US 1435787 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
V. ARSCHAULOFF. DEVICE FOR INJECTING LIQUID FUEL INTO THE WORKING CHAMBERS OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES.
APPLICATION FILED APR. I0, I918.
1,4k35fi870 Patented Nov. M, 1922,
- I /I 46 20 I w I- s g 21 48 I I- g 13$ Patented Nov. 114 11922.
UNITY? STATES PATENT @FFHCCIE...
DEVICEEOR INJECTING LIQUID FUEL INTO THE WORKING CHAMBERS OF INTERNAL- COIVIBUSTION ENGINES.
Application filed April 10, 1918. Serial No. 227,800.
To all whom it may concern Be it known thatI, VADIM ARsoHAUmrr, a citizen of Russia, residing at 4 Pessotschnaja Ulitza, Petrograd, Russia, have in- 5 vented certain new and useful Improvements in Devices for Injecting Liquid Fuel into the Working Chambers of Internal-Combustion Engines; and I do hereby declare the following to be a. full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it a-ppertains to make and use the same, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, and to letters orfigures marked thereon, which form a part of this specification.
My invention relates to that type of liquid fuel in'ecting devices, in which the fuel is spraye solely by the action or agency of high pressure which drives the fuel through fine slots or-apertures, and the main object of my said invention is to provide for simple and effective automatic means to perform the injection of distinct quantities of liquid fuel very .rapidl and surely into a chamber containing high y compressed gases, for in- V7 stance into the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines.
My said invention is hereinafter described with reference to the accompanying draw- 80 ings, the parts of which are referred to. in the following description by the numerals marked thereon, the said numerals of reference indicating the same or equivalent parts in all the figures.
Fig. '1 illustrates one embodiment of my invention in a vertical (longitudinal) section and Fig. 2 is an elevation of another embodiment showing additional means for securing the desired working of the proposed device 40 whereas Fig. 3 shows, in elevation, a part of still another embodiment of the said invention.
My proposed fuel injecting device, if applied to an internal combustion engine, is arranged at a convenient place in one of the walls of the combustion chamber of the engine, preferably on the cover of the cylinder of the latter, and the main parts of the device are: (1) a positively closing needle valve 1, loaded either by a spiral spring 21, as shown on Figs. 1 and 2, or by a plate spring 22, as shown on Fig. 3 in cross section, said valve controlling by its conical end the fuel nozzle 2, and (2) a pneumatic displacer of liquid fuel, comprising (Fig. 1) a cylinder 3, the upper end of which is in uninterrupted communication, through a plpe 4, with the compression or combustion chamber of the engine cylinder, whereas from the other end thereof there leads a pipe 5 into a receiver 25 containing air or some other gas under substantially constant pressure. A piston 6 tightly slides within the cylinder 3 and has a rod 7 tightly sliding within a boring 8, the lower end of which communicates through the channel 9 with the chamber 10 just behind the spraying nozzle 2.
The liquid fuel to be injected into the combustion chamber of the engine is periodically supplied by a fuel pump into the chamber 10 along the pipe 14, the boring 13, the channels or conduits 12 and 11, the boring 8 and the passage 9.
The working of the device described is as follows: At the beginning of the period of compression, the piston 6, 7 occupies its highest position shown in Fig. 1, into which position it is pushed by the gas pressure from the pipe 5 and against the slow pres sure within the tube 4 attained during the period of expansion. Towards the end of the expansion stroke, a fuel pump (not shown) supplies a certain quantity or volume of liquid fuel through the passages 14, 13, 12 and 11 into the boring 8 and the nozzle chamber 10.
During the following period of compression the pressure within the pipe 4 and con sequently also above the piston 6 will rise and at a certain degree of compression the latter will be pushed downwards (against the pressure within the pipe 5) and .cause the rod 7 to press upon the volume of fuel within the chambers 8 and 10 with a constantly increasing pressure. At a distinct moment of the period of compression the pressure from the displacer piston 7 will be sufliciently strong to lift the valve 1 from its seat, and the liquid fuel will then very rapidly pass throu h the annular space formed around the neeofle valve into the combustion chamber of the engine, wherein the same will be finely sprayed and burned in a known manner.
During the next period of expansion the pressure of the gaseous products of combustion within the cylinder of the engine will finally fall down to such a degree, that the constant pressure from the pipe 5, acting upon the lower annular surface of the piston 6, will again push the differential piston o, 7, into its uppermost posit-ion. When thls has occurred the fuel pump, which is driven by the engine itself, will supply a new volume of liquid fuel into the boring 8, whereby the device is put in readiness for the following injection, Which w1ll take place at a predetermined point of the next period of compression.
The active or working surfaces of the differential piston 6, 7 and the dimensions of the spindle or needle valve 1 and of the nozzle 2 are chosen with relation to pressure within the pipe 5 and the strength of the spring 21 or 22-in such a way, that the Injection of fuel will take place: (a) at a pre. determined pressure within the compresslon chamber of the engine and (b) at the desired lead, that is to say, at apredetermined timepoint in advance of the end of the return piston stroke.
With the construction just described it may, however, occur that the nozzle 2 for some one or other reason will be opened prematurely. With a view to surely avoid this, it is advisable to charge the spindle, in addition to the constantly acting spring 21 or 22, with such another load, which may be easily removed by any convenient mechanism at any desired moment and which is removed from the needle valve at the moment, at which the injection has to begin and for at least the full duration of the injection. The full load on the valve, resulting from the continuously working load (such as springs 21 or 22) and from the said intermittently working additional load must be considerably greater than the force which tends to open the valve at or nearly the end of the period of compression, so that the lifting of the valve can take place only after the additional load is removed therefrom.
Fig. 2 shows a device as described in connection with Fig. 1, which is improved in the manner just pointed out. The spindle of the needle valve 1 is provided with a prolongation 1 passed through the spring 21 which forms, as in the construction as per Fig. 1, the constant load of the valve. A second spring 20 acts upon an arm 15 fixed on an axle 19 in such a way, that its free end is pressed against the end of the rod 1. A second arm 16 of the said axle 19 is influenced by a cam 18 rotated by the internal combustion engine with such an angular speed, that the arm 15 is lifted to free the valve 1 at the predetermined moment at which the injection has to begin. The cam acts upon the arm 16 preferably throu h the intermediacy of an antifriction roller 17 and has such a shape, that the arm 15 is freed only after the injection of fuel is finished, or in other words that the additional force, (of the spring 20 in this special case) is removed from the needle valve for at least the full period of injection.
Fig. 3 shows that a similar mechanism for removing the additional load may be used also with a plate spring 22 forming the constant load of the valve.
The nozzle and the valve controlling the same, or generally speaking the spraying device per se may be of any convenient construction.
Whereas the proposed fuel injecting de vice has been hereabove described as designated for internal combustion engines, it may be applied also in connection with other apparatus working under substantially the same conditions.
In accordance with the provisions of the patent statutes 1' have described the principle of operation of my invent-ion together with mechanism which I now consider to represent the simplest and best embodiment thereof. But I desire to have it understood that the embodiments shown are only illustrative and that the invention can be carried out by other means such as are within the scope of the appended claims.
l/Vhat I claim as new and desireto secure by Letters Patent of the United States, is:
1. In devices for injecting liquid fuel into the working chamber of internal combustion engines, the combination with a nozzle controlled by a spring loaded needle valve, of a fuel chamber just behind the nozzle, of a fuel displacing piston pressing upon the fuel in the said chamber with a force varying with the pressure in the combustion chamber of the engine and capable of lifting the needle valve at a predetermined moment of the period of compression in the cylinder, and of means to lift the said fuel dis lacing piston when the pressure within t e combustion chamber during the period of expansion is sufficiently lowered.
2. In devices for injecting liquid fuel into the working chamber of internal combustion engines, the combination with a'nozzle controlled by a spring loaded needle valve, of a fuel chamber just behind the nozzle, of a fuel displacing piston pressing upon the fuel in the said chamber with a force varying with the pressure in the combustion chamber of the engine cylinder and capable to lift the valve at a predetermined moment of the compression stroke, and means to lift the said fuel displacing piston during the period of expansion, comprising a cylinder, a pieton tightly sliding therein and positively connected with the said fuel displacing piston, means for uninterruptedly connecting one end of the said cylinder with the working chamber of the engine cylinder and means to communicate the other end of the same cylinder with a receiver container some gas under substantially constant pressure.
In testimony that I claim the foregoing as my invention I have signed my name in presence of two subscribing witnesses.
IRMA HELLMANN, R. LOVIAGURNE.