a,portion lof .the
utilizing, "the separatedp'ortioii to;4 produce' i high pressure steam, causing said steam andlv the rest' of said; burning chargev `to react i 'against' a secondy movable element, `and apc-l` i tua-tine y a commoriyvshaftby means of*l the .8."Akn1ethodfoif gen rating power co1nprising' exploding' a vlcombust'ible charge within a cylinderlto applypowerto agm'o'i'fa.;` .ble ele1nent,separatinga portionlof" the" burning charge from the whole charge and utilizing fthe separated"` portion nto produce" high pressure steam7 to a point where 'said y pressure will react against the" flow-of said charge, and utilizingrsaid reaction tofcallse'` said steam andthe balanceof` said burning' charge togactuate: a` second movable'element,
and causing bothrmovable-'elements to aetuate a common shat torgan internal combustion 'eylindei means forfiring a charge under pressure in said y 12o 9. Ina compound motorfasteamgerieral combining `.the high pressure steam withtlie remain-deref saidgasea a second driving element, and means whereby said combination charge may be caused to act upon said seconddriving element.
10. A motor comprising a steamI general tor, a high pressure internal combustion cylinder, a piston for compressing a charge in said cylinder, means for ring the compressed charge in said cylinder, means directing a portion of the exploded gases less than the Whole charge into said generator to produce highpressure steam upon the firing of said charge, means for combining the steam thus generated with the remainder of said exploded gases, a cooperating low presmeans directing a portion of the burningy charge in each cylinder less than the whole charge into said generator to produce high pressure steam, means for combining the steam thus generated With theremaining portions of the product of combustion in said cylinders, a cooperating low pressure cylinder, and means for'forcing the compound charges alternately from said high pressure cylinders into said low pressure cylinder.
12. A motor comprising a drive-shaft, a high pressure internal combustion cylinder, a piston in said cylinder connected to said shaft, a steam generator arranged to be heated by radiation rfrom cylinder, means for directing a portion of the exploded gases in said cylinder less than the Whole `charge into said generator to produce high pressure steam, a cooperating loiv pressure cylinder, and valve mechanism for controlling the flow ofthe increased volume of said combined charge to said low pressure cylinder as it is' expelled thereinto from said high pressure cylinder. v
13. A motor comprising a pair of internal combustioncylinders, a piston in each cylinder, a common drive-shaft actuated by said pistons, a steamv generator in proximity to said cylinders, means for introducing Water to said generator, means for firing the charges in said cylinders alternately When compressed, means directing portions of the exploded gases in said cylinders, less than the Whole charge into said generator to produce high pressure steam, means combining steam pressure With the remainder of the exploded gases, a third cooperating cylinder also connected to said shaft, and means for conducting said combined charges from said high-pressure cylinders alternately to said third cylinder to cooperate with the. other cylinders to do more Work.
14. A motor comprising a pairof internal combustion cylinders, charge-compressing piston in each cylinder, a common drive shaft actuated by said pistons, a steam generator, means directing portions of the exploded gases in said cylinders, less than the whole charge into said generator to produce high pressure steam, means for firing the charge for driving the pistons and heating said generator, Lsans for combining the high pressure steam from said generator with the remainder of said exploded gases,
a third cylinder iarovided with a piston also connected with said shaft, means for conducting the combined charges from said high lpressure cylinders alternately to said third cylinder, and means for introducing` water to said generator.
15. A motor comprising a pair of internal combustion cylinders, a loiv pressure'cylinder located intermediate said pair of cylinders, a piston in each of said cylinders, a common crank shaft connected with all of said pistons, means whereby the charges in said pair of cylinders is compressed and fired at every alternate stroke, a steam generator in proximity to said cylinders, means directing portions of the exploded gases in said cylinders less than the Whole charges into said generator to produce high pressure steam, valves for permitting iloiv of steam from said generator to said high pressure cylinders in combination with the rest of the exploded gases, and means whereby the rising pistons force these compound charges alternately from said pair of cylinders into said louT pressure cylinder to impel its every inward stroke. v
16. A motor comprising a pair of internal combustion cylinders, charge-compressing pistons insa-id cylinders, a common driveshaft actuated by said pistons, a steam generator in the cylinder heads, means for liring the charge when compressed in said cylinders, means directing a portion of the exploded gases less than the Whole charge in each cylinder into said' generator to produce high pressure steam, a third cooperating cylinder having a piston also connected to said shaft, valve-controlled mechanism for admitting steam from said generator into said third cylinders, meansA for conducting thev remaining portions of the exploded gases into said third cylinder in combination with the steam While it is flowing into said cylinder, means for introduciiro` Water to said generator, and means for controlling the height of the Water therein.
In testimony whereof 1 affix my signature.
ARTHUR V. DA COSTA.