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Publication numberUS1434941 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 7, 1922
Filing dateAug 9, 1921
Priority dateAug 9, 1921
Publication numberUS 1434941 A, US 1434941A, US-A-1434941, US1434941 A, US1434941A
InventorsErnest Boyd
Original AssigneeErnest Boyd
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 1434941 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)





Patented Nom 7, 1922.

LVM M @ATTORNEYS Patented Nav,I 7, 1922. v



Application led August 9, 1921.

' Hosiery, of which the following is a specistockings and other garments, made of fication.

This invention relates to the art of wearing appareland particularly to stockings, socks and similar garments which vare made of knitted material.

In the art, to which my invention particularly relates, it has long been common to make hose or stockings of knitted material such as silk, cotton and wool and to knit the same in fiat or tubular web, and,A it has also been common to fashion the flat'web as well as the tube into a simulation of the shape of the leg and foot. lit is well known that when knitted material and especially of knitted material composed wholly of one thread, become torn, or cut, or are snagged in any way, as by the finger nails in drawing on the stocking, or by any other means, the tear or snag will cause the giving away of the interchain of loops for an indefinite distance, this being familiarly known as running, and, when this condition occurs, it is practically impossible to stop it or overcome it and it eventually causes unsightly appearance, ruins the stocking, and causes wastage of expensive materials. This is also true with reference to the heel and toe of such stockings, which, when they become worn or cut through by abrasion, it is diiicult to darn so as to stop the running, resulting in the entire foot giving away along wide and long stretches, eventually reaching the leg of the stocking and running indefinitely. This results in discarding both stockings of the pair, even though one of the pair is not injured in any particular. It is well understood also that stockings of very light material, such as those made of silk and lace, are not strong or durable in the foot portions and especlally at the toe and heel, the bottom of the foot portion being distinguished from the top of the foot portion in 'orden to illustrate the fact that, when the bottom of the foot wears, cuts, or runs, for any cause whatever, the ent-ire stocking and usually the pair are discarded, thus making even a rela- Serial No. 490,882.

tively# cheapi pair of stockings quite expens1ve. Y

By the employment of my invention, all the foregoing difficulties, objections and deficiencles are overcome and completely removed, and I am enabled to produce not only a very sllghtly, but a very strong, durable and economlcal Stocking, which can be worn indefinitely and, in consequence, is exceedingly cheap.

llncarrying out my invention, some of the objects thereof may be stated as follows: to provide, as an article of manufacture, a stocking blank comprising the entire leg portion an the top of the foot portion, the same being knitted so that the two general parts are integral or formed in continuity one with the other, and so finished along the edges as to enable them to be readily seamed or stitched and trimmed or cut, if desired, without raveling or causing the wales of the material to run; to provide, as an article of manufacture, a stocking blank having the foot and legportions formed in continuity and the edges of the foot portion provided with a selvage, and the 'said blank formed of either flat or tubular knit material 'fashioned so as to have the general form of thel leg and the top of thefoot; to provide a stockin composed in leg and top of the foot of one liind of material, and in the bottom and heel of the foot of another kind of material, the latter being not only in contrastv with `the leg and top of the foot, but of a denser, or more closely knitted fabric or material, which will stand the wear and usage and friction without cutting or running, and the two parts being seamed or joined together by a flat, soft seam which will not bev objectionable to the user; to l'provide a stocking wherein the heel and bottom portion of the foot are made double or of double thick material, which, additionally, is of a different kind of knitted material from that of the top of the foot and the leg; to provide a reversible stocking wherein the heel and bottom portion or sole are of either single or double thick material, and which is so seamed to the top of the foot and leg of the stocking as to present the same appearance both inside and outside, and which heel and bottom of the foot portion may be applied to the other portions of the stocking with a double, covered seam; to provide a stocking wherein the ,leg and topv portion of the foot are very elastic transversely and relatively inelastic longitudinally, and ,wherein the bottom and heel of the foot are made of contrasting materialof ldenser liber and, in consequence, much stronger. and more durable, which material is quite elasticv which is stronger, more durable and will not run when cut, snagged or torn, and which cuff may be seamed to the leg of the stooking by a double, covered seam showing the same-on both sides so that the stocking may be reversible as heretofore explained; and to provide as an article of manufacture a seam for sewed articles, applicable to and adapted for different portions of a garment such as between the leg and top or cuff of the stocking and the top` of the foot and bottom and heel of the foot of the stocking;

and to provide a method by which a stocking and a seam for sewed articles, as set forth `in the foregoing, may be produced quickly, economically and with great facilit n y Vlith the foregoing objects -in view and others which will be' detailed during the courseof this description, my invention coni sists in i the parts, features, elements and combinations thereof and in the art, process or method hereinafter claimed.

In order that my invention may be clearly understood, I have provided drawings wherein:

Figure 1 is a view showing in side elevation a stockin in-full length embodying my invention an illustrating `the contrasting vmaterials of which the different parts of the are formed and also showing the` stockin lines o seams;

Figure 2 is a plan view showing my article of manufacture consisting of theleg and the top part of the foot of a stocking, embodying my invention;

Figure 3is a plan View showing the blank from which the bottom and heel of the foot of the stocking of Figure 1 is formed;

Figure 4 is a vertical sectional view of a portion of a stocking showing the mode of attaching the topor cuff to the leg;

Figure 5 is a cross-sectional view illustrating the seam for sewed articles and also the double' foot of the stocking, the view behowever, the leg is cut to shape,

described and ing particularly intended to show the mode of disposing the several parts of the foot of the stocking so as to illustrate the method of producing the double, covered seam; and

Figure 6 is a view similar toX Figure 5 showing a different position of parts and themanner of manipulating the latter to place them in the final position for'use,

For brevity and a clear understanding of the article and method of making the same, of my invention, I will refer to the parts of my stockn'g, -as follows: the body of the stocking from the beginning of the heelseam,which may also be the beginning of the legseam,up to the double top, as the legv 1; the to of the foot portion, as the foot-top; the liottom of the foot portion, as 'the foot-bottom 3; the heel portion of the foot-bottom, as the heel 4; and the double top, as the cu 5.

Referringto the drawings, and particularly to Figure 1, the leg 1 of the stocking, such as usually worn by women, is made either from a iatblank or from tubular knit material, and in either instance.- is either fashioned to the-proper shape during the knitting, or is -shaped subsequently and seamed as required. The foottop 2 is knitted integral with the le 1, and, if the latter is fashioned either in t eflat or in the tube, the foot-top will also be fashioned. If, vthe foot-top likewise will be cut to the desired shape and size. In any event, it is to be understood that my invention comprises `the leg and foot-top made integral and formed in cony tinuity, these two parts being an article of manufacture .and sold as such in the market. In the process of knitting the leg, either in the flat web or tubular web, the leg may be narrowed and properly known manner, and the fashioning and narrowing extended to the foot-top, shown in Figures 1 and 2. Hence, the leg and foot are made as a continuous operation from the same thread or threads and are of substantially uniform texture throughout The le 1, if made in the flat blank, will be fashioned in well .A

as clearlyforme with avselvage 6 along both edges,

and said selvage ed es will be secured together in any suitab e way, as'by a looping or so-called turning-off machine, which makes a seam 7 which is practically invisible. If the leg is tubular knit, .there will be no seam along the back of the leg. lThe selvage 6 is continued on opposite sides of the vertex of the angle leg, said selvage being indicated by 9, and is also continued around lfoot-top, as indicated at 10. Thus formed, there is no possibility of the article fraying or becoming distorted, the selvages tending yto hold the shape of the article and in great measure preventingthe edges from curling. The leg of the article may or may not be 8 in theback of the i the edge of the provided with a separate euif 5. If the so as to, in both instances, produce a Hat cuff is integral with the leg, which is formed by merely knitting the leg alittle longer and turning over a portion at the top thereof to form the cuff, .the edge of the cuff is sewed to the leg in any usual manner, as by a looping or turning-olf machine, this being done with great facility owing to the manner of impaling the loops of the cooperating portions and stitching the said portions together in a manner to practically hide the seam or line of connection. As shown in Figures 1 and 4, the cufl1 5 is made separately from the leg and applied to the latter by a covered seam, the material of the cuff being much more closely knit or of denser ber, and, consequently, being stronger and more durable. The knitted material from which the cu' 5 is made is known as Tricot and Milanese. This material is so made, and its characteristics are such, that it isnot as elastic as the leg, and is more elastic later ally or transverse-ly to the length of the wales than in the direction of the length of the wales. As shown in Figure 4, the ma terial of the cuit' 5 is folded double and its two edges are turned in or hemmed, as at 11, and between the said two hemrned edges, the upper edge 12 of the leg is inserted, and the three edges stitched together, as at 13, the line of stitching and seam being covered by the cuit'. This is accomplished by turning the cuff wrong side out, the edges at the back of the stocking being left separated and the stitching being accomplished while the parts are in this position. Then the cuit is reversed and drawn into the position shown in Figure 4, whereupon the edges at the back of the leg are stitched together in any suitable way.

As shown in Figures 1 and 2, the foot-top is provided around its entire edge with the selvage 10 which will prevent raveling and form an edge, to which the foot section can be stitched without destroying the. texture or causing the material to run, the said selvage being extended, as at 9, up the back of the leg to the vertex 8 of the angle.

The foot-bottom 3 and the heel 4 are made of contrasting material much more dense of fiber and either cut or fashioned as shown in Figure 3, which illustrates the blank of the foot-bottom and'heel in plan, the numeral 14 indicating the fold-line, in the sole of the foot-bottom, which extends along the center thereof lengthwise. `When the blank is folded on the line 14, the .edges 15 will be seamed together so as to produce the point 16 which enters the vertex 8 of. the angle in the back of the leg where the selvages 9 join. The opposite edges 17 of the footbottom are then stitched to the cooperating selvage edge 10' of the foot-top, and this may be done on a turning-off machine or by an over-edge machine with the edges abutted seam; or the seam may be such as is illustrated in Figures 5 and 6, or in Figure 4. for the cuff of the stocking, in which latter event the foot-bottom will be of single thickness.

The foot-bottom 3, the heel 4, and the culi'l 5 of the stocking, as previously stated, are of contrasting material, much more dense in liber and stronger and more durable. ln selecting Atricot and milanese, which *are similar and have substantially identical characteristics, I have discovered attributes thereof which adapt them peculiarly to the uses herein set forth. That is to say, l have taken advantage of the fact that, when cut or trimmed, the said material will not run or fray or distort, which characteristics particularly adapt the said material to employment as the foot-bottom, heel and cuff of stockings, since these portions of the stockings are invariably, in use and in handling, subjectedto strain and distortiog tending to snap the threads. Also, in wear, both the'toe and heel of the stocking are subjected to constant and vigorous abrasion having a Ytendency to wear holes therein which, however, will not destroy the material, nor cause it to run; and which, on the other hand, may be darned and sewed, as may be required. Also, as is well known, when the clasp of a garter or garment supporter is applied to the opposite sides of the cuff of the stocking, the material of the latter is very much distorted and in use is placed under very severe strain which tends to cause the clamps or clasps ofthe garters and supporters to cut or gradually wear through the cuff material. This, however, doesnot destroy the cuff, nor cause it to run, owing to the peculiar characteristics of the said material and its density and durable quali ties. The cuff, wherever cut or worn, may likewise be either darned or sewed, which is an impossibility with the leg of the stocking, as ordinarily constructed of one thread, knitted material. Another characteristic of tricot and milanese is that, while it is a little more elastic transversely of the wales than longitudinally thereof, it as a whole is inelastic as compared with the leg and foot-top. This characteristic renders the material particularly suitable for the foot of stockings, since it will not become unduly distorted and can be made to size, and the size maintained throughout entire use of the l stockings. The value, of the foregoing characteristics and features, will be readily appreciated when it is understood: (1) that the leg 1 and foot-top 2 are more 125 elastic transversely than longitudinally, en-

'abling the stocking to readily 'fit snugly many different sizes of legs without stretching lengthwise inordinately; (2) that, while the foot-bottom, compared with the foot- 13a l is the desideratum, since, if the foot-bottom stretches inordinately lengthwise, it will fold over at heel or toe and hurt the foot, while transversely or yin the direction 'of the arrow a, -the foot-bottom may stretch sufficiently to fit a flat foot or feet of varying thickness; and (3) that, due to the form of the blank of Figure 3, the heel 4 will have greater stretch vertically, or in the direction of the double arrow b, than at a rightangle to said arrow, this being because at this portion the wales of the material run approximately transversely of the leg, thus preventing the heel from stretching in a direction substantially at a right-angle to the arrow b, which would be substantially in the direction of the greater elasticity of the'le and foot, and at the same time enables t e heel to stretch vertically, or in the direction of the arrow b, which is substantially at a ri ht-angle to the greater elastioity of the eg, hence, the heel will not stretch in the direction of the length of the foot and be unduly elongated, but will, in drawing on the stocking, yield vertically to prevent the leg and heel from being torn apart. These are valuable features in stockings of any grade or value and, particularly, in stockings of high grade and v alue, since they lend `durability and life to the article, as well as comfort during wear.

If the bottom of the foot of the stocking is made of a single piece or single thick material, it may be applied to the foot-top by a single seam, a hem being turned vin the material of the foot-bottom, and the said hemmed portion being applied to the selvage 10 of the foot-top by aline of stitching which will not show on the outside of the stocking. This sort of seam is soft, and, inasmuch as it is not along the portion of the foot which bears the weight of the body, cannot hurt the foot and is not objectionable. The foot-top and foot-bottom may, however, be united by a flat seam, as on a turning-ofi' or other suitable machine.

If the foot-bottom is made of double thick material, the seam will be avdouble seam such as shown in Figures '5 and 6, wherein it will be seen that the two plies 3 and 3 of the foot-bottom are laid upon the single ply of the foot-top 2, andl the three plies are sewed together by a line of stitching 18. When thus stitched together, the inner ply 3a of the foot-bottom is drawn outwardly and then the stocking is turned inside out, thus cau'sing the outer ply 3 of the foot-bottom to follow the contour of the inner ply, the foot-top of thestooking extending abovethe said twoI plies. Thus a double, covered seam 18 is produced which cannot hurt the foot and 1s not objectionable. This seam, in both its forms, is peculiarly adapted 4for stockings, and the parts thereof described, and, as such, constitutes, according, to my. invention, a seam for sewed articles, and I desire it understood that, while I have shown this seam. applied to, and believe,v that it is peculiarly adaptable for, stockingsin the places described,.I do not wishI to be limited to this use of the seam or-particular application thereof.

A stocking made asshown, with a double foot, is reversible, inasmuch as the line of stitching around the foot is covered on both sides and presents exactly the same appearf ance both' inside and out. Hence, it makes no difference which way the stocking is worn, and when by abrasion or long wear, one ply of the foot-bottom is cutvor worn, the stocking 'can bereversed, so as to sent to ,the outside of the stocking that ply of the foot-bottom which is unworn and probably good as new. Reversing the stocking has no effect at all upon the cuff, whenapplied'asdescribed in the foregoing, s'incethe seam presents the same appearance both inside and outside of the leg.

It will be understood that, according to my invention, I haveproduced an article of manufacture made according to the method outlined, which has its vital ortions reinforced, saidV vital portions belng the footbottom, heel and cuif, the same being subjected to greatest wear; and it will me understood that the denser or more durable material, of which the foot-bottom and heel of the stocking are made, may be extended over the top of the toe of the stocking 'so as to. (give to that portion of the stocking greater urability and longer wear. As shown in Figures 1 and 2, the heel is extended quite a distance up the leg and gradually narrows to the vertex 8, this being lfor the purpose of extending the heel beyond the top of the highest low quarters, pumps, or'

sandals worn by women, thus preventing the heel from being worn, torn or ripped by the constant compression of the heel of the shoe against the heel of the stockin v The dot and dash line 19 in igure 2 indicates the fold-line ofthe foot-top, and the corresponding line of the foot-bottom is indicated at 14, in Figure 3. Y The two foot parts, when folded along the lines 14 and 19, will take the form shown in Figure 1; and it will be seen that the sole portion of the footbottom is seamless from the toe-point 20 back to the point 21, which is the beginning of the heel seam 15, produced bypjoining the `two edges 15 of Figure 3. @n the other hand, the foot-top is seamless and the fold 19 bottom and heel; also upon the durability of.

the foot-bottom and heel as compared with the leg and foot-top; also upon the reversilbility, detachability and interchangeability of the foot-bottom.

In order that lmy claims may be understood, I desire to call attention to the following. There are two types of knitted goods,

one formed with a chain stitch which is so constituted that the breaking of a thread will cause that thread to run as it is called'. The other form is so constituted that when a thread is cut it will not run because of the fact that the constituent elements are so interlocked as to inhibit running. Of the latter class are goods known in the trade as tricot or milanese or as glove silk fabric. There is also that large class of woven fabrics which are so interlocked as to inhibit the threads'from running.

Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. A stocking comprising the leg and top of the foot portion knitted in one piece to conform in size and shape to a predetermined leg and foot combined with a foot portion adapted to complete the stocking, the latter being cut from a knitted material having the .characteristic that its component parts are so locked as to inhibit running, with means to secure together the corresponding edges of said parts.

2. A stocking comprising the leg and top of the foot portion, said top of the foot portion extending to the toe, said parts knitted in one piece to conform in size and shape to a predetermined leg and foot, combined with a foot portion adapted to complete the stocking, the latter being cut from a knitted material having the characteristic that vits com` ponent parts are so locked as to inhibit running with means to secure together the corresponding edges of said parts.

3. A stocking comprising the leg and top of the foot portion knitted in one piece to conform to the leg and foot and provided with a selvage along the edge thereof, in combination with a foot portion adapted to complete the lstocking the latter being cut from a knitted material having the char-A acteristic that its. component parts are so locked as to inhibit running with means to secure together corresponding edges to complete the stocking.

4. The method of making a Stocking with a double foot bottom and heel section cut from piece goods of a kind that will not run as described which consists in superimposing on either side of the top of a knitted stocking one of said foot bottom and heel sections so that their edges coincide, then stitchingl said three layers together along their edges7 then inverting one of said layers so as to remove it from the other two 'and then turning the stocking inside out so as to superimpose another of said layers on said inverted layer, thus forming a double foot bottom and heel portion and asingle top of the foot portion.

5.A A stocking wherein the leg and top of the foot portion is knitted to conform to a predetermined size and shape and the remaining foot section is formed from tricot, said parts being suitably secured together.

6. A stockin with a foot portion the top section whereo is knitted in one piece as a of the foot section.

continuation of the leg portion and the bot-

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2429625 *Apr 13, 1944Oct 28, 1947Horn Jacque EProtector for ladies' stockings
US2514108 *Aug 30, 1947Jul 4, 1950Vogt Henry JSelf-supporting hosiery
US2919445 *Mar 25, 1958Jan 5, 1960ArtztWearing apparel having foot covering portions
US4467626 *Jan 31, 1983Aug 28, 1984Kayser-Roth Hosiery, Inc.Sock with double-layer fabric in foot and method
US4571960 *Sep 30, 1982Feb 25, 1986Foster-Boyd, Inc.Two-ply athletic sock with low-friction interface surfaces
US4615188 *Oct 3, 1984Oct 7, 1986Foster-Boyd, Inc.Two-ply athletic sock
US4843844 *Mar 23, 1988Jul 4, 1989Foster-Boyd, Inc.Anti-friction two-ply athletic sock
US5038585 *Sep 25, 1989Aug 13, 1991General Motors CorporationKnitting method for forming integrally formed joins for three dimension fabric
US5867837 *Dec 30, 1997Feb 9, 1999Deckers Outdoor CorporationFleece sock
USD754426 *Jan 24, 2014Apr 26, 2016Gia LozickiFootwear sock with treaded sole
USRE34723 *Jun 29, 1993Sep 13, 1994General Motors CorporationKnitting method for forming integrally formed joins for three dimension fabric
U.S. Classification2/239, D02/986, 66/172.00R, 66/185, 66/178.00R
International ClassificationA41B11/00
Cooperative ClassificationA41B11/005
European ClassificationA41B11/00M